Skip to main content

Full text of "Ohio authors and their books: biographical data and selective bibliographies for Ohio authors, native and resident, 1796-1950"

See other formats





o I 3.377/ 
C 83o 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Ohio Authors and Their Books 

Ohio Authors 
and Their Books 


i79 6 -»95° 












published by The World Publishing Company 



The Martha Kinney Cooper 
Ohioana Library Association 


Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 62-7594 



Copyright © 1962 by The Martha Kinney Cooper Ohioana Library Association. 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced 

in any form without written permission from the publisher, except for brief passages 

included in a review appearing in a newspaper or magazine. 

Printed in the United States of America. 









Purpose and Scope 

A volume devoted to the authors of a single state requires a brief statement 
of explanation, if not of defense. Its purpose is not to gratify state pride by 
"claiming" every writer who ever crossed the borders of Ohio or by amassing 
effusive praise of every Ohioan who ever set pen to paper. It is, rather, to 
record biographical data and bibliographical check lists that should prove useful 
to librarians, historians, students of literature, and others interested in Ohio's 
past and present. Furthermore, the biographies viewed collectively represent one 
panel in the full expanse of American literature. Detailed examination of a 
regional segment of a national literature may reveal fresh insights and new 
emphases. The danger in such a study is exalting the part above the whole. We 
have tried to avoid making excessive claims for Ohio literature, but it may be 
said without flourishing the state flag unduly that the quantity and quality of 
writing by Ohioans should invalidate the impression created by some historians 
of a cultural desert extending from Massachusetts to Indiana. 

At a rough guess, perhaps eighty million people have lived within the borders 
of Ohio since the state was settled. To include the name of every person who 
has written something that saw print would make this work too cumbersome to 
be useful. Although it may seem that we have cast our nets too wide, from a 
file of more than 15,000 names of authors associated with Ohio we have included 
only about one-third. We have attempted to devise a sensible formula for in- 
clusion of books and authors, but have made occasional exceptions when they 
seemed justified by the logic of a particular situation or when they seemed likely 
to enhance the usefulness of this volume. 

The essential problem is contained in two deceptively simple questions sug- 
gested by our title: Who is an Ohio author? and What is a book? Our inter- 
pretations of these questions, which are much simpler in practice than in state- 
ment, are outlined below as briefly as possible. 

The apparently simple word author is susceptible to various ambiguities. It 
has been interpreted here as a person who has published at least one original 
work of general interest. This definition excludes editors, compilers, translators, 
illustrators, or sponsors of books written by others. 

So few Americans spend their lives within a single state that determining who 
should be considered an Ohioan is more difficult than it might seem. To begin 
with, an author born in Ohio clearly belongs in a volume of this kind, even 
though his entire term of residence was spent in a maternity ward. An author 
who spent a major portion of his life in Ohio also belongs. In addition, we have 
included, for brief treatment, some authors who spent only a few years in Ohio, 


Purpose and Scope viii 

especially if they wrote any of their books while living here. We have, however, 
omitted authors who were in Ohio only while attending college or whose resi- 
dence was extremely brief. Therefore, we have not included Vachel Lindsay, 
who spent three years at Hiram College; Mark Twain, who passed a crucial 
winter in Cincinnati before becoming a river pilot; or Thomas Beer and Clarence 
Day, who spent boyhood summers in Bucyrus and Painesville. 

Our basic definition of an eligible book was that it must be a published work 
of general interest. This definition does not rule out pamphlets, but it does 
exclude mimeographed works, unpublished manuscripts, and works written for 
special groups. The major categories of books that have been excluded are the 

1. Textbooks and manuals. 

2. Single speeches or lectures printed as pamphlets. 

3. Single magazine articles reprinted as pamphlets. 

4. Graduate theses and dissertations. 

5. Technical scientific, legal, and medical works. 

6. Publications of fraternal orders. 

7. Sermons. 

8. State and Federal Government publications. 

9. Family histories and genealogical works. 

10. Cookbooks, almanacs, atlases, gazetteers, etiquette books, joke books, 
and similar compilations. 

The vast amount of material published in the twentieth century has made a 
further limitation necessary. We have, therefore, included only those authors 
who have published at least one eligible work listed in the Library of Congress 
catalogues of printed cards before December 31, 1950. Since the 232 volumes 
of printed cards that were searched represent more than six million books, this 
seemed the most reliable and uniform criterion for twentieth-century books. 

The entries for writers who are included are of three general types: 

I. A writer who published at least one eligible work before December 31, 
1900: a biographical summary and a check list of his writings. 

II. A writer who published at least one eligible work between January 1, 
1901, and December 31, 1950: a biographical summary, one or more repre- 
sentative titles, and if possible a citation of a biographical reference book. 

HI. A writer who lived in Ohio for only a brief period: treatment similar to 
Group II with special emphasis on the subject's Ohio years. 

Sketches of some especially notable authors in Groups I and II have been 
written by contributors. Except that the opening sentences of these sketches have 
been standardized, they are of great variety. Because most of the subjects are 
treated in standard biographical encyclopedias, we have encouraged contributors 
to avoid stereotyped patterns and discuss their subjects from whatever view- 
point seemed appropriate. A list of contributors will be found in Appendix B. 

Three groups of authors have been given somewhat out-of-the-ordinary treat- 
ment. First, public figures like Ulysses S. Grant and George Armstrong Custer, 
whose writings were an incidental aspect of their careers and whose lives are 

ix Purpose and Scope 

fully covered in standard biographical compilations, are treated more briefly 
than their total accomplishment would seem to merit. Second, we have included 
biographical sketches, but not bibliographies, of a few major pioneers in the 
field of textbook writing like William McGuffey, Piatt Rogers Spencer, and 
Joseph Ray. Similarly, writers of dime novels have been included as biographical 
entries, but their enormous bibliographies and cross-references to their numerous 
pen names have often been omitted. 


In the entries themselves, three abbreviations are used frequently : 

e.g., for example 

O.V.I. , Ohio Volunteer Infantry 

q.v., which see 

After many entries for twentieth-century authors, a biographical reference 
book is cited. For these citations, the following abbreviations are used: 

AATB, American Authors and Their Books 

AMS, American Men of Science 

ANT, American Novelists of Today 

BDCP, Biographical Dictionary of Contemporary Poets 

CB, Current Biography 

CWW, American Catholic Who's Who 

DAB, Dictionary of American Biography 

DAS, Directory of American Scholars 

IATB, Indiana A uthors and Their Books 

JB A, Junior Book of A uthors 

LE, Leaders in Education 

NC, National Cyclopedia of American Biography 

OBB, Ohio Blue Book 

OCM, Ohio Composers and Musical Authors 

RC, Representative Clevelanders 

RLA, Religious Leaders of America 

TCA, Twentieth Century Authors 

WO, Women of Ohio 

WW, Who's Who in America 

WWAA, Who's Who in American Art 

WWAE, Who's Who in American Education 

WW AW, Who's Who of American Women 

WWC, Who's Who in the Clergy 

WWCI, Who's Who in Commerce and Industry 

WWE, Who's Who in the East 

WWL, Who's Who in Labor 

WWLS, Who's Who in Library Service 

WWMW, Who's Who in the Midwest 

WWNAA, Who's Who among North American Authors 

WWO, Who's Who in Ohio {1930) 

Purpose and Scope 

WWT, Who's Who in the Theatre 
WWW, Who Was Who in America 
WWWJ, Who's Who in World Jewry 


1. The form of the bibliographies follows library practices as closely as possi- 
ble. Long titles have been shortened, and the omission of words has been 
indicated by an ellipsis. Publication facts not found on the title page of a book 
are enclosed in square brackets. Unlike library cataloguing procedure, however, 
the arrangement of titles is chronological rather than alphabetical. 

2. In the biographical entries, names beginning with Mc or M' are alpha- 
betized as though spelled Mac. 

3. Information given in the text of an entry, such as the name of a collaborator 
or the use of a pen name, is not repeated in the bibliography. 

4. Except for major American cities that have no counterpart in Ohio, all 
non-Ohio place names are followed by the name of the state or country in which 
they are located. Ohio counties, townships, towns, and cities are not followed by 
the name of the state. 

5. The terminal date for the bibliographies is 1950. When necessary and 
possible, biographical information has been extended to 1960. The word "now" 
in a sketch signifies 1960. 

6. Although we have made every effort to collect accurate and complete 
information on all Ohio authors, some entries are incomplete and some undoubt- 
edly contain errors. Inevitably, many long-sought facts will come to light after 
this work is in print. At a later time, therefore, we intend to print a sheet of 
corrections and additions that can be inserted in this volume. Readers who dis- 
cover mistakes or omissions are invited to send information to the Ohioana 
Library, Columbus 15, Ohio. 

Ohio in American Literature 

"American literature," according to Frederick Jackson Turner, "is not 
a single thing. It is a choral song of many sections." In the Midwestern portion of 
this song, however, it is difficult to identify a distinctive Ohio voice. Some 
observers, in fact, have implied that Ohio has not even hummed along with the 
literary music; according to a history of Allen County (1921), a local educator, 
when asked to discuss the literature of the area, replied succinctly, "Why write 
about what ain't?" Actually, as the present volume attests, Ohio has produced a 
large number of writers, both major and minor; but many seem American 
authors first and Ohio authors only incidentally. There has never been a homo- 
geneous Buckeye school of literature; one finds little unity of spirit, slight 
similarity in techniques or materials, and surprisingly little personal acquaintance 
among Ohio's numerous authors. Major literary figures who have come out of 
Ohio include William Dean Howells, Sherwood Anderson, James Thurber, and 
Hart Crane. A more disparate group can scarcely be imagined. Instead of a 
distinctive regional spirit, the writing of Ohioans shows a surprisingly complete 
representation of popular taste in the nation as a whole. 

Because authors by nature of their calling are solitary and individualistic, the 
notion of a thoroughly unified regional literature is to some extent an illusion. 
Perhaps community of purpose and similarity of themes and techniques can be 
found at only two periods in American literary history: in New England during 
the second quarter of the nineteenth century, and in the South during the second 
quarter of the twentieth. In both of these regions, drastic social change, which 
saw established ways of life being displaced, was accompanied by a literary 
awakening. Apparently, confrontation of the old and the new in a culture 
energizes the literary artist. In Ohio, however, and probably in the other states 
created from the Northwest Territory, social change, though rapid, has been com- 
paratively uncomplicated. 

Except in Cincinnati during the 1830s and 1840s, there is no period in Ohio's 
history when writers engaged in significant collective endeavor. The short-lived 
literary periodicals described by W. H. Venable in his Beginnings of Literary 
Culture in the Ohio Valley, the literary and discussion societies, and numerous 
active publishing houses bespeak a concern with literary matters not found 
elsewhere in Ohio. Enthusiasm and bustle, however, are no substitute for genius; 
and Cincinnati before the Civil War had no truly great writers. 

Although many Cincinnati writers were New Englanders who established a 
transcendentalist magazine before the famous Dial was founded in Massachusetts, 
most of them agreed that a distinctive regional literature should be developed. 


Ohio in American Literature xii 

Writers like James Hall, Timothy Flint, and William D. Gallagher expressed an 
aggressive provincialism typical of the local-color movement a generation later. 
In 1858 William T. Coggeshall complained that the West was not adequately 
represented in literature and that writers and lecturers needed a "seaboard 
indorsement" to be taken seriously in the West. Proponents of a regional litera- 
ture insisted that the literary scene was dominated by an Eastern clique, that 
Western vigor was preferable to an effete Eastern culture, and that writers should 
use Western materials. Unfortunately, a provincial inferiority complex caused 
writers to look to Eastern authors and to the British romantics for models and to 
ignore the crude, everyday world around them in favor of an artificial literary 
make-believe. The combination of valid theory and faulty practice is illustrated 
by Thomas Peirce's advice to Western writers : 

Be yours the office to describe 

The blooming belles of Flora's tribe. 

Although some realistic accounts of frontier Ohio were written by Benjamin 
Drake and others, much of the early literature was a mixture of melodrama and 

The local-color movement after the Civil War, which stressed accurate treat- 
ment of regional materials, was essentially retrospective, as writers drew on their 
own memories of a region. By the 1880s, when local color was popular, how- 
ever, the frontier was a matter of historical record rather than personal recollec- 
tion in Ohio, where conquest of the wilderness had been violent but relatively 

More impressive than fiction and poetry during Ohio's early years were the 
numerous almanacs, gazetteers, textbooks, manuals, and handbooks of every 
description. They reflect a concern with the practical and the matter-of-fact. In 
medicine, law, and science, there was much less tendency to imitate Eastern 

A major reason, then, for the lack of a unified regional spirit in Ohio's litera- 
ture was the rapid growth of the state. Rich soil and other natural bounties 
attracted a flood tide of settlers and resulted in phenomenally rapid development. 
Ohio passed quickly from frontier wilderness to an agricultural economy and soon 
thereafter to an industrial, urban society. Another reason for the absence of 
regional solidarity was the diversity of the population. Easy access from east 
and south attracted settlers from New England, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and 
Virginia. Industrialization and the rapid growth of cities attracted a variety of 
ethnic groups. A melting-pot culture may evoke a healthy democratic spirit, but 
it does not produce a homogeneous literature. 

Despite the diversity of Ohio's literary history and the lack of any sustained 
"Buckeye spirit," some significant generalizations can be abstracted from the 
biographical and bibliographical data in this volume. The chief danger in such 
an endeavor is the fallacy of environmental determinism — of assuming that each 
author wrote as he did because of his birth or residence in Ohio. There is, of 
course, no way of proving that any individual author would have written 
differently if he had lived in Maine, Kansas, or Oregon. By concentrating on 
broad tendencies, however, and by using individual authors as illustration rather 

xiii Ohio in American Literature 

than as proof, one can discover interesting reflections of Ohio's social and 
cultural history. 

One obvious characteristic is what Venable called the "exodic" tendency of 
Ohio authors. There have always been more authors from Ohio than in Ohio. 
Since its earliest settlement, the state has attracted a great variety of settlers and 
has sent them or their children to every corner of the Union. A surprising 
number of the memoirs by mountain men, gold-seekers, and other pioneers of 
the Far West were written by men of Ohio origin. The biographical entries in 
this volume show Ohio-born authors living in almost every state. Howells set 
the pattern for this "Buckeye exodus" in 1860, when he headed for New England 
after publishing some poems in the Atlantic Monthly. As a Mecca for profes- 
sional authors, Boston has been supplanted by Broadway and Hollywood, but 
the tendency to emigrate persists. 

For many of these displaced Ohioans, the state has remained a nostalgic image 
recalled with wistful affection. Pleasant recollections of Ohio can be found in 
numerous autobiographical books by writers living outside their native state. As 
he grew older, Howells returned often to memories of his Ohio boyhood, and 
James Thurber once wrote "The clocks that strike in my dreams are often the 
clocks of Columbus." Generally speaking, Ohio authors who have left the state 
have not rejected it. The writer's alienation from his native roots has been a 
major theme in twentieth-century American literature, but it is not very notice- 
able in the writing of Ohioans. 

The literary output of Ohioans, both in and out of the state, has been large 
and varied. Religious books undoubtedly outnumber all others. Although sermons 
are not listed in this volume, the bibliographies contain more books on religion — 
polemical, devotional, homiletic, and historical — than on any other subject. 

A major reason for this productivity in religious books was the close identifica- 
tion of church groups with the educational history of the state. Every major 
denomination founded at least one college or seminary, and Miami University 
and Ohio University, both state institutions were unofficially identified with the 
Presbyterians and the Methodists respectively. Clergymen who doubled as faculty 
members were prolific writers on religion as well as other topics. Another reason 
was that a writer on religious subjects found many receptive publication outlets. 
At least six denominations published periodicals in Cincinnati during the nine- 
teenth century, and the Methodists conducted a thriving book-publishing firm 
there, as the United Brethren did in Dayton. 

Though seldom stated in so many words, the major causes of religious ferment 
in early Ohio were the ordinary citizens' desire for an egalitarian religion and the 
clergy's struggle to adapt Calvinism to frontier conditions. Numerous popular 
religious movements, more or less devoted to these ends, flourished in Ohio, and 
the doctrinal disputes and other controversies that some of them engendered 
resulted in many books and pamphlets. The Baptist, Presbyterian, and Methodist 
clergy — the largest groups — were highly productive writers, but activities of 
other sects also resulted in the making of many books. The Shakers, who estab- 
lished communities in Warren, Montgomery, and Cuyahoga Counties, operated 
their own printing press. The Church of the New Jerusalem prospered, especially 
in southern Ohio. Kirtland was a way-station for the Mormons in the 1830s. 

Ohio in American Literature xiv 

Akron was a center of Universalism. The Unitarians were ready writers, especially 
the transplanted New Englanders in Cincinnati. The Disciples of Christ and the 
United Brethren founded many churches in Ohio, and clergymen of both per- 
suasions were prolific writers. German Methodism was founded in Cincinnati, 
as was Reform Judaism. Josiah Strong, Washington Gladden, and other leaders 
of the Social Gospel movement at the turn of the century served Ohio churches. 
Even the contemporary "peace of mind" tendency in religion is epitomized by 
Ohio-born Norman Vincent Peale, and the phrase was originated by another 
Ohioan — Rabbi Joshua Loth Liebman. 

The fourth estate has produced nearly as many books as the first. The rapid 
growth of towns and cities, a literate citizenry, and the importance of politics 
in Ohio life help account for the numerous newspapers that have flourished in 
the state. Many writers, like Howells and Thurber, served journalistic apprentice- 
ships before turning to literary careers. Ohio has also known a great many 
professional journalists: for example, Charles Hammond, Whitelaw Reid, Murat 
Halstead, David R. Locke, Don Carlos Seitz, George Kennan, William Henry 
Smith, Charles Merz, Anne O'Hare McCormick, O. O. Mclntyre, Percy Ham- 
mond, James B. Reston, Fred C. Kelly, Earl Wilson, Herman Fetzer (Jake 
Falstaff), Hugh S. Fullerton, and Lowell Thomas. These and other Ohio 
journalists have written a great variety of books. 

Even before Ohio was admitted to statehood, a sharp contest ensued between 
Federalists and anti-Federalists. Politics has been a major activity ever since, 
partly because of the diversity of the population and partly, perhaps, because of 
the public's enjoyment of political excitement. The state has seen many rousing 
political contests and has produced more than its share of major political figures. 
These leaders and their supporters have turned out many books and pamphlets. 
Also, Ohioans appear unexpectedly in the political annals of other states: for 
example, Edmund G. Ross, senator from Kansas who cast a decisive vote against 
the impeachment of Andrew Johnson, was born in Ashland; James B. Weaver, 
leader of the Farmers' Alliance, was born in Dayton; John P. Altgeld, governor 
of Illinois, was reared in Richland County; and George W. Norris, senator from 
Nebraska, was born in Sandusky County. 

Many persons today probably envision Ohio as a bastion of conservatism, but 
this image is not consistent with the multitude of reformers among the state's 
authors. Many communal experiments were attempted: Owenite communities in 
the 1830s, Fourieristic phalanxes in the 1840s, and a variety of others devoted 
to spiritualism, hydrotherapy, or food fads. Also, the Quakers in the east and 
south, the abolitionists in the Western Reserve, and the radicals among the Ger- 
mans in Cincinnati were all cordial to the reforming spirit. Innumerable books 
and pamphlets were written on abolition, temperance, and women's rights — 
reforms that now seem rather innocuous because they were successful. Ohio has 
also seen a host of more radical or more eccentric reformers, such as Josiah 
Warner, Nathan C. Meeker, and Orson Murray, who founded Utopian com- 
munities; Victoria and Tennessee Woodhull, fervent advocates of women's rights, 
free love, and — in their old age — eugenics; John B. Newbrough, who founded 
the Shalam Community in New Mexico and wrote a bible for its guidance; Elias 
Longley, proponent of phonetic spelling and other reforms; and Jacob S. Coxey, 

xv Ohio in American Literature 

leader of the Commonweal of Christ, popularly known as Coxey's Army. These 
reformers and many others promoted their pet projects by means of pamphlets 
and books. 

The mysterious mounds in southern Ohio are probably the chief reason that 
the state has attracted or produced such distinguished archaeologists as Ephraim 
G. Squier, Edwin H. Davis, William C. Mills, William Henry Adams, Charles 
Whittlesey, Warren K. Moorehead, and Henry G. Shetrone. Besides these 
scholars, many enthusiastic local amateurs have written books and pamphlets, 
some soberly describing the mounds and others fancifully re-creating the culture 
of the Mound Builders. 

The enormous amount of historical writing is more difficult to explain. Such 
organizations as the Historical and Philosophical Society, Firelands Historical 
Society, Western Reserve Historical Society, Ohio Historical Society, and others 
have encouraged writing and research. An awakening of state pride after the 
Civil War partially accounts for the abundance of regimental histories and war 
memoirs. Local semicentennials and centennials, encouragement from commercial 
publishers, and the gratification early settlers and their descendants found in 
commemorative chronicles resulted in a spate of community and county his- 
tories, especially in the 1880s and 1890s. Besides this essentially amateur 
historical writing, however, Ohio has also produced such notable professional 
historians as Hubert H. Bancroft, James Ford Rhodes, Archer B. Hulbert, 
Albert J. Beveridge, Arthur M. Schlesinger (father and son), Carl F. Wittke, 
and a number of others. Most of them, though, have pursued their active careers 
outside the state. Rhodes, for example, left Cleveland for Massachusetts after 
resolving to devote himself to history, and Bancroft conducted his vast research 
projects at the opposite side of the continent in California. 

Impressive in sheer bulk is the verse turned out by Ohioans. Since the early 
nineteenth century, the state has abounded in amateur poets. Among the Ohioans 
in Coggeshall's Poetry and Poets of the West (1860), there are few professional 
writers but many unlikely versifiers, such as Charles Hammond and Salmon P. 
Chase. If any goddess has presided over Ohio poetry, it has been Vesta, patron 
of home and hearth. Housewives, students, physicians, lawyers, farmers, and 
teachers have written verse as an avocation. Outlets for their poems have been 
religious and educational magazines and, formerly, the "Poet's Corner" featured 
in many newspapers. Many have gathered their work in self-financed collections, 
published by a local printer or, more recently, by a "vanity press." 

Ohio poets have produced a number of elocutionary favorites: "Rain on the 
Roof" (Coates Kinney), "The Flag Goes By" (Henry H. Bennett), "Your Flag 
and My Flag" (Wilbur D. Nesbit), and "Bob White" (Marion F. Ham). Henry 
Lyden Flash, perhaps the most popular poet of the Confederacy, was born in 
Cincinnati; and John H. Titus, putative author of "The Face on the Bar Room 
Floor," was a native of Ashtabula County. The affinity of Ohio poets with 
popular taste is also shown by single lines that have passed into the folk culture 
of the familiar: for example, "Sheridan twenty miles away" (Thomas B. Read), 
"It isn't raining rain to me, it's raining violets" (Robert Loveman), and "Off 
agin, on agin, gone agin. Finnigin" (Strickland Gillilan). 

Nineteenth-century poetry in Ohio, as in America generally, inclined toward 

Ohio in American Literature xvi 

the sentimental, the moralistic, the decorous, and the derivative. Poets looked 
for models to Longfellow, to the British romantics, and, less fortunately, to Mrs. 
Hemans and other writers of religious or domestic verse. Later, James Whitcomb 
Riley was widely admired, and amateur poets turned out reams of dialect verse 
on rustic subjects. Still later, Edgar A. Guest inspired a host of imitators. The 
turn of the century evoked many commemorative poems, odes to Ohio, and the 
like, more distinguished for fervent state pride than for poetic quality. 

The most notable names among mid-nineteenth-century poets include William 
D. Gallagher, Alice and Phoebe Cary, Otway Curry, and Coates Kinney. 
Gallagher was probably the most authentic poet of the time, but his Words- 
worthian feeling for nature was often vitiated by moralizing and sentimentality. 
Poets of the later nineteenth century include John James Piatt, Edith M. Thomas, 
Edward Rowland Sill, and Paul Laurence Dunbar. No truly first-rank poets 
appear in the century, but a number of minor poets reflect general taste of their 
day. Twentieth-century poets include Jean Starr Untermeyer, Ridgely Torrence, 
and Hart Crane. Crane probably has received the most respectful attention from 
critics, but he is an admittedly exotic figure in the Ohio landscape. 

The achievement of Ohio authors is more distinguished in fiction than in 
poetry. William Dean Howells, the major author the state has produced, and 
Sherwood Anderson are probably the most important novelists. Howells' 
definition and defense of realism and his practice of his theories for more than 
fifty years represent a major contribution to American literature. The sense of 
loneliness and frustration in Anderson's masterpiece, Winesburg, Ohio, is unique 
in American fiction. Besides these two, Ohio has known such minor but sig- 
nificant writers of fiction as Albion W. Tourgee, Constance F. Woolson, Mary H. 
Catherwood, Albert G. Riddle, Ambrose Bierce, John B. Naylor, Charles 
Chesnutt, and Brand Whitlock. 

In fiction written simply as popular entertainment, Ohio writers have also 
been productive. Although Sandusky-born Orville J. Victor did not invent the 
dime novel, as is sometimes claimed, he did more than anyone else to popularize 
the form. While he served as editor of Beadle publications, his wife, Metta F. 
Victor, was one of the most popular in his corps of writers. Emerson Bennett, 
who wrote many adventure stories a cut above the Beadle productions, lived in 
Cincinnati during the 1840s. Other Ohioans who turned out popular novels and 
stories were Oliver Coomes, Thomas C. Harbaugh, Nathan D. Urner, and 
Edward S. Ellis. 

The all-time American best-seller, Uncle Tom's Cabin, evolved from mate- 
rials collected during Mrs. Stowe's eighteen years in Cincinnati. Best-selling 
Ohio novelists of the twentieth century include Zane Grey, Fannie Hurst, Ben 
Ames Williams, Lloyd C. Douglas, Louis Bromfield, Jim Tully, Earl Derr Big- 
gers, and William R. Burnett. 

Ohio has also produced a number of outstanding writers of juvenile books, 
including Martha Finley, creator of the saccharine Elsie Dinsmore series; Sarah 
C. Woolsey (Susan Coolidge), author of What Katy Did and many other books; 
and Elizabeth W. Champney, author of the Vassar Girls series. Children's 
favorites created by Ohioans include Seckatary Hawkins, Buster Brown, Little 
Mary Mixup, Raggedy Ann, and the Teenie Weenies. Twentieth-century writers 

xvii Ohio in American Literature 

of books for children include Adele and Cateau DeLeeuw, Marion Renick, 
Robert McCloskey, Father Francis J. Finn, and Lois Lenski. 

Ohio authors have also shown a decided proclivity for humor. Analyzing 
sources of humor is not only futile but self-defeating, as the analysis usually 
destroys its subject; but some possible reasons for the profusion of humorous 
writing suggest themselves. First, a fairly obvious reason is the large number of 
newpapers that were receptive to this type of material. Second, a tentative 
reason is the blending of Southern and New England cultures in Ohio. A mixture 
of Southern exuberance and dry Yankee understatement was characteristic of 
the post-Civil War "funny men." Third, still more tentatively, the mark of much 
humor is incongruity; and even in 1960 the Ohio scene is filled with incongruous 
contrasts, as, for example, one can drive in ten minutes from a roaring industrial 
city to a secluded, sleepy village. 

Whatever the reasons may be, Ohio literature abounds in humor. Charles 
Farrar Browne became Artemus Ward while a Cleveland newspaperman, and 
David Ross Locke (Petroleum V. Nasby) spent almost all of his journalistic 
career in Ohio. William Tappan Thompson, humorist of middle Georgia, spent 
his boyhood in the Western Reserve. Wilbur F. Hinman, an Ohio journalist, 
created Si Klegg, comic Civil War soldier. Although he spent his adult life in 
Indiana, Frank M. Hubbard (Abe Martin) was born in Belief ontaine. Frederick 
B. Opper and Richard F. Outcault, each of whom is sometimes credited with 
inventing the comic strip, were both Ohio natives. James Thurber, whose work 
cuts much deeper than journalistic humor, drew frequently on his memories 
of Columbus and Ohio State University. 

Ohio, it seems, has produced an extensive literature but a miscellaneous one. 
It might be represented as a pyramid with a half-dozen major authors at the top, 
numerous minor authors below, and a broad base of amateur or casual writers. 
Authors on all levels have shown considerable responsiveness to public taste. 

One of the proudest boasts of Ohioans is that they live in the typical American 
state, the epitome of average America. Manufacturers, it is said, regard Ohio 
as a median area for testing new products. Although this view of Ohio is de- 
batable, it is consistent with the general impression made by the state's literary 
history. Ohio writers have reflected popular tastes and interests; few of them 
have been trail-breakers or iconoclasts; they have turned a mirror rather than a 
lens on American society. Although Ohio has never fostered a cohesive regional 
school of writers, it has been a seedbed of popular culture. Best-selling fiction, 
poetry with popular appeal, religious and reform writing, children's stories, 
journalistic humor — these are the fields in which Ohio authors have been most 

The complexity of modern American society and the concentration of publish- 
ing and entertainment in New York City make it unlikely that a unified regional 
school will develop in Ohio or anywhere else. However, the emergence in the 
1950s of talented young novelists like Vance Bourjaily, Bentz Plagemann, 
Herbert Gold, and James Purdy suggests that Ohio's diversified contribution to 
American literature is continuing. 


Assembling biographical and bibliographical data on more than 4,600 authors, 
many of them relatively obscure, has of necessity been a massive collaboration. 
So many persons have generously volunteered information or responded to in- 
quiries that listing them all by name is a literal impossibility. I can, therefore, 
specify only those whose assistance has been extensive, continuing in some in- 
stances throughout the ten years that this project has been under way. My 
gratitude to the many persons and institutions given only generalized acknowl- 
edgment is no less sincere. 

Major credit for this volume belongs to the Ohioana Library Association, which 
has sponsored the research and the publication. Mrs. Depew Head, now Director 
Emeritus, first conceived of the project more than ten years ago and worked 
closely with Ernest Wessen, the original editor. My own debt is greatest to 
Walter R. Marvin, the present Director, who has participated vigorously in the 
search for data and has patiently borne almost daily requests for assistance of 
all kinds. I have also received much help from the Ohioana staff, especially 
Florence J. Kelley and Josephine J. Swinehart, Librarians. I am also indebted 
to the Ohioana membership and staff over the past thirty years, who collected 
biographical information on Ohio authors and filed it in the Ohioana Library. 
While I have worked on the book, I have received help and counsel from the 
Editorial Committee, composed of officers of the Ohioana Association: Carl 
Vitz, Mrs. Howard Bevis, Mrs. Depew Head, G. Harrison Orians, and Joseph 
K. Vodrey. Carl Vitz, chairman of the committee, has been a valued adviser 
throughout all stages of the research, has read portions of the manuscript, and 
has worked diligently to discover data on Hamilton County authors. Finally, 
I am deeply obligated to the current Ohioana county chairmen listed in Ap- 
pendix A and to their predecessors. Lists of questions were sent them; they con- 
sulted court records, visited cemeteries, interviewed relatives of authors, adver- 
tised in newspapers, and wrote letters to find the answers. 

Much of the research for this project has, of course, been done in libraries. 
Query-lists were sent to libraries in almost every Ohio county and in cities 
throughout the United States; hundreds of libraries supplied information, for 
which I am most grateful. In the libraries where I have worked, I have received 
much assistance and advice. Among the librarians to whom I am obligated are 
Yeatman Anderson, III, and Ethel M. Hutchins of Cincinnati Public Library; 
Donna Root of Cleveland Public Library; Elizabeth Faries, William Hamilton, 
and Helen H. Santmyer of Dayton Public Library; Alice Hook of Historical and 
Philosophical Society Library; Elizabeth Martin of Ohio Historical Society 


Acknowledgments xx 

Library; Irene McCreery of Toledo Public Library; Luella Eutsler of Wittenberg 
University Library; and Margaret Leanhard of the State of Ohio Library, Union 
Catalogue Division. After checking unidentified titles in the last-named library, 
I spent a week searching for the remainder in the main catalogue and the union 
catalogue of the Library of Congress, where I was tendered every facility for 

A large number of the authors in this volume are not included in any reference 
books, and many others are found only in county histories or biographical dic- 
tionaries published during their lifetimes. This has necessitated a great deal of 
grass-roots research to discover dates of birth and death, to say nothing of 
significant events between the two. Paradoxically, it has been most difficult to 
learn the birth date for a living writer and the death date for a dead one. I have 
not included the date of birth for any living author who prefers that it remain 
unspecified, but I have tried to find death dates for all authors known to be 
deceased. Many such facts have been furnished by the Ohio Department of Vital 
Statistics, thanks to the co-operation of William H. Viegel, Chief of that depart- 
ment. Also, Colonel William B. Haines, in charge of soldiers' claims for Ohio, 
permitted me to search the burial records in his office. Some Ohio veterans not 
listed there have been located in the National Archives, Washington, D. C. 

Biographical facts have been collected from numerous other sources to which 
I can make only blanket acknowledgments. Lists of questions were sent to probate 
courts, county historical associations, medical societies, and bar associations 
throughout Ohio. Separate queries were also sent to many cemeteries, news- 
papers, schools, and churches. The response to these queries was exceptionally 
good. Also, lists of questions were sent to alumni associations of more than a 
hundred colleges, and almost all of them responded with the information needed. 

The contributors listed in Appendix B have prepared sketches of more than 
a hundred authors. To these busy persons, who have graciously given the time 
and work necessary to investigate their subjects, I am deeply obligated. 

Annual grants, arranged by Dean John N. Stauffer of Wittenberg University, 
have supplemented funds from Ohioana to provide student assistance in typing 
and filing. The students who have worked on the project are Donald E. Bauer, 
Walter Brumm, Dennis E. Lauman, and Claire M. Crowley. My wife, Charlotte 
Coyle, has not only assisted with the typing and clerical work during school 
vacations but has also endured patiently a clutter of file cards, manuscript pages, 
manila folders, reference books, photostats, clippings, and other accouterments 
of the research. My children, Mary Joan and Daniel Coyle, have proved to be 
filial file clerks. 

At the risk of omitting names that should be included, I wish to acknowledge 
special help received from Betty E. Baldwin, Cincinnati; Alice F. Bliss, Ashtabula; 
Graham Bryson, Xenia; Elizabeth Claflin, Cleveland; Virginia T. Curry, Cincin- 
nati; Kathryn M. Keller, Toledo; Mr. and Mrs. Oliver Kuhn, Hartville; Andrew 
P. Martin, Cleveland; Melrose Pitman, Cincinnati; Alice C. Redhead, Cleveland; 
Mary L. Spining, Springfield; Erman D. Southwick, Marietta; Gordon W. Thayer, 
Cleveland; David K. Webb, Chillicothe; Tessa S. Webb, Columbus; and Kathryn 
E. Williams, Wilmington. 

Last, but most importantly, I want to emphasize my gratitude and admiration 

xxi Acknowledgments 

for the research and organization done by Mr. and Mrs. Ernest Wessen of Mans- 
field. Years of bibliographical experience and extensive knowledge of Americana 
made Mr. Wessen uniquely qualified to edit this work. Before he was compelled 
by ill health to abandon the project, he planned the basic format, collected masses 
of data and citations of sources, and wrote many entries. His name is appended 
to certain longer sketches, but many of the unsigned shorter entries are also the 
result of his research. Mrs. Wessen searched biographical dictionaries for eligible 
names and prepared an efficient card-file that has been indispensable. That this 
book would never have been completed without their tireless labors is a simple 
statement of fact. Much of the credit for whatever usefulness this work may have 
belongs to the Wessens; errors of omission and commission are, of course, my 
own responsibility. 

William Coyle 
Wittenberg University 

Ohio Authors and Their Books 

The entries for writers who are included are of three 
general types: 

I. A writer who published at least one eligible work 
before December 31, 1900: a biographical summary 
and a check list of his writings. 
II. A writer who published at least one eligible work 
between January 1, 1901, and December 31, 1950: 
a biographical summary, one or more representative 
titles, and if possible a citation of a biographical 
reference book. 
III. A writer who lived in Ohio for only a brief period: 
treatment similar to Group II with special emphasis 
on the subject's Ohio years. 

Ohio Authors and Their Books 

AARONSOHN, MICHAEL (July 5, 1896- 
), rabbi, born in Baltimore, Md., has 
lived in Cincinnati for more than forty years. 
Serving as a sergeant major in the 147th In- 
fantry during World War I, he was wounded 
and left totally blind. He returned to Cin- 
cinnati and graduated from the University of 
Cincinnati and Hebrew Union College in 
1923. He has been field representative of the 
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, 
has served as chaplain of several veterans' 
organizations, and has lectured widely on his 
victory over blindness and in support of 
Henry George's theories. He has published 
two novels, the first of which is largely auto- 
biographical: Broken Lights, Cincinnati, 

ABBE, CLEVELAND (Dec. 3, 1838-Oct. 28, 
1916), was born in New York City and edu- 
cated in the schools there and at Michigan 
Agricultural College. His significant Ohio 
connection is limited to two years, 1868-70, 
when he served as director of the Cincinnati 
Observatory. There he issued storm warn- 
ings based on telegraphic reports and drew 
the first weather maps. Abbe wrote almost 
three hundred papers on various aspects of 
weather and climate, many of them issued in 
pamphlet form. 

ABBEY, EVERETT LUCIUS (Oct. 10, 1855- 
Jan. 1, 1945), educator, was born in May- 
field, Cuyahoga County. After graduating 
from the University of Wooster in 1880, he 
was superintendent of schools in Cambridge 
and later in Euclid. He then served seven- 
teen years as attendance officer in East Cleve- 
land, retiring in 1938. 
The Religious Drama of the Tyrol . . . , 

Cleveland, 1900. 
"A Twist of the Lion's Tail," East Cleveland, 

ABDULLAH. Pseud. See Otway Curry. 

ABERNETHY, ALONZO (April 14, 1836- 
Feb., 1915), educator, was born in Sandusky 
County. He served in the 9th Iowa Volun- 
teers, 1861-65. After graduating from the 
University of Chicago in 1866, he held vari- 
ous educational posts in Illinois and Iowa. 
His death occurred in Des Moines. His writ- 
ings include A History of Iowa Baptist 
Schools, [Osage, Iowa, 1907]. WWW 1 

12, 1870-June 19, 1956), was born in Circle- 
ville, Pickaway County. She worked there as 
a court reporter before her marriage to Judge 
Isaac N. Abernethy, and after his death she 
worked in the Motor Vehicle Department, 
Columbus. She published an autobiographi- 
cal volume: Odds and Ends, [Columbus, 
1943], which she revised and republished in 
1948 as Yesterdays. 

ABRAMS, LISLE JOSEPH (Nov. 6, 1903- 
), was born in Cameron, W. Va., but 
when he was seven his family moved to Lis- 
bon, Columbiana County, where he has since 
lived. His poems have appeared in magazines 
and anthologies, and he has published one 
collection: Through the Years, New York, 

ADAMS, ALMEDA C. (Feb. 26, 1865-Sept. 
8, 1949), musician, was born in Meadville, 
Pa., but she lived near Toledo as a child. She 
lost her eyesight when only six months old, 
and at the age of seven entered the State 
School for the Blind at Columbus, and 
graduated in music. After attending the New 
England Conservatory of Music for two 
years, she taught piano and voice at the Uni- 
versity of Nebraska. Settling in Cleveland 
in 1901, she taught music to various local 

Adams, C. J. 

groups, including every social settlement. In 
1926 this amazing woman left on a year's 
travel in Europe as a chaperone for a group 
of music students. On her return she wrote 
a book which received wide acclaim: Seeing 
Europe through Sightless Eyes, New York, 
[1929]. Twice more she toured Europe un- 
accompanied, after which she enjoyed en- 
thusiastic demand as a lecturer on European 
travel. She died in Cleveland. 

ADAMS, CHARLES JOSIAH (Oct. 31, 1850- 
July 4, 1924), clergyman, was born in New 
Lisbon, Columbiana County. After graduat- 
ing from Mount Union College in 1871, he 
attended Yale University and Boston Univer- 
sity, and was ordained an Episcopal priest in 
1875. He served as rector of several churches, 
including St. Luke's, Rossville, N. Y. 
Where Is My Dog? Or, Is Man Alone Im- 
mortal? New York, 1892. 
How Baldy Won the County Seat, New 

York, 1902. 
Hope Undeferred, and Two Other Poems, 

New York, 1916. 
Reprieve! and Other Poems, New York, 

Awakenings, with In Athens, New York, 

This and That, and That and This, New 
York, 1919. 


18, 1827-C.1900), was born in Perry, N. Y., 

but lived in Cleveland for a number of years. 

She graduated from Baldwin University, and 

in 1852 she married Herman S. Adams of 

Columbus. Approximately the last twenty 

years of her life were spent in Los Angeles. 

Digging the Top Off and Other Stories, Cin- 
cinnati, 1887. 

To and Fro in Southern California . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1887. 

John of Wy cliff e .... Oakland, Calif., 

Jottings from the Pacific . . . , Oakland, Calif., 

The Tonga Islands . . . , Oakland, Calif., 

Two Cannibal Archipelagoes . . . , Oakland, 
Calif., [1890]. 

Jottings from the Pacific, No. 2 . . . , Oak- 
land, Calif., [1891]. 

ADAMS, HARRIET L. (Sept. 6, 1838-Dec. 
20, 1913), was a journalist in Cleveland for 
a number of years. Her death occurred in 
that city. Besides writing the book below, she 
assisted Sarah Victor (q.v.) in writing her 

A Woman's Journeyings in the New North- 
west, Cleveland, 1892. 

ADAMS, JACOB (March 30, 1842-May 29, 
1930), was born in Hancock County. In the 
Civil War he served as a private in the 21st 
O.V.I, and was wounded at the Battle of 
Chickamauga. After the war he attended high 
school in Findlay, taught school at Van Lue, 
and bought a farm near Ayersville. At the 
age of 83 he began copying his Civil War 
diary and excerpts from his letters. The 
manuscript was edited by H. M. Povenmire 
and published by the Ohio Archaeological 
and Historical Society: Diary of Jacob 
Adams . . . , Columbus, 1930. 

ADAMS, JAMES ALONZO (May 21, 1842- 
June 4, 1925), educator and clergyman, was 
born in Ashland, Ashland County. He gradu- 
ated from Knox College in 1867. He taught 
at Straight University, New Orleans, 1875— 
77, edited the Dallas, Texas, Daily Commer- 
cial, 1877-80, and was ordained a Congre- 
gational minister in 1880. He occupied pul- 
pits in St. Louis and Chicago. In addition to 
being the editor-in-chief of The Advance 
from 1903 until his death, he wrote a large 
number of religious tracts. His death oc- 
curred in Chicago. All three of the titles be- 
low were published under the pen name 
Colonel Hungerford's Daughter. Story of an 

American Girl, Chicago, 1896. 
Victoria; Maid-Matron-Monarch, Chicago, 

A Progressive Teacher, Chicago, 1917. 

ADAMS, JAMES BARTON (April 17, 1843- 
Oct. 22, 1918), was born in Somerset, Jeffer- 
son County. He was educated at Richmond, 
Jefferson County, and at Mt. Pleasant, Iowa, 
where his parents moved in 1854. He served 
throughout the Civil War with Iowa troops 
and after the war was a member of the 
scouts that protected the construction crews 
of the Union Pacific. He was at various times 
a cowboy, a peace officer, a reporter on the 
Denver Post, and a miner. He died at Van- 
couver, Wash. 
Breezy Western Verse, [Denver?], 1898. 

ADAMS, RUFUS W. (?-?), probably an 
itinerant schoolteacher from Vermont, is be- 
lieved to have arrived at Marietta about 
1810. In 1815 his Young Gentleman and 
Lady's Monitor was published in Zanesville. 
It is described on the title page as the "Sec- 
ond edition revised and corrected," and was 
copyrighted in 1814. It filled a great need 
and won the praise of leading Ohio Valley 
educators; by 1818 three more editions had 
been published. It seems quite possible that 
an edition prior to that printed in Zanesville 
in 1815 was published in Ohio but no copy is 


known to exist, and Adams had previously 
published the same work in Vermont. On 
the title page of this and other known works 
Adams refers to himself as the author of 
Juvenile Rambler. No trace of this work has 
been found. 
The Young Gentleman and Lady's Explana- 

tpry Monitor .... Danville, Vt., 1808. 
A Dissertation. Designed for the Yeomanry 
of the Western Country. Containing a 
Correct Description of the Best Method 
of Making Butter and Cheese . . . , Mari- 
etta, [1813]. 
The Farmer's Assistant, Containing a Com- 
plete Description of the Best Methods of 
Raising and Keeping Cows, & Making 
Butter and Cheese . . . , Marietta, 1814. 

Sept. 24, 1864), clergyman, was born in 
Vernon, N. Y. He was pastor of the First 
Baptist Church, Cleveland, and his death oc- 
curred in that city. 

Memoirs of Rev. Nathaniel Kendrick, D.D., 
and Silas N. Kendrick, Philadelphia, 1860. 

1866-March 14, 1946), educator, was born 
in Medina, Medina County. He attended 
Hiram College and the Cleveland School of 
Expression. He served as head of the de- 
partment of speech, Hiram College 1893— 
97. Ordained to the ministry of the Disciples 
of Christ Church, he served in various states 
for twenty years and afterward was head of 
the department of speech at Spokane Uni- 
versity, 1921-30, and at Whitworth College, 
Spokane, 1930-34. He published a volume 
of verse: Pegasus and Company, Limited 
. . . , Spokane, Wash., 1939. WW 21 

1821-April 26, 1906), was born in Paines- 
ville, Lake County. In their search for 
greener pastures his Vermont parents settled 
in Galesburg, 111., where he received his early 
education. For a time he studied for the 
ministry under Alexander Campbell at Beth- 
any, Va., but abandoning the idea of be- 
coming a preacher, he went to Oregon in 
1848, where he farmed, taught school, and 
wrote for the newspapers. His first book, A 
Melodrame, published under the pen name 
Breakspear, was a merciless political satire, 
wherein he flayed the leading Democrats of 
the time, imputing to them the treasonable 
design of detaching Oregon from the United 
States. Buying the newspaper plant of the 
defunct Oregon Spectator in 1855, he estab- 
lished the Oregon Argus at Oregon City, 
which he continued until President Lincoln 
appointed him collector of the port of As- 

toria in 1861. After studying medicine in 
Philadelphia, he began practicing in Port- 
land in 1873. He then established a sani- 
tarium at Hood River, Ore. He was one of 
the founders of the Republican Party in Ore- 
gon. It has been said that "as a Republican 
editor he was more feared and more hated 
than any man of his day in Oregon . . . 
'dreaded by his foes and not greatly loved 
by his friends.' " He died in Portland. 
A Melodrame Entitled "Treason, Stratagems, 

and Spoils," in Five Acts, [Portland, 

Oreg., 1852]. 
Oregon As It Is; Its Present and Future 

Portland, Oreg., 1873. 
History of Medicine and Surgery from the 

Earliest Times, Portland, Oreg., 1888. 

ADDINGTON, SARAH (April 6, 1891- 
Nov. 7, 1940), was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. She graduated from Earl- 
ham College in 1912. After marrying How- 
ard C. Reid in 1917, she lived in New York 
City. She published a number of juvenile 
books, e.g., Pudding Lane People, Boston, 
1926. WWW 1 


(Oct. 6, 1884-Dec, 1958), was born in 
Washington County. He attended Ohio State 
University. A resident of California, he was 
interested in prehistoric man, published short 
stories in various periodicals, and also pub- 
lished a collection of verse: Arrow of 
Flame, Pasadena, Calif., 1946. WWNAA 7 

ADDIS, HUGH (July 6, 1909- ), was 
born in Chesterhill, Morgan County. He was 
educated in California and now lives in Si- 
erra Madre. His writings include a mystery 
story: Dark Voyage, New York, 1944. 

ADDIS, THOMAS. Pseud. See Michael Mc- 


(Oct. 3, 1885-Dec. 26, 1959), educator, was 
born in Chicago. He graduated from Ohio 
State University in 1909 and the University 
of Illinois (Ph.D.) in 1913. After teaching 
English for brief periods at several univer- 
sities, including Ohio State University and 
Case Institute of Technology, he joined the 
Western Reserve University faculty in 1911 
and served until 1956. Active in poetry or- 
ganizations, he published numerous poems 
in periodicals and also published several 
collections, e.g., Leaven for Loaves, New 
York, 1927. WW 30 

ADNEY, EDWIN TAPPAN (July 13, 1868- 
Oct. 10, 1950), woodcarver, painter, writer, 
and adventurer, was born in Athens, Athens 


County. He attended the University of North 
Carolina for a few months in 1881 and stud- 
ied at the Art Students' League in New York 
for three years. He wrote a large number of 
magazine articles on a wide range of sub- 
jects — outdoor life, archaeology, the North 
American Indian, heraldry, and ethnology — 
and also supplied illustrations for the works 
of others. His firsthand study of Indians be- 
gan during a trip to New Brunswick in 1887, 
and within a few years he became known 
throughout Canada and the United States 
as an outstanding authority on the Indians of 
Canada. Because of his intimate knowledge 
of the Indians, and their canoes in particular, 
he was chosen by the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany to collaborate with Adam Scott in 
painting the large murals which adorn Hud- 
son Bay House in Winnipeg. He covered 
the Klondike gold rush in 1897-98 for the 
London Chronicle and Harper's Weekly. He 
designed and carved the superlative over- 
mantels in the Chateau Frontenac at Que- 
bec. Despite these and many other note- 
worthy activities he found time to indulge in 
intensive genealogical research. He died near 
Upper Woodstock, Canada. 
The Klondike Stampede, New York, 1900. 
Harper's Outdoor Book for Boys, New York, 

AFFLECK, THOMAS (July 13, 1812-Dec. 
30, 1868), agriculturist, born in Dumfries, 
Scotland, came to America in 1832. From 
1840 to 1842 he was junior editor of Western 
Farmer and Gardener, published in Cin- 
cinnati. He then moved to Mississippi and 
subsequently to Texas. As an advocate of 
diversified farming in the South, he published 
articles and almanacs. He also wrote Bee 
Breeding in the West, Cincinnati, 1841. 

AGATE. Pseud. See Whitelaw Reid. 

AGEE, ALVA (Oct. 1, 1858-Dec. 10, 1943), 
agriculturist and educator, was born in 
Cheshire, Gallia County. He attended Mari- 
etta College and University of Wooster and 
afterward served in the agriculture depart- 
ments of Pennsylvania State College and 
Rutgers University. He lectured widely on 
farming, contributed numerous articles to 
agricultural periodicals, and published sev- 
eral books, e.g., Crops and Methods for Soil 
Improvement, New York, 1912. WWW 1 

AGGER, EUGENE EWALD (Dec. 4, 1879- 
), educator, was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. After graduating from the 
University of Cincinnati in 1901 and Colum- 
bia University (Ph.D.) in 1907, he taught 
economics at Columbia, 1907-26, and at 

Rutgers University, 1926-50. He has written 
articles and books on economic questions, 
e.g., Money and Banking Today, New York, 
[1941]. WWNAA 7 

1877-Jan. 29, 1935), was born near Barnes- 
ville, Belmont County, the town in which she 
spent her life. After her death her husband 
published a memorial volume of her verse: 
Thru the Door and Other Poems, East Au- 
rora, N. Y, 1935. 

AIKEN, SAMUEL CLARK (Sept. 21, 1790- 
Jan. 1, 1879), clergyman, was born in Wind- 
ham, Vt. In 1835 he came to Cleveland's 
famous Old Stone Church as its first perma- 
nent pastor. Although occasionally under 
attack for his conservative attitude on slav- 
ery, he became one of the city's outstanding 
civic leaders. His discourse, "Moral View of 
Railroads . . . ," delivered upon the comple- 
tion of the Cleveland and Columbus Rail- 
road in 1851, is a masterpiece of naivete; 
for therein he expressed the belief that rail- 
roads would prevent war by bringing nations 
together, that they would not be operated on 
the Sabbath Day since only Christian gentle- 
men would be on the directorates, and that 
no liquor would be sold on them. He re- 
signed his pulpit in 1861. His death occurred 
in Cleveland. 

The Laws of Ohio in Respect to the Colored 
People, Shown to Be Unequal, Unjust 
and Unconstitutional, Cleveland, 1845. 

AKELEY, MARY JOBE (Jan. 29, 1886- 
), was born near Tappan, Harrison 
County. A graduate of Scio College, she has 
made exploring expeditions to Africa and 
Canada. Her husband, Carl E. Akeley, died 
in 1926 while leading an expedition to the 
Belgian Congo for the American Museum of 
Natural History; Mrs. Akeley took charge 
of the expedition after his death. She has lec- 
tured widely, has taught at Hunter College, 
and has operated a summer camp at Mystic, 
Conn. Her writings include Restless Jungle, 
New York, [1936]. WW 29 

AKERS, LEWIS ROBESON (Aug. 25, 1881- 
), clergyman, was born in Asheville, 
N. C. He graduated from Asbury College, 
Wilmore, Ky., in 1903 and was ordained to 
the Methodist ministry in 1904. He served 
several Ohio pastorates: Conesville, Nevada, 
Willard, Sebring, Ashland, and Steubenville. 
He now lives in Norfolk, Va. He has pub- 
lished, among other books, a collection of 
lectures: The Red Road to Royalty . . . , 
New York, [1927]. WW 24 

Alden, C. S. 

March 23, 1917), hotel proprietor, was born 
in Manchester, England. His family migrated 
to America in 1847, and his father soon es- 
tablished himself as a leading contractor in 
Cleveland. His father's fortune dwindled, 
however, in the panic of 1857, and William 
was forced to go to work in a blacksmith 
shop at the age of thirteen. In 1865 he began 
working in the Union Depot restaurant, and 
from that time his main interest was the 
hotel and restaurant business. He is best re- 
membered in Cleveland as proprietor of the 
Forest City House. He was active in civic 
affairs and charitable projects. His only pub- 
lished book was a history of Cleveland 
schools: Cleveland Schools in the 19th Cen- 
tury, Cleveland, 1901. 

ALBACH, JAMES R. (July 30, 1797-April 
20, 1865), was born in Hunterdon, N. J. 
During the early years of his life, while en- 
gaged in the profession of teaching, he trav- 
eled through the West. In 1857 he published 
Annals of the West, a substantial enlarge- 
ment of the work originally written by James 
H. Perkins (q.v.). In 1850 it had been some- 
what enlarged and revised by J. M. Peck, 
but Albach's travels and observations en- 
abled him to so expand the work that it 
became a veritable encyclopedia of events 
connected with the history of the Ohio Val- 
ley. He spent the last twelve years of his 
life in Oxford, Butler County. 
Annals of the West: Embracing a Concise 
Account of the Principal Events Which 
Have Occurred in the Western States and 
Territories, from the Discovery of the 
Mississippi Valley to the Year 1856, Pitts- 
burgh, 1856. 

ALBAUGH, BENJAMIN F. (1836-1917), 
was born in West Milton, Miami County. 
He was a farmer and horticulturist and for 
over thirty years lectured on these and allied 
subjects. He wrote The Gardenette, [Piqua], 

Charles B. Stickell) (July 8, 1903- ), 
was born in Columbus, Franklin County. She 
graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University 
in 1925 and has also done graduate work at 
Ohio State University. She now lives in 
Richwood, Union County. Under her maiden 
name she has published poems, articles, and 
short stories in various anthologies, maga- 
zines, and newspapers. She has also pub- 
lished three collections of verse, e.g., By 
Quill and Candlelight, [Worthington?, 1947]. 

ALBAUGH, NOAH H. (May 22, 1834- 
Aug. 31, 1907), was born in Miami County. 
He began teaching school in 1851. In 1858 
he started a small nursery in Miami County, 
and within fifteen years he had branch nur- 
series in Illinois, Kansas, and Wisconsin. The 
book of poems below is his only publica- 
tion. He died in Phoneton. 
Wayside Blossoms, Dayton, 1885. 

(March 15, 1864-Oct. 14, 1939), was born 
in Dayton, Montgomery County, the daugh- 
ter of James Rickey, the city's leading book- 
seller. She attended Dayton public schools 
and studied designing in New York. In 1897 
she established the Abnakee Rug Industry, 
said to have been the first rural industry in 
America to develop rug-making as a handi- 
craft. She lived in New Hampshire. She 
contributed many articles to periodicals on 
subjects relating to handicrafts and horticul- 

Mountain Playmates, New York, 1900. 
Abnakee Rugs, Cambridge, Mass., 1901. 
Hardy Plants for Cottage Gardens, New 

York, 1910. 
The Gleam, New York, 1911. 
A Kingdom of Two, New York, 1913. 


(Dec. 3, 1848-Jan. 18, 1930), lawyer, was 
born in Franklin County. He attended high 
school in Columbus and studied law and 
philosophy in Berlin and Leipzig. He was 
admitted to the Ohio bar in 1873 and prac- 
ticed in Columbus. He was professor of law 
at Ohio State University, 1896-1900. His 
writings include Michael Ryan, Capitalist 
.... Columbus, 1913. 

April 19, 1942), educator, was born in Sid- 
ney, Shelby County. She graduated from 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1898 and the 
University of Chicago (Ph.D.) in 1915. She 
served on the faculty of Ohio Wesleyan, 
1900-11, and after 1915 taught at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago. She published several 
texts on creative writing, professional ar- 
ticles on Spenser and Shakespeare, and 
Dramatic Publication in England, 1580- 
1640 ... , New York, 1927. WW 6 

1876- ), educator, was born in Medina, 
Medina County. He earned a Ph.D. at Yale 
in 1903 and in 1904 joined the faculty of 
the U. S. Naval Academy, where he taught 
until his retirement in 1941. He still lives in 
Annapolis. He has written textbooks for use 
at the Academy, historical studies of the 

Alden, I. M. 

navy, and a biography: Lawrence Kearny, 
Sailor Diplomat, Princeton, 1936. WW 26 

1841-Aug. 5, 1930), was born in Rochester, 
N. Y. Following her marriage in 1866 to 
Gustavus Rosenberg Alden, a young Presby- 
terian minister, she lived for several years in 
Cincinnati. Under the pen name Pansy she 
wrote a multitude of Sunday School books, 
e.g., Three People, Cincinnati, 1871. 

1861-April 27, 1944), lawyer, son of Julia 
Carter Aldrich (q.v.), was born near Wau- 
seon, Fulton County. After spending three 
years at Adrian College, he read law and 
was admitted to the bar in 1883. He prac- 
ticed in Cadillac, Mich., and served two 
terms as circuit court judge. In 1900 he 
moved to Detroit, where he practiced and 
taught at the Detroit College of Law until 
his death. He wrote a number of legal 
treatises and World Peace or Principles of 
International Law in Their Application to 
Efforts for the Preservation of the Peace 
of the World, Detroit, 1921. 

ALDRICH, JULIA CARTER (Jan. 28, 1834- 
Aug. 26, 1924), was born in Liverpool, 
Medina County. She taught in district 
schools, and in 1854 she married Joseph 
Aldrich of New York. Much of her life was 
spent in Wauseon, Fulton County. 
Hazel Bloom, Buffalo, 1899. 
A Memory of Eighteen Hundred Sixty-five; 
A Tribute to Abraham Lincoln . . . , Wau- 
seon, 1914. 

17, 1845-Jan. 30, 1925), was born in Maine 
but was brought to Ohio when he was seven 
years old. He enlisted in the 128th O.V.I, 
when he was sixteen and served throughout 
the Civil War. At the close of the war he 
returned to Maine to complete his education 
and then settled in Indiana. He published a 
family history, political speeches, and bio- 
graphical and historical studies, e.g., A 
Political History of the State of New York, 
New York, 1906. 

1815-1901), clergyman and educator, was 
born near Lewiston, Pa. He graduated from 
Jefferson College in 1839 and was ordained 
to the Presbyterian ministry in 1843. He 
served as a school principal and as a pastor 
in Ohio during the 1850s and 1860s. He was 
president of Washington College, Tenn., 
1877-83. He wrote a family history and A 
Historical Sketch of Washington College, 
Tennessee, [Bristol, Tenn.], 1902. 

1849-April 16, 1940), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Wooster, Wayne County. 
After graduating from Ohio Central College 
in 1871 and Xenia Theological Seminary in 
1874, he was ordained to the ministry of the 
United Presbyterian Church. From 1875 un- 
til his retirement in 1917, he was a mission- 
ary and teacher in Egypt. His writings in- 
clude The Truth about Egypt, New York, 
1911. WWW 3 

ALEXANDER, ROBERT (June 15, 1837- 
Feb. 27, 1901), clergyman, was born in Bel- 
mont County. He graduated from Washing- 
ton College, Pa., in 1855 and studied at 
Princeton Theological Seminary. After being 
ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 
1860, he occupied a pulpit in Lancaster 
County, Pa., until 1866, when he became 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in 
St. Clairsville, in which capacity he served 
from 1867 to 1899. He died in Philadelphia. 
Historical Sketch of the First Presbyterian 
Church in St. Clairsville . . . , Wheeling, 
W. Va., 1869. 

ALEXIS. Pseud. See John M. Leavitt. 

ALEY, HOWARD C. (Jan. 12, 1911- ), 
educator, was born in Youngstown, Mahon- 
ing County. He graduated from Youngstown 
College in 1935 and has done graduate work 
at the University of Pittsburgh. He is a 
teacher in Wilson High School and has edited 
a number of educational publications for the 
Youngstown schools. His books include a 
centennial history of the Mahoning County 
Agricultural Society: The First Hundred 
Years . . . , [Youngstown], 1946. 

1836-Jan. 24, 1907), was born in Medina 
County. He attended Richfield Academy, 
studied law in Akron, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1859. In the same year he removed 
to Grand Rapids, Mich., and engaged in the 
lumber business. In Aug., 1861, he enlisted 
in the army as a private. He was discharged 
with the rank of colonel Sept. 20, 1864, sub- 
sequently being given the brevet rank of 
brigadier general and then of major general 
of volunteers. Resuming his business in De- 
troit, he acquired a large fortune and served 
one term as governor of Michigan. In 1889 
he became national commander of the Grand 
Army of the Republic. President McKinley 
appointed him to his cabinet as Secretary of 
War on March 5, 1897. His wholly inept ad- 
ministration of this office left a long trail 
through the newspapers and critical litera- 
ture dealing with the war with Spain. He 
resigned under fire in July, 1899, and wrote 

Allen, Hans V. N. 

his Spanish-American War by way of an 
apologia. He became senator from Michigan 
in 1902, but died before the expiration of his 
term of office. 

Eulogy on the Late General Philip H. Sheri- 
dan Detroit, 1888. 

The Spanish-American War, New York, 

1919- ), was born in Canton, Stark 
County. He graduated from the College of 
Wooster in 1941. A free-lance writer for 
motion pictures and television, he now lives 
in Van Nuys. Calif. He wrote a play which 
was produced in 1949 and published the fol- 
lowing year: At War with the Army, New 
York. [1950]. 

ALLBECK, WILLARD DOW (Oct. 5. 1898- 
), theologian, was born in Millville, Pa. 
He was ordained to the Lutheran ministry in 
1922 and since 1937 has been professor 
of historical theology at Hamma Divinity 
School, Springfield. He has published numer- 
ous articles and reviews and Theology at 
Wittenberg . . . , Springfield, 1946. WW 30 

ALLEN, ABEL LEIGHTON (Jan. 25, 1850- 
Dec. 8, 1927), lawyer, was born in Kenton. 
Hardin County. He graduated from Ohio 
Wesleyan University in 1875 and Cincinnati 
Law School in 1877 and afterward practiced 
in Chicago. He wrote The Message of New 
Thought, New York. [1914]. WWW 1 

ALLEN, ADAM. Pseud. See Beryl Williams. 

ALLEN, DON. Pseud. See Hiram L. True. 

ALLEN, EMORY ADAMS (1853-1933?), 
publisher, was born in Cincinnati. Hamilton 
County. Little is known concerning this 
rather prolific author and Cincinnati book 
publisher. He was the junior partner in the 
Central Publishing House from 1879 through 
1915, associated with Smith C. Ferguson. He 
is reported to have died in Prague, Czecho- 

Golden Gems of Life, (with Smith C. Fer- 
guson), Cincinnati, 1880. 
The Prehistoric World: Or, Vanished Races, 

Cincinnati, 1885. 
History of Civilization, 4 vols., Cincinnati, 

Scenes Abroad . . . , Cincinnati. 1890. 
Labor and Capital . . . , Cincinnati, [1891]. 
The Life and Public Services of James Bair 

Weaver . . . , [n.p., 1892]. 
The Readv Cotton Reckoner, Cincinnati, 

The Planter's Guide . . . , Cincinnati, 1902. 

Gems of Immortality . . . , Cincinnati, [1909]. 
Our Canal in Panama . . . , Cincinnati, 1913. 

ALLEN, ETHAN (Jan. 1. 1904- ). base- 
ball player and coach, was born in Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton County. In 1927 he gradu- 
ated from the University of Cincinnati, 
where he excelled in sports. He was signed 
by the Cincinnati Reds and also played with 
several other major league teams before his 
retirement in 1938. He joined the National 
League public relations department in 1938, 
was a sports commentator, and served in 
Special Services during World War II. In 
1946 he became head baseball coach at Yale 
University. He has published several books 
on baseball, e.g., Winning Baseball, New 
York, [1942]. 

23, 1884- ), lawyer and judge, was born 
in Salt Lake City, Utah. She attended New 
Lyme Institute, Ashtabula County, and 
graduated from Western Reserve University 
in 1904 and from the law school of New 
York University in 1913. She was music 
editor of the Cleveland Plain Dealer, 1906- 
09. In 1914 she began the practice of law in 
Cleveland. She has served as judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas, 1920-22, as a jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of Ohio. 1922-34, 
and as a judge of the U. S. Circuit Court of 
Appeals, 1934-59. She has published numer- 
ous articles and two books: Patris, Cleve- 
land. 1908, and This Constitution of Ours, 
New York, [1940]. WW 30 

25, 1844-Aug. 4, 1897), educator, was born 
in Oberlin, Lorain County. He graduated 
from Oberlin College in 1863 and taught 
school until 1866, when he was appointed 
professor of Greek and Latin at the Univer- 
sity of East Tennessee. In 1874 he was called 
to the University of Cincinnati, and while 
there he found time to prepare his excellent 
edition of the Medea of Euripides and his 
important Remnants of Early Latin. He ac- 
cepted a call to Harvard in 1880 to be pro- 
fessor of classical philology. 
Remnants of Early Latin . . . , Boston, 1880. 

ALLEN, HANS VAN NES (1914- ), was 
born in Glendale. Hamilton County. At the 
age of eighteen he went to Africa with a 
medical missionary. On his return he at- 
tended college and worked on the Cincin- 
nati Times-Star. He served in World War II 
and is now an investment broker in Tulsa, 
Okla. He wrote an account of his African 
experiences: / Found Africa, Indianapolis, 

Allen, Horace N. 


1858-Dec. 11, 1932), missionary and diplo- 
mat, was born in Delaware, Delaware 
County. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan 
University in 1881 and Miami Medical Col- 
lege in 1883. He went to Korea in 1884 as 
a medical missionary of the Presbyterian 
Church. After saving the life of a prince and 
others in a revolution, he became medical 
officer to the Korean Court. He served as 
secretary to the U. S. legation, 1890-97, as 
minister and consul general, 1897-1901, and 
as envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary, 1901-05. He died in Toledo. 
Korean Tales . . . , London, 1889. 
A Chronological Index of Korean Foreign 
Intercourse from the Beginning of the 
Christian Era to 20th Century, Seoul, 
Things Korean . . . , New York, 1908. 

ALLEN, HUGH (July 4, 1882- ), jour- 
nalist, was born in Washington Court House, 
Fayette County. He was educated at the 
University of Michigan. He became a jour- 
nalist and from 1920 to 1926 edited the 
Akron Beacon-Journal. In 1926 he joined 
the public relations department of Goodrich 
Tire and Rubber Co. He now lives in St. 
Louis, Mo. He has written several books, 
e.g., Rubber's Home Town. The Real-Life 
Story of Akron, New York, 1949. 

ALLEN, IRA WILDER (1827-Dec, 1896), 
educator, was professor of mathematics, as- 
tronomy, and civil engineering at Antioch 
College. He was a member of the original 
faculty and was a thorn in the side of Horace 
Mann (q.v. ). In 1860 he was living in Sid- 
ney, but later moved to Lafayette, Ind. He 
died in Chicago. 

A Collection of Facts. History of the Rise, 
Difficulties & Suspension of Antioch Col- 
lege . . . , Columbus, 1858. 

Sporting News. He is now historian of the 
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Mu- 
seum, Cooperstown, N. Y. He has published 
a history of baseball and a history of the 
Cincinnati Reds: The Cincinnati Reds, New 
York, [1948]. 

ALLEN, MARY WOOD. See Mary Wood- 

ALLEN, MAURICE E. (June 22, 1886- ), 
lawyer, was born in Seoul, Korea. He gradu- 
ated from Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology in 1908 and the University of Michi- 
gan law school in 1911. After completing 
his legal studies, he came to Toledo and 
practiced there until his retirement. He now 
lives in Santa Monica, Calif. He has pub- 
lished a volume of poems: Mixed Cargo, 
San Diego, 1931. OBB 

ALLEN, PHILIP. Pseud. See Edmond M. 


Allen") (Sept. 2. 1848-Jan. 27, 1944), was 
born in Summerfield, Noble County. A crack 
shot and an outstanding Indian fighter, he 
was one of the founders of Billings, Mont., 
and besides being a stock-raiser he served on 
occasion as dentist, blacksmith, and express 
messenger. His autobiography is an account 
of his colorful career: Adventures with 
Indians and Game, or Twenty Years in the 
Rocky Mountains, Chicago, 1903. 

ALLENSWORTH, CARL (July 19, 1908- 
), was born in Canton, Stark County. 
He graduated from Canton McKinley High 
School and Oberlin College and studied 
drama at Yale University. He now lives in 
Mamaroneck, N. Y. He has written one-act 
plays, including Village Green produced in 
1941 with Frank Craven as star: Village 
Green, [New York, 1941]. 

ALLEN, JAMES TURNEY (Sept. 14, 1873- 
Sept. 29, 1949), philologist, was born in 
Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. He graduated 
from Pomona College in 1895 and Yale Uni- 
versity (Ph.D.) in 1898. He served on the 
faculty of the University of California, 
1898-1943. His writings include a Greek 
textbook, archaeological and philological ar- 
ticles, and Stage Antiquities of the Greeks 
and Romans . . . , New York, 1927. WWW 2 

ALLEN, LEE (Jan. 12, 1915- ), journal- 

ist, was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. He graduated from Kenyon College 
in 1937, held several publicity and broad- 
casting positions, and wrote on baseball for 

ALLING, ETHAN (Aug. 13, 1800-April 22, 
1868), was born in North Milford, Conn. 
He came to the Western Reserve with his 
father in 1817; they made the first settlement 
on the site of what is now Twinsburg. He 
built a hotel, operated a stage line, and later 
opened a store in Twinsburg. In collabora- 
tion with Luman Lane (q.v.), he wrote a 
splendid account of his pioneer experiences. 
Locust Grove Cemetery. Twinsburgh, from 

1817, by Ethan Ailing, and from 1820, by 

Luman Lane, Akron, 1861. 

ALLISON, DAVID P. (April 8, 1886-?), 
journalist, was born in Greenfield, Highland 
County. He left Ohio while a boy and after- 

Altgeld, J. P. 

ward was a newspaperman in North Caro- 
lina for many years. He is deceased, but the 
date of his death has not been found. He 
published at least five novels, e.g., The Fifth 
of the Medlocks, Grand Rapids, Mich., 

1847-1919), was born in Macomb County, 
Mich. He served throughout the Civil War 
and in 1867 went to Dakota Territory, where 
he married into the Brule tribe and is said 
to have had several Sioux wives. He was 
largely responsible for the surrender of the 
hostile Indians in 1881 which saved the na- 
tion years of bloody border warfare. He 
was a frequent visitor to Dayton, where his 
story was published in 1891, and lived in 
that city for a time. He was appointed a sub- 
stitute on the Dayton police force, Nov. 20, 

1891, was given a regular appointment the 
following May, and served until Nov. 23, 

1892. Subsequently he is recorded in the 
city directories as an "author" and as a "lec- 
turer." He apparently left Dayton about 
1898. His last days were spent in Pierre, 
S. D. 

The Surrender of Sitting Bull, Being a Full 
and Complete History of the Negotiations 
Conducted by Scout Allison Which Re- 
sulted in the Surrender of Sitting Bull and 
Entire Band of Hostile Sioux in 1881. A 
Vivid Description of Indian Life, and 
Thrilling Adventure . . . , Dayton, 1891. 

journalist, was born near Cleveland, Cuya- 
hoga County. She was Washington corre- 
spondent of the Chicago Inter-Ocean, a 
writer for the St. Louis Globe and the New 
York World, and also won distinction as an 
artist and a lecturer. 

One Thousand Smiles, [Dubuque, 1898]. 
The Cats' Convention, New York, 1909. 

ALPHA. Pseud. See Sara T. Drukker. 

ALTGELD, EMMA FORD (1849-March 29, 
1915), was born in Richland County. The 
daughter of John Ford, a wealthy farmer, 
she was educated at Oberlin College, where 
she developed considerable ability as a mu- 
sician. She married John Peter Altgeld (q.v.) 
Nov. 21, 1877. The bitterness of the attacks 
upon her husband following his pardon of 
the participants in the Chicago Haymarket 
riot brought on a nervous breakdown. When 
Altgeld took the stump for re-election, she 
worried greatly over the bitterness of the 
campaign. When the returns showed that her 
husband had been defeated, Mrs. Altgeld 
became afflicted with a nervous malady from 

which she never recovered. Following the 
death of her husband it was learned that his 
fortune had been dissipated in real-estate 
speculations. Friends in Illinois took up 
subscriptions totaling $10,000 to provide for 
her relief. She died in Chicago. 

Sarah's Choice; Or, the Norton Family, 
Chicago, 1887. 

ALTGELD, JOHN PETER (Dec. 30, 1847- 
March 12, 1902), was born in Nassau, Ger- 
many. He was the son of an illiterate and in- 
digent peasant, who brought his family to 
Richland County in 1848. The Altgelds were 
one of a number of German families who 
settled in the vicinity at the time, all of whom 
prospered. The elder Altgeld became a ten- 
ant farmer who in little more than a decade 
became the owner of one of the better farms 
in an area noted for its rich farmlands. If 
the boyhood of John Peter Altgeld was one 
of drudgery, it was no worse and certainly 
in some respects better than the lot of the 
average farmer's son of those days; he not 
only attended the local country school, but 
was permitted to attend high school in neigh- 
boring Mansfield. He served briefly in an 
Ohio regiment in 1864, and after returning 
home studied law and taught school. In 1869 
he went to Darke County, then drifted West, 
finally locating in northwestern Missouri, 
where he practiced law. In 1874 he was 
elected state's attorney of Andrew County, 
Mo., but within a year resigned and moved 
to Chicago. On Nov. 21, 1877, he married 
his childhood sweetheart, Emma Ford (see 
Emma Ford Altgeld), the daughter of a 
wealthy farmer of Richland County who had 
recently died. With the settlement of her fa- 
ther's estate Altgeld plunged into real-estate 
speculation and accumulated a large fortune 
which he later lost, leaving his wife penniless 
at the time of his death. In 1886 he was 
elected to the superior court of Cook County 
and resigned as chief justice of that court in 
1891. He was elected governor of Illinois in 
1892; on taking office he lost no time in put- 
ting into effect many of the reforms which 
he had advocated. However, although it out- 
raged public opinion at the time, his reputa- 
tion as governor is based upon his pardon 
of the alleged anarchistic agitators who had 
been convicted of participating in the events 
which led to the killings in the Chicago Hay- 
market riot of May 4, 1886. These pardons 
were granted on June 26, 1893, and his brief 
of reasons which accompanied them gains 
weight over the years. It was the consensus 
of informed observers at the time that, but 
for his alien birth, Altgeld would have been 
the Democratic candidate for the Presidency 
instead of William Jennings Bryan. He was 



renominated for the office of governor in 
1896, and though he ran far ahead of the 
Democratic Presidential ticket he was de- 
feated. A consummate politician, his career 
was a complete refutation of his expressed 
views that the poor and unfortunate had less 
than a fair chance in American life. 

Ernest J. Wessen 
Live Questions: Including Our Penal Ma- 
chinery and Its Victims, Chicago, 1890. 
Reasons for Pardoning Felden, Neebe and 

Schwab, [Chicago. 1893]. 
Live Questions . . . Comprising His Papers, 
Speeches and Interviews . . . , Chicago, 
Oratory; Its Requirements and Its Rewards, 

Chicago, 1901. 
The Cost of Something for Nothing, Chicago, 

ALTER, KARL JOSEPH (Aug. 18, 1885- 
), archbishop of Cincinnati, was born 
in Toledo, Lucas County. He graduated from 
St. John's College, Toledo, and from St. 
Mary's Seminary, Cleveland. After being 
ordained a Catholic priest, he served 
churches in Leipsic and Lima, 1910-14, and 
was director of Catholic Charities, Toledo, 
1914-19. He was consecrated bishop of To- 
ledo in 1931 and archbishop of Cincinnati 
in 1950. He has published a collection of 
lectures and essays: A Bishop's Rostrum, 
Milwaukee, [1946]. CWW 11 

1915- ), educator, was born in Lancas- 

ter, Pa. He graduated from Franklin and 
Marshall College in 1936 and the University 
of Pennsylvania (Ph.D.) in 1941. He has 
been a member of the English department, 
Ohio State University, since 1945. He has 
written magazine articles, textbooks, and 
The Scholar Adventurers, New York, 1950. 
DAS 3 

11, 1859-April 13, 1946), horticulturist and 
educator, was born in Delta, Fulton County. 
After spending two years (1879-81) teach- 
ing in a country school, he attended Ohio 
State University and Columbian (now 
George Washington) University. From 1891 
to 1904 he was professor of horticulture at 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute. He also served 
in the U. S. Department of Agriculture. He 
wrote many pamphlets and bulletins on 
horticultural subjects. 

1876-Aug. 31, 1957), educator, was born in 
New Matamoras, Washington County. He 
graduated from West Virginia University in 

1901 and the University of Wisconsin 
(Ph.D.) in 1905. He taught history at Ran- 
dolph Macon College, 1908-17, and at West 
Virginia University, 1917—47. He wrote 
many articles, several biographies, and text- 
books on West Virginia history, and A His- 
tory of Transportation in the Ohio Valley 
. . . , Glendale, Calif., 1932. WWW 3 

1843-June 14, 1924), dentist and educator, 
was born in Medina, Medina County. He 
was for many years dean of the Dental 
School, Western Reserve University. 
The Foil and Its Combinations for Filling 

Teeth, Philadelphia, 1897. 
Facts, Fads and Fancies about Teeth, Cleve- 
land. 1900. 
Around the World Dentistry, Cleveland, 

History of Dentistry in Cleveland, Ohio, 
Cleveland, 1911. 

AMES, DELANO (May 29, 1906- ), was 
born at Lake Holm near Mount Vernon, 
Knox County. He attended Kent School, 
Conn., and Yale University. He now lives 
in London, England, where he publishes 
mystery stories and other fiction. He has 
also published a novel: Not in Utter Naked- 
ness, New York, 1932. 

AMES, VAN METER (July 9, 1898- ), 
educator, was born in Desoto, Iowa. He 
graduated from the University of Chicago 
(Ph.B., 1919; Ph.D., 1924) and has been a 
member of the philosophy department, Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, since 1925. He has 
published several books, e.g., a volume of 
poetry: Out of Iowa, New York, [1936], 
and a study of fiction: Aesthetics of the 
Novel, Chicago, [1928]. DAS 3 

AMMEN, DANIEL (May 15, 1820-July 11, 
1898), naval officer, was born in Brown 
County. He was appointed midshipman July 
7, 1836, and served in the Wilkes exploring 
expedition, the Biddle cruise to Japan and 
China, and other long cruises. At the out- 
break of the Civil War he was executive of- 
ficer of the North Atlantic blockading squad- 
ron. He commanded the monitor Patapsco 
in the attack on Fort McAllister, March 3, 
1863; suppressed an attempted mutiny on 
the commercial steamer Ocean Queen in 
1864; and participated in the two attacks on 
Fort Fisher in the winter of 1864-65. A 
boyhood intimacy with U. S. Grant ripened 
into a close friendship, and through Grant's 
influence he was placed in charge of the 
Bureau of Yards and Docks in 1868. He 
became chief of the Bureau of Navigation 


Anderson, G. W. 

in 1871, where he served until his retire- 
ment as rear admiral, June 4, 1878. He was 
secretary of the Isthmian Canal Commission, 
1872-76, and became widely known as an 
advocate of the Nicaragua canal route. He 
died in Washington, D. C. 
The Proposed Inter-oceanic Ship Canal 
across the American Isthmus between 
Greytown and Brito, via Nicaragua, [New 
York], 1878. 
The American Inter-oceanic Ship Canal 

Question, Philadelphia, 1880. 
The Atlantic Coast, New York, 1883. 
Country Houses and Their Improvement, 

Washington, D. C, [1885]. 
The Certainty of the Nicaragua Canal Con- 
trasted with the Uncertainties of the Eads 
Ship-Railway, Washington, D. C, [1886]. 
The Errors and Fallacies of the Interoceanic 
Transit Question . . . , New York, [1886]. 
The Old Navy and the New . . . , Philadel- 
phia, 1891. 

AMSBARY, MARY ANNE (April 20, 1921- 
) was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. After attending Allegheny College 
and the University of Michigan, she worked 
for the World Publishing Company. She 
married George S. Amsbary, an official of 
the University of Illinois Press, and moved 
to Urbana, 111. In 1952, under her own name, 
she published a novel on political corrup- 
tion; she has also published under the pen 
name Kay Lyttleton a series of books for 
girls, e.g., Jean Craig, Graduate Nurse, 
Cleveland, [1950]. WWAW 1 

AMSTUTZ, PETER B. (June 6, 1846-Jan. 
16, 1938), manufacturer of wooden forks 
and hay rakes, was born in Wayne County. 
He lived most of his life in Allen County. 
His writings, published by himself, include 
Das Zweite Kommen Christi. Auf Grundlage 
der Heiligen Schrift, [Bluffton, 1926]. 

Y.) (Sept. 2, 1867-Feb. 17, 1955), was born 
in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. She at- 
tended Cincinnati public schools and Ohio 
State University. A resident of Cleveland for 
many years, she published many poems in 
church publications and in Cleveland news- 
papers. Her death occurred in Clearwater, 
Fla. She published Without Fear, and Other 
Poems, Philadelphia, [1939]. 

ANDERSON, DWIGHT (April 13, 1882- 
Dec. 13, 1953), publicist, was born in Cleve- 
land, Cuyahoga County. After attending 
Western Reserve Academy and Ohio State 
University, he graduated in law from West- 
ern Reserve University in 1906. He was a 
public relations director for a number of 

public health groups. His writings include 
What It Means to Be a Doctor, New York, 
[1939]. WWW 3 

1842-March 2, 1916), lawyer, was born in 
Cincinnati, Hamilton County. With his twin 
brother, Frederick Longworth Anderson, he 
attended Phillips Exeter Academy; but both 
boys left school to enter the army when the 
Civil War began. Edward was a captain in 
the 52nd O.V.I. , was wounded at Jonesboro, 
and served on General Sherman's staff. He 
studied law at the University of Cincinnati 
after the war and was admitted to the Ohio 
bar in 1866. His books on horsemanship 
were highly esteemed. He also wrote a his- 
tory of the Anderson family. He died in 

Northern Ballads, New York, 1874. 
The Skipper's Last Voyage, Cincinnati, 

Six Weeks in Norway, Cincinnati, 1877. 
Soldier and Pioneer . . . , Cincinnati, 1878. 
How to Ride and School a Horse, London, 

On Horseback, in the School and on the 

Road, New York, 1882. 
The Gallop, Edinburgh, 1883. 
Modern Horsemanship . . . , Cincinnati, 

Vice in the Horse and Other Papers on 

Horses and Riding, Edinburgh, 1886. 
The Universality of Man's Appearance and 

Primitive Man, Edinburgh, 1891. 
Curb, Snaffle and Spur . . . , Boston, 1894. 
Riding & Driving, (with Price Collier), New 

York, 1905. 
Horses and Riding, Fort Leavenworth, Kan., 

Colonel Archibald Grade's The Truth about 

Chickamauga . . . , [Cincinnati?, 1912]. 

ANDERSON, ETHEL TODD, was born in 
Mineral Ridge, Trumbull County. She grad- 
uated from Oberlin College in 1912. Her 
husband, Clarence S. Anderson, served on 
the faculty of Pennsylvania State Univer- 
sity, and since his retirement she has lived 
in Los Altos, Calif. She has published sev- 
eral widely read books for children, e.g., 
The Scarlet Bird, New York, [1948]. 

1873- ), clergyman, was born in Belle 
Center, Logan County. After graduating 
from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1899, he 
was ordained to the Methodist ministry and 
served his first pastorate in Lima, 1899- 
1903. He served churches in Pennsylvania 
and other states and was an evangelist, 
1920-40. In 1940 he began editing the 

Anderson, L. 


weekly Minister's Research Letter. He now 
lives in New York City. His writings include 
Unfinished Rainbows and Other Essays, 
New York, [1922]. WW 23 

ANDERSON, LARZ (Aug. 15, 1866-April 13, 
1937), diplomat, was born in Paris, France. 
He spent his boyhood in Cincinnati, where 
his family was one of the most prominent 
in the society of the city. He was in the 
U. S. diplomatic service, 1891-1913, and 
afterward lived in Brookline, Mass., and 
Washington, D. C. His wife, Isabel Weld 
Perkins Anderson (1876-1948), whom he 
married in 1897, wrote a great many travel 
books, plays, and poems. She also edited 
the posthumous collection of his papers: 
Letters and Journals of a Diplomat, New 
York, [1940]. WWW 1 

ANDERSON, LEWIS FLINT (July 18, 1866- 
Nov. 17, 1932), educator, was born in 
Waterford, Ontario. He graduated from the 
University of Toronto in 1893 and Clark 
University (Ph.D.) in 1907. In 1909 he be- 
came professor of the history and philoso- 
phy of education at Ohio State University. 
His writings include History of Common 
School Education . . . , New York, 1909. 
WWW 1 

ANDERSON, MARJORIE (March 8, 1892- 
Nov. 29, 1954), educator, was born in San- 
dusky, Erie County. She graduated from 
Smith College in 1913 and the University 
of Chicago (Ph.D.) in 1926. She served in 
the Sandusky library, 1917-20, taught in 
Bryn Mawr School, 1922-23, and after 1927 
taught at Hunter College, where she was 
head of the English department at the time 
of her death. She published a book of 
poems: A Web of Thoughts, Boston, 1921. 
DAS 1 

June 5, 1886), educator, was born in Lex- 
ington, Richland County. After graduating 
from the University of Michigan in 1875, 
she joined the faculty at Santa Barbara Col- 
lege, Calif. She was drowned in the Sacra- 
mento River. Her book was published under 
the pen name Sola. 

An American Girl and Her Four Years in a 
Boys' College, New York, 1878. 

1872-Oct. 20, 1916), younger brother of 
Larz Anderson (q.v.), was born in Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton County. After graduating 
from Yale University in 1894, he was asso- 
ciated with a number of companies, includ- 
ing the American Book Company, the 

Hallwood Cash Register Company in Colum- 
bus, Standard Plastic Relief Company, and 
Franklin Motor Car Company. He wrote 
Animals in Social Captivity, Cincinnati, 

ANDERSON, SAMUEL G. (1854-Oct. 9, 
1900), clergyman, was born in Minnesota. 
After graduating from the University of 
Minnesota and Union Theological Semi- 
nary, he was a pastor in St. Paul, Minn., 
for five years before coming to Toledo, 
where he served at Westminster Presbyterian 
Church from 1888 until his death from ty- 
phoid fever. Several of his sermons were 
published in addition to the title below. 

Woman's Sphere and Influence, [Toledo, 

ANDERSON, SHERWOOD (Sept. 13, 1876- 
March 8, 1941), was born in Camden, 
Preble County. Few writers have evoked 
such varied critical judgments. When he 
died, a "special homage number" of Story 
(Sept.-Oct., 1941) commemorated "his per- 
sonality and work as one of the rare and 
representative American expressions." Ad- 
mirers celebrated "the greatest contempo- 
rary short-story writer," "the achieved art- 
ist," "our Dostoievsky of the corn belts." 
Yet twelve years earlier the Sewanee Review 
(April-June, 1929) had rung the death knell 
of a writer who had nothing to say. In 1927 
N. B. Fagin wrote a book praising Ander- 
son's greatness as the first American "chron- 
icler of the adventures of the spirit of the 
inner man." In the same year the New Re- 
public announced that Anderson "is dying 
before our eyes" (Aug. 3, 1927). Introduc- 
ing The Sherwood Anderson Reader (1947), 
Paul Rosenfeld compared Anderson's prose 
with the "freshness of clover, buttercups, 
black-eyed Susans." Of the same prose Lionel 
Trilling said "it approaches in effect the in- 
adequate use of a foreign language" (Ken- 
yon Review, III, 1941). Rosenfeld affirmed 
that Anderson's "freshness, innocence, fine- 
ness steadily maintained themselves" for a 
quarter-century. It was Trilling's essential 
criticism that Anderson never progressed 
from the "simple idea" with which he scored 
his first success; that he never learned the 
craft of writing; and that such "stubborn 
continuance" in immaturity cannot satisfy 
mature readers. Even so, Horace Gregory 
claims an "undisputed" place for Anderson's 
stories and "immortality" for their author 
(Portable Sherwood Anderson, 1949). These 
extremes of judgment are epitomized, per- 
haps explained, by Rosenfeld's assertion 
that Anderson "is no less valuable to our cul- 
ture than Walt Whitman" and by Trilling's 


Anderson. S. 

deprecating reference to Anderson's "popu- 
list-Whitmanesque tradition." It is a com- 
monplace with adverse critics that Anderson 
appeals only to adolescents: the substance 
of his work is vague feeling, deliquescing 
into sentimentality; his form is a crude 
shapelessness that reveals his unwillingness 
and inability to concentrate and clarify. Ad- 
miration, looking at the same works, sees a 
comprehensive sympathy for common folk, 
especially for the emotionally maimed; it 
sees a healthy distrust of speculation and an 
insistence on primary emotions; it sees a 
brave revolt against sterile literary conven- 
tions. Anderson, in short, excites almost the 
same controversy as Whitman, to whose 
tradition he belongs rather than to that of 
Hawthorne and Henry James. Irving Howe 
(Sherwood Anderson, New York, 1951) de- 
plores the influence on Anderson of James 
Joyce; James Schevill denies the influence 
(Sherwood Anderson, Denver, 1951). D. H. 
Lawrence, whose "kingship" Anderson an- 
nounced in a review, is thought to have 
been an unfortunate influence on his middle 
years. The influences of George Borrow, 
Gertrude Stein, and the French impression- 
ist painters have been variously invoked. 
Howe and Gregory insist on the influence of 
Mark Twain. Anderson himself, it has been 
said, influenced Hemingway (whose parody 
Torrents of Spring made him anathema to 
Anderson's admirers), Faulkner, Thomas 
Wolfe, and — in a general way — all writers 
of the short story who have combated com- 
mercial slickness. Critical disputants agree 
upon certain points: his proper medium was 
the short story, his seven "novels" being ex- 
pansions thereof. When the high points of 
his achievement are named, the same titles 
recur: foremost, Winesburg, Ohio; then sin- 
gle stories — "Death in the Woods," "The 
Triumph of the Egg," "I Want to Know 
Why," "The Man Who Became a Woman." 
There is agreement on his essential subject: 
a lament for the death of the emotional life 
under the impact of the machine age. He en- 
visioned American life as a vast loneliness 
over which men and women crawled in vain 
search for love. He persistently images the 
house of life, whose doors are closed. "Un- 
used" women, craftsmen broken by the ma- 
chine, businessmen who see the hollowness 
of their "success," adolescents bewildered by 
their new emotions — these are the recurrent 
characters in a long-continued "fable of 
American estrangement, whose theme is the 
loss of love" (Howe). That fable was ex- 
pressed in 25 volumes in as many years. His 
early writings were commended by Floyd 
Dell before they were published, but general 
acclaim waited upon the publication of 

his fourth book, Winesburg. Unadventurous 
readers condemned the sexual element of 
the book, but critics almost unanimously 
welcomed it as a masterpiece in a new man- 
ner. Of all his books only Dark Laughter 
achieved commercial success; not even warm- 
est admirers think that book one of his best. 
Biographers assert that Anderson had by that 
time run out of subject matter, was aware 
of the flagging of his imagination, and knew 
himself to be in a real crisis. By the time his 
Memoirs appeared, he was generally re- 
garded as a "has-been," and the book got 
little attention. That book was prepared for 
posthumous publication by Paul Rosenfeld, 
whose methods have been severely criticized, 
and Schevill calls for a new edition. It is 
not from those Memoirs or from the other 
autobiographical volumes (Tar: A Story 
Teller's Story) that the objective facts of 
Anderson's life may be learned. He con- 
fessed himself bored by literal recounting of 
detail, felt free only when he could exer- 
cise his imagination. He exaggerates the pov- 
erty of his youth; is alternately hostile and 
sympathetic toward his father; overdraws his 
mother, perhaps from a sense of not having 
appreciated her in life. On the other hand, 
his avowed fictions draw freely upon his 
diurnal experience, and it has been claimed 
for them as for the autobiographies that 
they truly represent the spirit if not the facts 
of his life. Those facts, with markedly differ- 
ent interpretations, may be learned from the 
biographies by Schevill and Howe. Anderson 
was the third child of a "shiftless, drifting" 
family that lived briefly in various small 
towns. His education was irregular, and 
when the family broke up after the death of 
his mother, he drifted from job to job. He 
served briefly in the army during the Span- 
ish-American War, seeing no combat. He 
spent a term at Wittenberg Academy, wrote 
advertising in Chicago, married in 1904, and 
had three children. He engaged in various 
businesses, ultimately achieving comfortable 
success as a manufacturer of paint in Elyria. 
He was already writing and felt increasingly 
dissatisfied with his business and with his 
marriage. He appears to have suffered a 
nervous breakdown. By his own account he 
one day said to his secretary, "I have been 
walking in a long river and my feet are wet." 
He thereupon walked out of the factory, re- 
sumed advertising work in Chicago, but 
spent most of his time writing. He was 
shortly separated from his wife. Chicago was 
at that time the scene of vigorous liter- 
ary activity — what Anderson later called a 
"Robin's-egg Renaissance" — and he became 
the intimate of some of the leading figures, 
who encouraged him to publish. In 1916 he 

Anderson. T. M. 


was married to Tennessee Mitchell; on their 
honeymoon they visited his first wife. The 
second marriage was dissolved in 1924, and 
he immediately married again. The success 
of Dark Laughter enabled him to build a 
home at Marion, Va., and also to buy two 
newspapers, one Republican and one Demo- 
cratic, which he published and edited. Finan- 
cial pressures forced him to undertake lec- 
ture tours, for which he was ill-fitted, and to 
write potboiler articles for magazines. He 
traveled widely in America, partly from eco- 
nomic necessity, partly from a restless urg- 
ency that prevented him from ever feeling 
secure in any one place or company. His 
third marriage was dissolved in 1932; he 
married again the following year. During the 
1930s he was attracted to left-wing political 
doctrines — more, probably, out of sympathy 
for the poor than from ideological convic- 
tion. Schevill rightly calls that interest "a 
negative approach." He did, however, sign 
a manifesto; play an inconspicuous part at 
a European conference; join a committee of 
protest over President Hoover's treatment of 
the Bonus Army. He continued to publish a 
book a year and to write widely for the 
magazines, but his fame was eclipsed by the 
rising stars of Hemingway, Faulkner, and 
others. He died at Colon, Canal Zone, and 
was buried at Marion, Va. 

Denham Sutcliffe 

21, 1836-May 8, 1917), army officer, was 
born in Chillicothe, Ross County. He was 
educated at Mount St. Mary's College. Md., 
and the Cincinnati Law School. During the 
Civil War he was a member of the 6th O.V.I., 
and he subsequently entered the regular 
army with the rank of major. In 1898 he ac- 
companied General Merritt to Manila. He 
died in Portland, Ore. 

The Political Conspiracies Preceding the Re- 
bellion; Or, the True Stories of Sumter 
and Pickens, New York, 1882. 
On Methods of Meeting Our Military Ne- 
cessities, [Vancouver, 1888]. 
Should Republics Have Colonies?, Boston, 

in New York City. A graduate of Yale Uni- 
versity (A.B., 1906; Ph.D., 1912), he taught 
English at Ohio State University from 1915 
until his death. Besides anthologies and 
textbooks, he published The Innocents of 
Paris, New York, 1928. WWW 1 

1862-Aug. 22, 1952), was born in Ashtabula 
County, but was reared in Oregon. He was 
an accountant and worked for various state 
and Federal agencies. He led the campaign 
for protection of Eskimo-owned reindeer 
herds. Much of his life was spent in Alaska, 
the subject of most of his writings, e.g., The 
Story of Alaska, [Seattle, 1931]. WW 24 

29, 1821-Aug. 14, 1880), was born in Dan- 
bury, Conn. He graduated from Marietta 
College in 1842 and Princeton Theological 
Seminary in 1844. He served in the Congre- 
gational ministry until 1851, when he be- 
came professor of geology at Marietta Col- 
lege. He became assistant geologist to the 
Ohio State geological survey in 1861. The 
last years of his life were spent in Lancaster. 
Report to the Purchasers of Coal and Salt 
Lands on Federal Creek and Marietta 
Run, Athens County . . . , Marietta, 
An Account of the Fall of Meteoric Stones 

at New Concord .... [n.p.], 1860. 
Rock Oil, Its Geological Distribution, [Mari- 
etta, 1861]. 
Report on the Economical Geology of 
Southern Ohio, Traversed by the Mari- 
etta and Cincinnati Railroads . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1865. 
Letter . . . on the Coal and Iron Deposits of 
the Upper Sunday Creek and Moxahala 
Valleys, in Perry County . . . , Colum- 
bus, 1873. 
Report on the Exploration of a Cave, and of 
the Mounds in Ohio, [Cambridge, Mass.], 
Report of Geological Investigations along 
the Line of the Cleveland, Canton, Cosh- 
octon & Straitsville Railw'y . . . , Cleve- 
land, 1878. 

ANDORN, SIDNEY (Sept. 25, 1904- ), 
journalist and radio commentator, was born 
in Newark, Licking County. He has worked 
on the Cleveland Press and the Cleveland 
News and has been a commentator on Sta- 
tion WGAR. He has written a number of 
radio scripts and a pamphlet: The Cleveland 
Scene; 1936-1946, Cleveland, 1946. 

25, 1883-Dec. 12, 1932), educator, was born 

10, 1938), was born in Toledo, Lucas 
County. She graduated from Central High 
School, Toledo, and began speaking for 
women's suffrage in that city. She was also 
gifted as an elocutionist and was associated 
with an amateur acting company. She mar- 
ried Fred G. Andrews, a reporter on the 
Toledo Blade, and later lived in New York 
City and California. She died in Carmel, 
Calif. She wrote scenarios for Frank Keenan, 



a book on scenario writing, and a biogra- 
phy of Corse Payton: The Romance of a 
Western Boy . . . , Brooklyn, 1901. 

ANDREWS, ISRAEL WARD (Jan. 3. 1815- 
April 18, 1888), educator, was born in Dan- 
bury, Conn. After a year at Amherst Col- 
lege he entered Williams College, where he 
graduated in 1837. The following year he 
was called to Marietta College, where he 
spent the rest of his life, serving as presi- 
dent, 1855-88. He became very active in 
general educational work in Ohio. In an 
article in the Marietta Intelligencer, April 
1-8, 1856, he pointed out, "In an institute 
held in one of the counties of Ohio, the 
word 'nuisance' was spelled in more than 
twenty different modes," and made a strong 
plea for the adoption of a standard diction- 
ary for classroom use, specifically Webster's 
dictionary as revised by Goodrich. By way 
of sales promotion the article was re- 
printed by the publishers of the dictionary 
and widely circulated. It served to bring the 
young college president and his little-known 
college to the attention of educators through- 
out the country. He became one of the 
founding members of the National Teachers' 
Association and a member of the National 
Council of Education. His Manual of the 
Constitution was widely used as a textbook 
in colleges and universities for well over half 
a century. 

Webster's Dictionaries, Springfield, Mass., 

Why Is Allegiance Due? and Where Is It 
Due? . . . , Cincinnati, 1863. 

Manual of the Constitution of the United 
States . . . , Cincinnati, [1874]. 

Historical Sketch of Marietta College . . . , 
Cincinnati, 1876. 

The Educational Work and Place of Ohio, 
fn.p., 1877]. 

Washington County and the Early Settle- 
ment of Ohio . . . , Cincinnati, 1877. 

ANDREWS, J. CUTLER (Sept. 9, 1908- ), 
educator, was born in Delaware, Delaware 
County. After graduating from Ohio Wes- 
leyan University, he did graduate work at 
Harvard. He joined the history faculty of 
Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1931, 
and since 1952 has been teaching at Penn- 
sylvania College for Women. He has pub- 
lished Pittsburgh's Post-Gazette . . . , Bos- 
ton, [1936]. 

1842-April 20, 1913), professor of history 
at Marietta College, was born in Meigs 
County. After serving in the Civil War, he 

attended Marietta College and graduated in 
1869. He was superintendent of the Steu- 
benville schools, 1870-79, principal of Mari- 
etta Academy, 1879-94, and a member of 
the college faculty, 1894-1910. He wrote 
History of Marietta and Washington County 
. . . , Chicago, 1902. WWW 1 

ANGELL, ERNEST (June 1, 1889- ), 
lawyer, was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. He was admitted to the Ohio bar 
in 1914 and practiced in Cleveland for four 
years. After service in World War I he be- 
gan practice in New York City, where he 
has since lived. He has written professional 
and popular articles and Supreme Court 
Primer, New York, [1937]. WW 30 

ANGELL, HILDEGARDE (d. July 23, 1933), 
sister of Ernest Angell (q.v.), was born in 
Cleveland. Cuyahoga County. She was edu- 
cated at Hathaway-Brown School, Cleve- 
land, and in France and Germany. Around 
1922 she moved to New York City, where 
she worked for a time on McClure's Maga- 
zine. She married Granville M. Smith in 
1930; they lived in Tampico, Mexico, for 
two years and moved to Kansas City, Mo., 
about six months before her death. Her best- 
known book was a biography: Simon 
Bolivar, New York, 1930. 

1900- ), historian, was born in Mans- 
field, Richland County. He graduated from 
Miami University in 1922. He has been 
associated with the Illinois State Historical 
Society, 1925^45, and the Chicago Historical 
Society, 1945- . One of the nation's best- 
known Lincoln scholars, he has published 
numerous articles and books in the field of 
his specialty, e.g., Lincoln, 1854-1861 . . . , 
Springfield, 111., [1933]. WW 30 

23, 1846-Jan. 1, 1918), was born in Clar- 
ington, Monroe County. He was educated in 
district schools of Virginia and at Heron's 
Seminary, Cincinnati. He moved to Phila- 
delphia in 1872. He was editor of New 
Church Life, 1880-85, and also served as 
editor of Homeopathic Recorder and of 
Homeopathic Envoy. In addition to writing 
several technical treatises on homeopathic 
medicine, he wrote popular books on the 
subject and compiled a book of remedies. 
He died in Philadelphia. 
Safety in Cholera Time . . . , Philadelphia, 

Sexual Ills and Diseases . . . , Philadelphia, 




Dogs. How to Care for Them in Health and 
Treat Them When III ... , Philadelphia, 

Therapeutic By-ways . . . , Philadelphia, 

1, 1878-May 10. 1947), lecturer and drama- 
tist, was born in Cincinnati. Hamilton 
County. After graduating from College of 
the City of New York, he lived in New York 
City and lectured at various institutions in 
that city. He published numerous plays and 
other books, e.g.. This Bewildered Age, 
New York, 1935. WWW 2 

ANTRIM, DORON KEMP (Aug. 25, 1889- 
), was born in Germantown, Mont- 
gomery County. After graduating from De- 
Pauw University in 1913, he was a salesman 
for Wurlitzer Co., Dayton, 1914, operated 
a music store in Stevensville, Mont., 191 5— 
18, and served in World War I. He was on 
the editorial staff of The Musical Observer 
and Metronome magazines, 1921-28, and 
since 1928 has been a free-lance writer. He 
has published articles in most national maga- 
zines and has also written books on music, 
e.g., Teaching Music and Making It Pay, 
Philadelphia, 1927. WW 26 

ANTRIM, ERNEST IRVING (Feb. 21, 1869- 
Jan. 6, 1953), educator and banker, brother 
of Doron K. Antrim (q.v. ), was born in 
Germantown, Montgomery County. After 
graduating from DePauw University in 1889, 
he taught at Belmont College, Cincinnati, 
and at other universities. He earned his doc- 
torate at Gottingen University in 1897. He 
left the teaching profession in 1904 and was 
an official of the Van Wert National Bank, 
1904-28. He wrote Fifty Million Strong; 
Or, Our Rural Reserve, Van Wert, 1916. 
WWW 3 

ANTRIM, GEORGE DOYLE (Jan. 27, 1867- 
June 4, 1958), was born near Indianapolis, 
Ind., but came to Montgomery County in 
1903, where he was engaged in the ice cream 
business. He wrote poems as an avocation 
and published a collection of humorous 
verse: A Pig Tale and a Few Others, Day- 
ton, 1940. 

ANTRIM, JOSHUA (c.1820- ? ), was born in 
Clinton County. His family moved to Cham- 
paign County in 1831, and he later lived in 
Middleburg, Logan County. 
The History of Champaign and Logan Coun- 
ties, from Their First Settlement, Belle- 
fontaine, 1872. 

1815-Nov. 15, 1890), educator, was born in 
a suburb of Liverpool, England. Her father 
came to Baltimore, Md., while she was a 
small girl; in 1832, after spending three 
years at Wheeling, Va., he brought his fam- 
ily to Cincinnati. She taught school in Balti- 
more and the South in the 1840s. After re- 
turning to Cincinnati, she taught in a girls' 
school kept by Lyman Harding, 1849-55, 
and operated her own school, 1855-75. 
After retiring from teaching, she annually 
gave a course of lectures on literature and 
art. The posthumous collection of her writ- 
ings was made up largely of these lectures. 
She was librarian of the Historical and 
Philosophical Society of Ohio, 1876-86. 
In Memory of Elizabeth Haven Appleton 
. . . , Cincinnati, 1891. 

1872-Feb. 19, 1931), journalist, was born 
in Charleston, W. Va. He came to Cincin- 
nati in 1893 and passed the remainder of his 
life in that city. Using the pen name Ginger 
Jar, he published poems in various news- 
papers and magazines; he also published at 
least one collection: The Quiet Courage, 
and Other Songs of the Unafraid, Cincin- 
nati, [1912]. 

ARBUTHNOT, MAY HILL (April 27, 1884- 
), educator, was born in Mason City, 
Iowa. A graduate of the University of Chi- 
cago, she served on the faculty of Western 
Reserve University, 1922-50. She still lives 
in Cleveland. She has contributed many ar- 
ticles to educational magazines, prepared 
school readers, and written other books, 
e.g.. Children and Books, Chicago, [1947]. 

ARCHBOLD, ANN (c.1820-?), is said to 
have been born near New Matamoras, Wash- 
ington County. She went to Iowa in 1845, 
traveling overland in a leisurely manner. 
After teaching school in Iowa for several 
years, she returned to Ohio chiefly by river 
steamers on the Missouri and Ohio Rivers. 
The first book below is a fine relation of her 
experiences, containing much of interest on 
the Indians and the Mormons. 
A Book for the Married and Single, the Grave 

and the Gay: and Especially Designed for 

Steamboat Passengers, East Plainfield, 

A Pamphlet for Gentlemen and Ladies of 

All Sorts and Sizes, Washington, D. C, 


30, 1876-Aug. 19, 1950), lawyer, was born 



in Noble County, where he attended coun- 
try schools. At the age of eighteen he began 
teaching school while reading law. After 
editing newspapers in Caldwell, Hillsboro, 
and Athens, he became the first Secretary of 
the Ohio State Liability Board of Awards. 
His efforts in establishing Ohio's workmen's 
compensation laws led to his being named 
deputy commissioner of the New York 
Workmen's Compensation Bureau, where he 
served for fifteen years. From 1929 until his 
death he was insurance consultant to numer- 
ous contractors. His family published pri- 
vately a collection of his verse: Arrows, 
New York, 1931. 

14, 1819-April 26, 1901), journalist, was 
born in Cavendish, Vt. She entered Oberlin 
College in 1837 and received the degree of 
A.B. in 1845, her studies having been inter- 
rupted by eye trouble. She taught school in 
Cleveland until 1848, when she married 
Oliver Cromwell Arey and moved to Buf- 
falo, N. Y., where for several years she 
edited The Youth's Casket and later The 
Home Monthly. After teaching school at 
Brockport, N. Y., Whitewater, Wis., and 
Yonkers, N. Y., she returned to Ohio in 
1879 and settled in Cleveland. There Mrs. 
Arey edited The Earnest Worker in the 
1880s and was one of the founders and the 
first president of the Ohio Women's State 
Press Association. 
Household Songs and Other Poems, New 

York, 1855. 
Home and School Training, Philadelphia, 

LAND (Aug. 9, 1891- ), clergyman, was 
born in Dayton, Montgomery County. He 
was ordained a Baptist minister in 1914 but 
became a Unitarian in 1920. He has served 
churches in Ohio, Iowa, and New York. 
Since 1941 he has been pastor of the First 
Unitarian church, Baltimore, Md. He has 
written many pamphlets and several books, 
e.g., Beyond, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1931. 
WW 28 

1832-Jan. 11, 1906), was born in Milan, 
Erie County. After completing his education 
at Western Reserve College, he moved to 
Minnesota Territory in 1856, where he was 
employed as a surveyor. In 1858 he moved 
to the Indian village of Yankton, Dakota 
Territory. He served in various capacities in 
the territorial government and was chosen 
president of the council in 1867. He was 
elected as territorial delegate to the Forty- 

second and Forty-third Congresses. In 1874 
he went to St. James, Minn., where he en- 
gaged in banking and the real-estate busi- 
ness. He died in Albert Lea, Minn. 
History and Resources of Dakota, Mon- 
tana, and Idaho . . . , Yankton, 1866. 
Information for Persons Who Propose to 

Come West, Yankton, 1869. 
The Early Empire Builders of the Great 
West, St. Paul, Minn., 1901. 

4, 1888-July 25. 1956), clergyman, was born 
in Reed City, Mich. After graduating from 
Oberlin College in 1912, he was pastor of 
the Congregational church, Amherst, Lo- 
rain County, 1913-17. He later served 
churches in New York State and New Eng- 
land. He died in Hartford, Conn. He wrote 
Historic Lebanon . . . , Lebanon, Conn., 
[1950]. RLA 2 

1913), was born in Warren County. He 
graduated from Antioch College in 1862. He 
was inspector general of U. S. Consulates 
for twenty years; he then became a lecturer 
advocating social reforms. He lived in Co- 
lumbus for many years. His death occurred 
in Los Angeles. Some of his lectures were 
published in pamphlet form. 
An Artist Historian, Columbus, 1899. 
The Greatest Living Man, Columbus, [1902]. 
The Heroes of Defeat, Cincinnati, 1905. 

ARNE, SIGRID (May 9, 1900- ). jour- 
nalist, was born Agnes Holmquist in New 
York City, but grew up in Cleveland and 
attended the schools of that city. She 
changed her name to Sigrid Arne in 1922 
when she went to work on the Cleveland 
Plain Dealer after her graduation from the 
University of Michigan. She worked on 
various newspapers in Oklahoma and Michi- 
gan in the 1920s, was on the Cleveland 
News, 1930-31, and after more than twenty 
years as an Associated Press correspondent 
rejoined the News in 1957. While covering 
the United Nations for the Associated Press, 
she wrote The United Nations Primer, New 
York, [1945]. 

ARNESON, BEN ALBERT (May 22, 1883- 
Feb. 13, 1958), educator, was born in Barn- 
veld, Wis. He graduated from Whitewater 
Normal School in 1908 and the University 
of Wisconsin in 1913; he completed his doc- 
torate at the University of Wisconsin in 
1916. He was professor of political science 
at Ohio Wesleyan University, 1917-53, and 
after his retirement continued to live in 
Delaware. He wrote social studies textbooks 

Arnold, B. 


and The Democratic Monarchies of Scandi- 
navia, New York, 1939. WW 29 

ARNOLD, BIRCH. Pseud. See Alice E. Bart- 

ARNOLD, JAMES OLIVER (Jan 29, 1838- 
March 16, 1905), was born in Dayton, 
Montgomery County, and spent his life in 
that city. He developed a suburban section 
of Dayton, organized the Dayton and South- 
eastern Railroad, and was a director of sev- 
eral street railway companies. 
Social Science, [Dayton?, 1898?]. 
Advanced Thought on Electrical and Spir- 
itual Voltage . . . , Dayton, 1902. 

ARNOLD, NELSON ESTA (July 23, 1863- 
May 27, 1932), journalist, was born in 
Pomeroy. Meigs County. He edited various 
country newspapers and owned the Marion 
Mirror, 1900-07. He died in Marion. He 
wrote Thoughts — In Prose and Poetry, Lan- 
caster, 1928. 

ARPEE, LEON (1877-Nov. 24, 1947). cler- 
gyman, was born near Constantinople, Tur- 
key. A Presbyterian minister, he lived in 
Ohio from 1904 until his death; he spent his 
last fifteen years in Athens. His writings in- 
clude The Atonement in Experience, a Criti- 
cal Study, [London, 1932]. OBB 

1894- ), educator, was born in Dayton, 
Montgomery County. He graduated from 
Oberlin College in 1916, served in France 
during World War I, and earned his Ph.D. 
at Harvard University in 1924. In 1924 he 
joined the Oberlin history department. A 
specialist in French history, he has written 
several books on the subject, e.g., France 
under the Bourbon Restoration, 1841-1830, 
Cambridge, [Mass.], 1931. WW 30 

ASCHAM, JOHN BAYNE (Feb. 12, 1873- 
Nov. 14, 1950), clergyman, was born in 
Vanlue, Hancock County. He graduated 
from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1900 and 
Boston University (Ph.D.) in 1907. Ordained 
to the Methodist ministry in 1897, he 
preached on Ohio circuits, 1897-1902, was 
pastor of several Ohio churches, 1902-25, 
and was director of the Children's Home, 
Cincinnati, 1928-42. His death occurred in 
Tucson, Ariz., where he had lived since 
1946. He wrote several books on religious 
themes, e.g., Help from the Hills, Cincinnati, 
[1911]. WWW 3 

1867-Jan. 1, 1940), editor and congressman, 

was born in Johnstown, Licking County. In 
1885 he began editing the Johnstown Inde- 
pendent. He served the 17th Ohio District 
as congressman in Washington for nine 
terms. His intimate diary, which he started 
in 1886 and kept for over forty years before 
publishing it privately, is a valuable docu- 
ment: A Line a Day for Forty Odd Years 
. . . , 2 vols., [Johnstown, 1930-32]. WWW 1 

1838-Jan. 20. 1919), was born in Ohio, 
probably in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. 
He served in the 86th O.V.I, from June, 
1863, to Feb., 1864. After the war he lived 
in Cleveland, where he was employed as a 
purchasing agent; he died in that city. He 
wrote History of the Eighty-sixth Regiment 
. . . , Cleveland, 1909. 

1872-Aug. 20, 1940), army officer, was born 
in Batavia, Clermont County, the older 
brother of Thomas Q. Ashburn (q.v.). He 
served in the army medical corps, 1898— 
1932. Besides a textbook on military hy- 
giene, he wrote A History of the Medical 
Department of the United States Army, 
Boston, 1929. WWW 1 

1874-May 2, 1941), army officer, was born 
in Batavia, Clermont County. He graduated 
from the U. S. Military Academy, after 
which he served in the regular army. His 
writings include History of the 324th Field 
Artillery . . . , [New York, 1920]. WWW 1 

1833-April 14, 1915), clergyman, was born 
in Liverpool, Nova Scotia. He was educated 
by private tutors in Boston and attended 
Ohio Medical College, Cleveland. For many 
years he was a pastor of Baptist churches 
and later of a Dutch Reformed Church, New 
York City. He retired to Ravenna, Portage 
County, about 1890, where he wrote a num- 
ber of books for boys. 
A Tan Pile Jim . . . , Chicago, [1894]. 
Dick and Jack's Adventures on Sable Island, 

Chicago, [1895]. 
Air Castle Don . . . , Chicago, [1896]. 

1864-Nov. 25, 1925), son of James M. 
Ashley (q.v.), was born in Toledo, Lucas 
County. He was a prominent attorney and 
real-estate operator in Toledo for many 
years and was a founder of the Toledo Mu- 
seum of Art. 
The Financial Question . . . , Toledo, 1895. 


Atkinson, R. J. 

1863-June 14, 1942), educator and li- 
brarian, was born in Mansfield, Richland 
County. He graduated from Western Reserve 
University in 1885. After a year in Missouri 
he served on the faculty of Western Re- 
serve Academy, 1887-97, and was librarian 
in Painesville, 1897-98. From 1900 until his 
retirement in 1936, he was on the staff of 
the Library of Congress. Besides technical 
articles and books relating to library work, 
he published a volume of reminiscences: 
"// You're Off for Old Ohio in the Morn- 
ing," [Washington, D. C, 1932]. WWW 3 

ASHLEY, JAMES M. (Nov. 14, 1824-Sept. 
16, 1896), was born in Allegheny County, 
Pa.; shortly thereafter the family moved to 
Portsmouth, Scioto County. Self-educated, 
he went to work for the Scioto Valley Re- 
publican at the age of seventeen. He became 
editor of the Democrat at Portsmouth in 
1848. Having studied law in his spare time, 
he was admitted to the bar in 1849. Follow- 
ing his marriage in 1851 he removed to 
Toledo, where he engaged in the wholesale 
drug business. Keenly interested in politics 
he was one of the founding fathers of the 
Republican Party in the Toledo district. He 
was elected to Congress and served from 
Dec. 5, 1859, to March 3, 1869. In 1861 he 
prepared the first measure for Reconstruc- 
tion in the Southern states. He also intro- 
duced the first proposition to amend the 
Constitution of the United States to abolish 
slavery. It was on his initiative that the 
move for the impeachment of President 
Johnson was begun, which resulted in his 
defeat in the ensuing election. President 
Grant appointed him territorial governor of 
Montana, but he was removed within a year 
because of his sharp criticisms of Grant's 
policies. His speeches represent the radical 
Republicanism of his day and are now im- 
portant historical sources; only a few of the 
major ones are listed below. Following his 
return to Toledo he built the road which 
became the Toledo, Ann Arbor and North- 
ern Michigan Railroad, and served as its 
president from 1877 to 1893. 
Success of the Calhoun Revolution . . . , 

Washington, D. C, 1860. 
The Rebellion — Its Causes and Conse- 
quences . . . , Toledo, 1861. 
The Union of the States: The Majority Must 
Govern: It Is Treason to Secede . . . , 
[Washington, D. C, 1861]. 
"Initiate Emancipation," Washington, D. C, 

The Liberation and Restoration of the South, 
Washington, D. C, 1864. 

Impartial Suffrage the Only Safe Basis of 
Reconstruction, Washington, D. C, 1866. 

Representative Government Can Only Be 
Maintained by the Subordination of the 
Executive and Judicial to the Legislative 
Power . . . , Washington, D. C, [1869]. 

Reminiscences of the Great Rebellion, [To- 
ledo, 1890]. 

The Impending Political Epoch, New York, 

Duplicate Copy of the Souvenir from the 
Afro-American League of Tennessee to 
Hon. James M. Ashley of Ohio. Orations 
and Speeches, Philadelphia, 1894. 

ASTER, RAY. Pseud. See John M. Leavitt. 

ASTON, HOWARD (c.l844-Nov. 11, 1919), 
was born in Montgomery County, Miss. He 
enlisted in the 97th O.V.I, at Zanesville in 
July, 1862, and was discharged the follow- 
ing February because of physical disability. 
He apparently later enlisted in the cavalry. 
He was county clerk, Muskingum County, 
in the 1870s. He died in California. He wrote 
a book based on his war diary: History and 
Roster of the Fourth and Fifth Independent 
Battalions and Thirteenth Regiment Ohio 
Cavalry Volunteers . . . , Columbus, 1902. 

ATHENS, IDA GERDING (Feb. 23, 1882- 
), educator, was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. She attended Ohio Wes- 
leyan University and the University of Cin- 
cinnati and was for many years in the Cin- 
cinnati public school system as an attendance 
officer and a teacher. She published a vol- 
ume of verse: Brethren, Cincinnati, 1940. 

ATKINSON, MATTHEW (Jan. 8, 1827-Jan. 
17, 1913), was born in Carroll County. His 
father was Isaac Atkinson, a pioneer known 
locally as "the father of Carroll County." 
Isaac built and operated a grist mill, an oil 
mill, a woolen mill, and a carding machine, 
all of which were destroyed by fire in 1843. 
The Family Director was probably published 
as a service to a public thus bereft of those 
essential local industries. 
The Family Director: Designed as a Help 
to Those, Who Are Supplying Themselves 
in Whole or in Part, with Woolen Goods 
of Their Own Manufacture . . . , Carroll- 
ton, 1844. 

ATKINSON, ROBERT J. (June 20, 1820- 
Feb. 25, 1871), lawyer, was born in Colum- 
biana County and later lived in Carrollton, 
Carroll County. He read law and was ad- 
mitted to the Ohio bar, served in the Ohio 
Senate for two terms, and was Third Audi- 
tor of the Treasury, 1855-64. In 1866 he 

Atwater, C. 


was appointed attorney and counselor to the 

Supreme Court. The pamphlet below is his 

only known publication. 

Public Debt! Taxation! Reconstruction! A 
View of the Situation, Financial and Po- 
litical, Washington, D. C, 1867. 

ATWATER, CALEB (Dec. 25, 1778-March 
13, 1867), was born in North Adams, Mass. 
He graduated from Williams College in 
1804 with the degrees of B.A. and M.A. For 
a v/hile he conducted a school for young 
ladies in New York and studied for the 
ministry, later becoming a Presbyterian 
minister. Giving up the ministry because of 
ill health, he began to study law and within 
a few months was admitted to the bar. Im- 
poverished by the failure of a business ven- 
ture, he moved with his wife and two small 
children to Circleville. Pickaway County, in 
1815. There was no shortage of good lawyers 
in the district in which he had chosen to 
settle, and just how he managed to support 
his family during the next few years does 
not appear. The astonishing fact is that on 
March 25, 1819, but a few months less than 
four years after his arrival in Ohio, he wrote 
the eminent geologist Parker Cleveland that 
he had submitted his work on the antiqui- 
ties of Ohio to the American Antiquarian 
Society; that he had under preparation a 
civil and natural history of Ohio; and that 
he would be glad to aid in preparing a geo- 
logical map of the Midwest. During the 
months which followed, he plied Cleveland 
with a clutter of geological information, 
some of which, such as the discovery of sil- 
ver ore in Hocking and of nickel in Colum- 
bus, must have amazed that learned gentle- 
man though it did not deceive him; for not 
a word of it appeared in the second edition 
of his Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy 
and Geology, which he was preparing. In 
1820 the American Antiquarian Society pub- 
lished Atwater's Descriptions of the Antiqui- 
ties Discovered in the State of Ohio and 
Other Western States, over 260 pages, with 
a folding map and ten plans. It contained 
many glaring omissions, the most notable 
of which was his failure to mention the Ser- 
pent Mound; it is manifest that Atwater did 
not visit all of the sites he claimed to have 
examined; and there can be little doubt that 
he leaned heavily upon the work of others. 
Withal, considering the short time he had 
been in Ohio and the handicaps under which 
he must have labored, it was a remarkable 
production and stands as the first systematic 
account of the earthworks of the Ohio Val- 
ley. In 1821 he was elected to the assembly 
and was an unsuccessful candidate for Con- 
gress in 1822. In Chillicothe he attempted to 

establish a weekly in 1824. The first number 
of The Friend of Freedom appeared on Feb. 
4, and though but three numbers are known 
to have been published, it is believed that it 
it struggled along without support until the 
following April, when the sheriff appeared 
and levied upon Atwater's personal property 
to satisfy a creditor. His first real break 
came in May, 1829, when he was appointed 
by President Jackson one of three commis- 
sioners to treat with the Winnebagos in the 
vicinity of Prairie du Chien. Wis. Following 
the conclusion of the treaties Atwater car- 
ried them to Washington, and in 1831 pub- 
lished his Remarks Made on a Tour to 
Prairie Du Chien; Thence to Washington 
City, in 1829, an account of the episode with 
a description of the country traversed. The 
book appears to have escaped the attention 
of the critics until 1833, when he republished 
it, along with his paper on Western antiqui- 
ties, under the title of The Writings of Caleb 
Atwater. James Hall devoted six and a half 
pages of his Western Monthly Magazine to 
a severe criticism of the work, wherein he 
presented evidence that at least a part of it 
had been lifted from Timothy Flint's Con- 
densed Geography and History of the West- 
ern States, ridiculed Atwater's claim that in 
Illinois he had seen ten thousand acres thickly 
set with artichokes, jibed at Atwater's steam- 
boats "with their dashing oars, leaving a 
stream of dense smoke behind them, floating 
horizontally along in the air," and in general 
tore the book asunder. But the critics really 
went to work in 1838, when his History of 
the State of Ohio appeared. The criticism 
was general and is best summed up, perhaps, 
by William Davis Gallagher's comment in 
the Hesperian: "As a literary production, Mr. 
Atwater's book is deplorably deficient." 
Drawing his material largely from the Trans- 
actions of the Western Literary Institute, and 
College of Professional Teachers, he pub- 
published his Essay on Education in 1841. 
The sales of his Remarks Made on a Tour 
to Prairie du Chien were disappointing. 
The title page of unsold copies was removed 
and a new one reading The Indians of the 
Northwest, Their Maners [sic], Customs, 
&c . . . was substituted — a somewhat preten- 
tious title considering that he had spent but 
little more than a month with those Indians. 
This and his last book, Mysteries of Wash- 
ington City, during Several Months of the 
Session of the 28th Congress, Henry Howe 
found him trying to sell to his neighbors: "A 
queer talker ... his life appears to have 
been a struggle with penury. He did but 
little, if any law business; he had a large 
family, six sons and three daughters, and his 
books were but a meagre source of support, 



and these he sold by personal solicitation." 
Already forgotten by most of his contem- 
poraries, he died in Circleville over two dec- 
ades later in complete obscurity. 

Ernest J. Wessen 
Descriptions of the Antiquities Discovered 
in the State of Ohio and Other Western 
States . . . , Worcester, Mass., 1820. 
Remarks Made on a Tour to Prairie du 
Chien; Thence to Washington City, in 
1829. Columbus, 1831. 
The Writings of Caleb Atwater, Columbus, 

A History of the State of Ohio, Natural and 

Civil, Cincinnati, [1838]. 
An Essay on Education, Cincinnati, 1841. 
Mysteries of Washington City, during Sev- 
eral Months of the Session of the 28th 
Congress, Washington, D. C, 1844. 

1874-Oct. 21, 1932), Episcopal clergyman, 
was born in Lisbon, Columbiana County. He 
graduated from Kenyon College in 1895. 
From 1897 to 1926 he was rector of the 
Church of Our Saviour in Akron. His writ- 
ings include The Episcopal Church; Its Mes- 
sage for Men of Today, [Akron, 1917]. 
WWW 1 

AUDURON, JOHN JAMES (April 26, 1785- 
Jan. 27, 1851), artist and ornithologist, lived 
in Cincinnati in 1820 while working as taxi- 
dermist and curator of the Western Museum. 
At this time apparently he first conceived of 
publishing his drawings of birds. In Oct., 
1820, he began a trip down the Ohio and 
Mississippi, thus beginning his lifelong voca- 
tion. The first volume of his masterpiece. 
The Birds of America, was published in 
London in 1827. 

AUGHEY, JOHN HILL (May 8, 1828-July 
30, 1911), clergyman, was born in New 
Hartford, N. Y. His family moved to Ohio 
when he was a small child, and he was 
reared near Steubenville. After graduating 
from Franklin College in 1852, he became a 
Presbyterian minister and served a number 
of parishes in Mississippi until the Civil 
War, during much of which he was interned. 
Later he filled pulpits in Indiana, western 
Pennsylvania, and Ohio. He served as home 
missionary in Idaho and Indian Territory, 
1887-98. He retired at Newton, N. J., in 
1904. His death occurred in that community. 
The Iron Furnace; Or, Slavery and Seces- 
sion, Philadelphia. 1863. 
Tupelo, Lincoln, Neb., 1888. 

AUCSPURGER, MARIE M. (Aug. 8, 1898- 
), was born in Middletown, Butler 

County, and now lives in Warren County. 
She graduated from Miami University in 
1920, taught school for a time, and has been 
employed by the Middletown Gas and Elec- 
tric Company since 1924. She has done re- 
search on several subjects pertaining to the 
Far West and has published a book based on 
data collected during her annual vacations: 
Yellowstone National Park, Historical and 
Descriptive, Middletown, 1948. 

1901- ), educator, was born in Delaware. 
Delaware County. He graduated from Ohio 
Wesleyan University in 1921, studied law 
for two years, and graduated from the State 
University of Iowa (Ph.D.) in 1928. He his 
been on the political science faculty of Ohio 
State University since 1928. Author of a 
great many professional articles and reviews, 
he has also written several books, e.g., The 
Changing American Legal System . . . , 
Columbus, 1940. 

AUNT FANNY. Pseud. See Frances Dana 
Barker Gage. 

AUSTERLITZ, EMANUEL H. (Dec. 8, 1838- 
March 29, 1927), publisher, was born in 
Prague, Austria. He came to America in 
1865 and to Cincinnati in 1866. He worked 
for the Block Publishing Company and also 
founded the Freie Press, a German news- 
paper which he sold in 1886. He died in Cin- 
cinnati at the age of 89. 
Cincinnati from 1800 to 1875 . . . , Cincin- 
nati, [1875]. 

1856-Oct. 25, 1930), physician, was born 
on a farm in Vernon Township, Clinton 
County. He practiced medicine in Wilming- 
ton for over forty years. He collected and 
classified the fossils of the Richmond group 
and presented a collection said to contain 
over 25,000 specimens to the Smithsonian 
Institution. He wrote Surface Geology of 
Clinton County . . . , [Wilmington], 1930. 

1844-Dec. 1, 1935), was born in Erie, Mich. 
During the Civil War he served in the 11th 
Michigan Cavalry. For a while he was em- 
ployed on the editorial staff of the Detroit 
Tribune. In 1871 he graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Michigan and became superintend- 
ent of schools in East Cleveland. He turned 
to the lecture platform in 1879, and for two 
seasons he toured the country giving popular 
lectures on the new electric light. In 1881 he 
became a pioneer organizer of electric light 
and power companies. In the meantime he 
had come into prominence as the author of 



several successful textbooks on language and 
physical science. He was a member of the 
Cleveland city council, 1891-92, and of the 
Ohio senate, 1893-97. After 25 years spent 
in preparation, the first volume of his pro- 
jected sixteen-volume History of the United 
States and Its People was published in 1904. 
Though intended to be a popular history of 
the United States, the work is full and criti- 
cal, even iconoclastic in many respects. With 
fine discrimination he drew upon the coun- 
try's leading collections for the thousands of 
rare prints and documents, reproductions of 
which were used to illustrate the work — not 
infrequently in full color and occasionally 
on folded inserts. The seventh volume was 
published in 1910, and to this point the cost 
of the work is said to have run well into six 
figures. With a ballooning mass of manu- 
script before him, the publisher suspended 
the work. Avery spent the last years of his 
life in Florida. 

Shall Our Antiquities Be Preserved? , [Cleve- 
land, 1899?]. 
A History of the United States and Its 
People . . . , 7 vols., Cleveland, 1904-10. 
John Humfrey, Massachusetts Magistrate 

. . . , Cleveland, 1912. 
A History of Cleveland and Its Environs 
. . . , 3 vols., Chicago, 1918. 

AVEY, ALBERT EDWIN (May 29, 1886- 
), educator, was born in Hannibal, Mo. 
He attended high school in Cincinnati. A 
graduate of Yale University (A.B., 1908; 
Ph.D., 1915), he served on the Ohio State 
University philosophy faculty, 1917-54, and 
since his retirement he has continued to live 
in Columbus. He has published a number of 
textbooks and Re-thinking Religion, New 
York, [1936]. WW 28 

1796-Sept. 10, 1880), clergyman, was born 
in Philadelphia, Pa. He graduated from the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, New 
York, in 1815, was ordained a deacon of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church by Bishop 
Hobart in 1820, and was ordained to the 
priesthood in 1822. He became rector of 
Christ Church, Cincinnati, in 1828. Hobart 
was Bishop Philander Chase's (q.v.) bitter, 

unrelenting foe, and it is significant that 
Aydelott was the leader of the faction that 
succeeded in ousting Chase from Kenyon 
College in 1831. He resigned from Christ 
Church on March 22, 1835, the year in 
which he was elected president of Wood- 
ward College, Cincinnati, in which position 
he served for ten years. In the meantime he 
had become a Presbyterian, and in 1838 he 
became pastor of Lane Seminary Church. 
He died in Cincinnati. 

In Answer to the Rt. Rev. P. Chase, Cincin- 
nati, [1832]. 
Duties of American Citizens, Cincinnati, 

Our Country's Evils and Their Remedy, Cin- 
cinnati, 1843. 
The Secret of a Sound Judgment . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1844. 
Incidental Benefits of Denominational Divi- 
sions, Cincinnati, 1846. 
Church's Duties in the Temperance Cause, 

Cincinnati, 1865. 
Ethics for Our Country and the Times, Cin- 
cinnati, 1866. 
Thoughts for the Thoughtful, Cincinnati, 

Great Question: Sceptical Philosophy Exam- 
ined, Cincinnati, 1868. 
Prejudice against Colored People, Cincin- 
nati, [n.d.]. 

AYRES, ALFRED. Pseud. See Thomas E. 

AYRES, ATLEE BERNARD (July 12, 1874- 
), architect, was born in Hillsboro, 
Highland County. He studied at the Art 
Students' League and the Metropolitan 
School of Architecture in New York City, 
and since 1899 has practiced in San An- 
tonio, Texas. He has written Mexican Archi- 
tecture; Domestic, Civil and Ecclesiastical, 
New York, 1926. WW 26 

1879-Oct. 29, 1946), was born in Niantic, 
Conn. He joined the Cleveland Trust Com- 
pany staff in 1920 and resided in Cleveland 
until his death. He wrote a number of books 
and articles on education, psychology, and 
economics, e.g., The Economics of Recov- 
ery, New York, 1933. WWW 2 


c.1905), father of Irving Babbitt (q.v.), was 
born in Hamden, N. Y. He attended Knox 
College, Galesburg, 111., where his father 

was in residence as a missionary. He arrived 
in Dayton in the late 1850s, and in 1860 he 
established the Miami Commercial College. 
In 1863 he published The Babbittonian Sys- 



tern of Penmanship, which became quite 
popular and was republished in England. He 
became an active spiritualist in 1869 and 
commenced his practice as a psychophysi- 
cian. For a time he appears to have been as- 
sociated with Joseph Rodes Buchanan (q.v.) 
in Boston, and he later practiced in Brooklyn 
and New York City. After 1877 he devoted 
his time to writing and lecturing. 
The Babbittonian System of Penmanship, 

Dayton, 1863. 
The Health Guide: Aiming at a Higher Sci- 
ence of Life and the Life-Forces; Giving 
Nature's Simple and Beautiful Laws of 
Cure, New York, 1874. 
The Principles of Light and Color; Includ- 
ing among Other Things the Harmonic 
Laws of the Universe, the Etherio- Atomic 
Philosophy of Force, Chromo Chemistry, 
Chromo Therapeutics, and the General 
Philosophy of the Fine Forces, Together 
with Numerous Discoveries and Practical 
Applications . . . , New York, 1878. 
The Wonders of Light and Color, Including 
Chromopathy or the New Science of Color 
Healing, New York, 1879. 
The Health Manual . . . , New York. 1880. 
Religion as Revealed by the Material and 

Spiritual Universe, New York, 1881. 
Health and Power . . . , New York, 1893. 
Human Culture and Cure, Los Angeles, 

BABBITT, IRVING (Aug. 2. 1865-July 15, 
1933), a leading critic of modern thought 
and literature, proponent of humanism, and 
one of Harvard's great teachers, was born 
in Dayton. Montgomery County. Son of 
Edwin Dwight Babbitt (q.v.) and Augusta 
Darling, he lived for some years on the 
Darling farm at Madisonville, graduated 
from Woodward High School in Cincinnati, 
and. aided by his uncles, proceeded to Har- 
vard University. At Harvard his study of 
Horace, Plato, and Aristotle supported the 
classical bent of his mind. There also and 
later in Paris he pursued Hindu studies 
highly influential in the formation of his 
thought. Through all the rest of his life he 
found the essential "wisdom of the ages" in 
the classical authors named above and in 
the teachings of Buddha and Confucius. The 
modern writers who contributed most to his 
thought were Goethe, Joubert, Sainte-Beuve, 
Arnold, and Emerson, who, whatever new 
elements they introduced, bore witness to 
the perennial validity of the old wisdom. 
Babbitt himself adopted the role of the 
modern mind — the critical and positive mind 
— rejecting all external authority. Science 
he respected like anyone else, but he de- 
nounced pseudo-science and the naturalistic 

philosophies that seemed to him jerry-built 
on scientific foundations. He held it a fate- 
ful violation of practical experience to re- 
duce what is distinctively human to the nat- 
ural level. He affirmed that man lives on 
two levels, the natural and the human. There 
is a "law for man" as well as a "law for 
thing." In the data of consciousness itself 
we recognize this dualism, these clashing 
forces. A man becomes human in proportion 
as "higher will," the centripetal force, im- 
poses a limit to the centrifugal force of ap- 
petite and temperament and makes possible 
a superior fulfillment. The golden mean is 
thus the precondition of the insight and 
happiness appropriate to man. Babbitt 
humbly granted that there is a reality, or the 
illusion of a reality, above man. If he could 
not espouse any one religion (he was closest 
to Buddhism), he persistently defended the 
allied traditions of "humanism and religion." 
To discard these traditions in the common 
way of modernity is, he held, to throw out 
the baby with the bath. For nearly forty 
years — from 1894 until his death — Babbitt 
lectured at Harvard on the failure of modern 
thought and literature to maintain vitally 
what he liked to call the truths of the inner 
life. Thousands of students came under the 
spell of his vigorous masculinity, impressive 
character, and weighty intellect. This side of 
his work has been well revealed in Irving 
Babbitt: Man and Teacher, edited in 1941 
by Frederick Manchester and Odell Shepard. 
At the same time, through articles and books. 
Babbitt played a leading role in the remark- 
able development of American literary and 
general criticism during the first three dec- 
ades of the twentieth century. He dealt with 
education in Literature and the American 
College . . . , Boston, 1908; with art in The 
New Laocoon . . . , Boston, 1910; with 
literature in The Masters of Modern French 
Criticism . . . , Boston, 1912, and Rousseau 
and Romanticistn . . . , Boston, 1919; and 
with politics in Democracy and Leadership 
. . . , Boston, 1924. He was the central fig- 
ure in the controversy over humanism which 
held widespread public attention from about 
1927 to 1931, taking part with allies and 
disciples in the manifesto published in 1930: 
Humanism and America. A bibliography of 
his publications was included in a post- 
humous volume, Spanish Character and 
Other Essays, Boston, 1940. 

Norman Foerster 

BABCOCK, BERNIE (April 28, 1868- ), 
journalist, was born in Unionville, Ashtabula 
County. When she was ten, her family moved 
to Arkansas. She was educated at Little Rock 
University. She was on the staff of the Ar- 



kansas Democrat, later owned and edited 
The Arkansas Sketch Book, and was presi- 
dent of the Arkansas Museum of Natural 
History and Antiquities. Her home in 1959 
was Petit Jean Mountain, Ark. 
The Daughter of a Republican, Chicago, 

The Martyr; A Story of the Great Reforms, 

Chicago, 1900. 
Justice to the Woman, Chicago, 1901. 
At the Mercy of the State, Chicago, 1902. 
An Uncrowned Queen; The Story of the 

Life of Frances E. Willard Told for 

Young People, Chicago, 1902. 
Mammy; A Drama, New York, 1915. 
Yesterday and Today in Arkansas; A Folio 

of Rare and Interesting Pictures . . . , 

Little Rock, 1917. 
The Soul of Ann Rut ledge, Abraham Lin- 
coln's Romance, Philadelphia, 1919. 
The Coming of the King, Indianapolis, 1921. 
The Soul of Abe Lincoln, Philadelphia, 

When Love Was Bold, [n.p.], 1924. 
Booth and the Spirit of Lincoln; A Story of 

a Living Dead Man, Philadelphia, 1925. 
Little Abe Lincoln, Philadelphia. 1926. 
Lincoln's Mary and the Babies, Philadelphia, 

Lighthorse Harry's Boy; The Boyhood of 

Robert E. Lee, Philadelphia, 1931. 
The Heart of George Washington, a Simple 

Story of Great Loves, Philadelphia, 1932. 
Little Dixie Devil, New York, 1937. 
Hallerloogv's Ride with Santa Clans, [n.p.], 

Other Worlds Than This, [n.p.], 1943. 

BACHER, OTTO HENRY (March 31. 1856- 
Aug. 16, 1909), etcher and illustrator, was 
born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. In 
1878 he went to Munich to study, and in 
1880 he began working under Duveneck in 
Venice, where he was friendly with Whistler. 
In 1883 he returned to America, and except 
for a trip to London in 1885-86 he spent 
the remainder of his life in New York City 
and Bronxville. His only book was With 
Whistler in Venice, New York, 1908; be- 
cause of objections by the executrix of 
Whistler's estate, letters by Whistler were 
withdrawn, and the book was reissued in 
1909. DAB 1 

1888-July 7, 1955), clergyman, was born in 
Blanchester, Clinton County. He graduated 
from the University of Michigan in 1909 
and Meadville Theological Seminary in 
1912, after which he served as pastor of 
Unitarian churches in various states. His 
writings include a devotional book, The 

Pattern on the Mountain, Boston, [1939]. 
WWW 3 

MEYER (Mrs. Henry W.) (Dec. 18, 1877- 
), was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. She attended Cincinnati schools and 
has been active in civic affairs in that city. 
She has written pageants for several histori- 
cal celebrations, an operetta, Twilight Alley, 
and several novels, e.g., The Rose of Roses, 
Boston, 1914. WWNAA 6 

BACON, DELIA SALTER (Feb. 2, 181 1— 
Sept. 2, 1859), whose name is associated 
with the biggest mare's-nest in the history 
of the English-speaking world, was born in 
Tallmadge, Summit County. She came from 
a long line of New England Puritans; her 
father, a Congregational missionary, had 
moved to the Western Reserve to found a 
farming settlement of fellow New Engend- 
ers which was to be unsurpassed, as Delia's 
biographer says, "for comfort, prosperity, 
intelligence, and morality." The project col- 
lapsed almost immediately and the Bacon 
family returned to Connecticut, where the 
father died in 1817. Delia was reared in a 
foster home until adolescence, and then she 
began a career as schoolmistress, which was 
as ill-fated as her father's Utopian project. 
She conducted a series of schools in Con- 
necticut, New Jersey, and western New York 
State, all of which came to grief with dis- 
maying rapidity. Failing in the schoolroom, 
she turned to writing as a means of earning 
a livelihood. In 1831 she entered her tale 
"Love's Martyr" in a contest conducted by 
the Philadelphia Saturday Courier, and won 
the first prize of Si 00. The fact that Edgar 
Allan Poe had entered five stories in the 
same contest, none of which won any money, 
is often recalled, either to illustrate the de- 
plorable condition of taste at that time or 
to suggest that Miss Bacon was perhaps a 
better writer than she is usually given credit 
for being. However, any candid reader of 
Poe's five stories, which were later printed 
in the Saturday Courier, will admit that Poe, 
whose genius came only by fits and starts, 
deserved to lose the prize. Miss Bacon pub- 
lished, in addition to this story, at least two 
books of fiction: Tales of the Puritans and 
The Bride of Fort Edward. Neither work 
has any but historical interest. During her 
early womanhood Miss Bacon found a new 
way to put to practical account the ideas 
and information she had somehow collected 
despite an irregular education and frequent 
ill health. She became a lecturer to adult 
classes — one of the first women to follow 
the profession in America, or, for that matter, 


Bacon, D. S. 

England. Successful at first on a small scale, 
her lectures eventually became so popular 
that she delivered them in many Eastern 
cities, to large audiences of both sexes. Her 
favorite subject was history, with literature 
running a close second. It is said that she 
had a fine platform presence and that her 
lectures, always delivered without notes, 
brought fascination to even the most com- 
monplace topic. When she concluded her 
1852 season of lectures in Boston and Cam- 
bridge, the last phase of her life, for all bio- 
graphical purposes the most important, 
began. No one seems to know how or when 
she first conceived the tremendous idea 
which was to dominate her every thought 
and action thenceforth. The notion that 
Shakespeare did not write the plays attrib- 
uted to him, and that Francis Bacon did 
or at least helped to, was not original with 
her; it had been put forth as early as 1769 
and again in 1848, and possibly Miss Bacon 
got her first inspiration from one of these 
sources. On the other hand, she may, in a 
fashion by no means unheard-of in intellec- 
tual history, have developed her idea inde- 
pendently, in entire ignorance that others 
had had it too. What is certain is that in 
1852 she was writing to Emerson concerning 
her theory, and Emerson, while reserving 
judgment on the theory itself, was giving 
her every encouragement to proceed with 
her arcane researches. The next year, with 
money given her by a New York lawyer 
named Charles Butler, she went to England, 
the scene of the strange plot she was con- 
vinced she had uncovered, and with fanatical 
devotion and ingenuity proceeded to remold 
all available historical evidence to fit the 
pattern her theory required. Her theory was, 
in a few words, this: In the Elizabethan Age 
there had existed a secret society, composed 
of many of the most brilliant men of the 
age, which had worked out an elaborate 
political philosophy. Since this philosophy 
was at variance with everything the age 
stood for, it could not possibly be an- 
nounced, or its existence even hinted at. 
Therefore, the members of the society de- 
cided to send it down to posterity in a sort 
of time capsule. The time capsule was the 
body of plays said to be written by William 
Shakespeare, who was actually, Miss Bacon 
asserted, no better than an ignorant lackey. 
In reality, these plays were composed by the 
conspirators, who couched their message to 
future ages in complicated ciphers, double 
meanings, quibbles, and all the other secre- 
tive paraphernalia in which the Elizabethans 
allegedly delighted. When the time was ripe, 
someone would be inspired to discover, be- 
neath the seemingly innocent surface of 

"Shakespeare's" text, the whole revolution- 
ary philosophy which had been too hot to 
handle in the early seventeenth century. And 
that foreordained discoverer, Miss Bacon 
knew, was to be none other than herself. 
She is commonly credited (if that is the 
right word) with propagating the so-called 
Baconian theory, by the terms of which 
Francis Bacon hid behind the name of 
Shakespeare, all of whose plays were really 
his. But the truth is that Miss Bacon did not 
hold to this idea. She was, of course, un- 
compromisingly anti-Shakespearean; the his- 
torical personage William Shakespeare could 
not have written those plays, therefore did 
not, and that was that. But she inclined to 
the view that it was a syndicate, not a lone 
individual, that composed the plays. Even 
Francis Bacon himself, whom she adored, 
was not man enough to do it single-handed. 
This interesting thesis is what she set forth 
to prove during her stay in England. Intro- 
duced by Emerson, she visited the Carlyles 
in Cheyne Row; on her first visit, when she 
blandly outlined her theory, Carlyle let out 
a shriek which, on her own authority, could 
be heard a mile away. But Carlyle liked her 
none the less; "we find her, with her modest 
shy dignity, with her solid character and 
strange enterprise, a real acquisition," he 
wrote to Emerson, and he did all he could, 
by counsel and letters of introduction, to 
further her project, though, he admitted, 
"truly there can [be] no madder" one. The 
letter he gave her to present to London pub- 
lishers is a masterpiece of ambiguity: "She 
is a person of definite ideas, of conscious 
veracity in thought as well as word, and . . . 
probably no book written among us during 
these two years has been more seriously 
elaborated, and in all ways made the best of, 
than this of hers." For three years Miss 
Bacon lived, as she said, "as much alone with 
God and the dead as if I had been a 
departed spirit," and then it was time to pro- 
claim her discovery to the world. She there- 
fore addressed herself to Nathaniel Haw- 
thorne, American consul at Liverpool, whose 
sister-in-law, Elizabeth Peabody, was among 
her closest friends back home. Would he read 
her manuscript, make inquiries among pub- 
lishers, in short become her unpaid business 
agent? Hawthorne, retiring man though he 
was, burdened with his official duties as 
well as his own writing, replied cordially, 
and thus let himself in for what must have 
been, to put it mildly, one of the most trying 
episodes of his life. Like Emerson and Car- 
lyle, he could not subscribe to her theory; 
he saw her for what she was — in his own 
excellent phrase, a "bewildered enthusiast." 
But either Delia Bacon had an attractive per- 

Bacon, L. 


sonality — which is seldom the case with 
monomaniacs of either sex but may well 
have been true of her — or those three gentle- 
men were capable of a patient tolerance far 
beyond the call even of nineteenth-century 
politeness. Perhaps it was both. Hawthorne, 
as a consequence, endured a barrage of in- 
terminable, repetitious, querulous, hysterical, 
chaotic letters from Miss Bacon, answered 
them as a gentleman should, and in the end 
found a publisher for her book, but only 
after he himself put up a considerable guar- 
antee. He saw her only once, but the essen- 
tial story of his contact with her may be 
read in his essay in Our Old Home called 
"Recollections of a Gifted Woman." While 
her negotiations with Hawthorne were pro- 
ceeding, Miss Bacon moved to Stratford-on- 
Avon in preparation for her coup de maitre. 
The ultimate key to the whole mystery, 
which she had patiently approached from 
many avenues, lay buried, according to the 
letters of Francis Bacon correctly inter- 
preted, in Shakespeare's grave. All that was 
needed now was to open the tomb. The 
municipal and church officials in whom she 
confided humored her and gave her free run 
of the church. There is no weirder picture 
in English literary annals than that of Delia 
Bacon spending a whole night inside the 
dark church, debating whether or not to take 
the irrevocable step. The upshot was that she 
could not bring herself to do what she had 
so long known she must do; for there was 
a bare possibility that somehow her calcula- 
tions were wrong, that Bacon was referring 
not to Shakespeare's grave but to his own, 
or Spenser's, or Raleigh's. And if this grave, 
once opened, proved not to contain the 
papers upon which the whole Gothic struc- 
ture of her theory rested, she feared the con- 
sequences to her sanity. Ironically, she 
might just as well have gone on to that final 
act of grave robbery, for within a few 
months the mayor of Stratford wrote Haw- 
thorne that Miss Bacon's reason had finally 
gone over the brink upon which it had been 
tottering so long. She was returned to Amer- 
ica in 1858, and on Sept. 2 of the next year 
she died. Meanwhile, in 1857, her book, The 
Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespeare Un- 
folded, had been published in London, with 
a preface by Hawthorne in which he con- 
fessed he had not read the book. Nobody 
will blame him for this, because it is one of 
the most unintelligible books ever printed. 
But like many other books that are much 
oftener spoken of than read, it started a 
whole new chapter, the end of which is not 
in sight, in the history of human superstition. 
Richard D. Altick 

Tales of the Puritans . . . , New York, 1831. 
The Bride of Fort Edward, Founded on an 

Incident of the Revolution, New York, 

The Philosophy of the Plays of Shakespeare 

Unfolded, Boston, 1857. 

BACON, LEONARD (Feb. 19, 1802-Dec. 24, 
1881), clergyman, brother of Delia Bacon 
(q.v.), was born in Detroit, Mich., where 
his father, David Bacon, was a missionary. 
In 1804 Rev. Bacon returned to Connecticut. 
In 1807 he came to Ohio, where he surveyed 
and platted Tallmadge, Summit County, and 
erected a church. His dream of founding a 
Christian community in the wilderness was 
a failure, however, and he returned once 
more to Connecticut. Leonard Bacon thus 
spent about five years of his boyhood on the 
Ohio frontier. A prolific writer, he published 
many sermons and addresses. Perhaps his 
most influential book, however, was Slavery 
Discussed in Occasional Essays . . . , New 
York, 1846. 

BADGER, JOSEPH (Feb. 28, 1757-April 5, 
1846), pioneer preacher, was born in Wil- 
braham, Mass. He graduated from Yale Col- 
lege in 1785 and was ordained a Congrega- 
tional minister at Blandford, Mass., in 1787. 
He served the Blandford church until Oct. 
24, 1800. He then "missionated" in the 
Western Reserve under the Connecticut Mis- 
sionary Society (Congregational). After 
traveling 600 miles through unbroken forest, 
he arrived at Youngstown Dec. 28, 1800. 
He visited the scattered settlements, con- 
sisting of one to eleven families, despite the 
difficulties of distance and travel. He 
preached, gave counsel and encouragement 
and medical aid, distributed books, and pro- 
moted education. At Austinburg on Oct. 24, 
1801, he organized the first Congregational 
church in the Reserve. In 1802 he brought 
his wife and six children to this settlement, 
and they established their home in a crude 
cabin. In 1803 his salary of $7 per week was 
reduced to $6. He continued his visitations, 
organized churches, and in 1805 preached 
for eighty days to the Wyandot Indians 
around Sandusky Bay. He preached, lec- 
tured on temperance, urged them to build 
schools and improve their land, and repre- 
sented them before government authorities. 
Returning to the Indians in 1806, sponsored 
by the Western Missionary Society (Presby- 
terian), he established a mission and a 
school. In the winter of 1808-09 he raised 
$1,117 in New England for the Indian 
work. He made this cross-country journey on 
horseback seven times between 1800 and 
1820. In 1810 he took his family to Ashta- 



bula, where he gave half of his time to 
preaching; the other half he spent in nearby 
settlements. He served as chaplain and post- 
master in the War of 1812. He organized 
the Ashtabula church Dec. 7, 1821; moved 
to Kirtland in 1822: organized the church 
in Gustavus in 1825 and remained there 
until 1835. The last decade of this fruitful 
life was spent at Maumee, Milton, and 
Perrysburg, where he died. He is buried in 
Fort Meigs Cemetery, Perrysburg. Joseph 
Badger's life portrays the struggle of early 
life in the Western Reserve — settlements six 
to fifteen miles apart; no roads, mud and 
snow often knee-deep; no transportation, no 
communication or exchange; no physicians: 
no church buildings, though services were 
held in cabins, barns, groves; and no schools. 
Salt and clothing were costly and difficult to 
obtain. Breadstuff was scarce until gristmills 
could be started. Cattle hair was used for 
weaving. Settlers built their own cabins and 
boats and made furniture, shoes, plows, and 
saddlebags. Bees furnished honey for sugar 
and wax for candles. Animals strayed for 
the lack of enclosure. And ever with these 
pioneers was the memory of the old settled 
country now so remote from them. The book 
below was edited by Henry Noble Day (Aug. 
4, 1808-Jan. 12, 1890), member of Western 
Reserve College faculty, 1840-58, and au- 
thor of a number of textbooks. 

Clarence Stafford Gee 
A Memoir of Rev. Joseph Badger; Contain- 
ing an Autobiography, and Selections 
from His Private Journal and Corre- 
spondence, Hudson, 1851. 

BAER, LIBBIE C. RILEY (Nov. 18. 1849- 
Feb. 27, 1929), was born in Bethel, Clermont 
County. She graduated from Clermont Acad- 
emy in 1865. In November, 1867, she mar- 
ried Captain John M. Baer, and they moved 
to Appleton. Wis. She wrote verse and 
sketches for various periodicals and pub- 
lished a collection: In the Land of Fancy, 
and Other Poems, New York, [1902]. 

BAGBY, ARTHUR T. (April 4, 1879-Feb. 
2, 1949), was born in St. Paul, Ky. He 
served in the Spanish-American War. In 
1909 he settled in Portsmouth, where he 
spent the remainder of his life. He worked 
for more than thirty years as a railroad con- 
ductor. He wrote a novel: Peter Burling, 
Pirate, Philadelphia, [1924]. 

BAGGS, MAE LACY (Sept. 12, 1875-Sept. 9, 
1922), was born in Independence, Mo. She 
was privately educated in the United States 
and France and traveled widely. In 1916 she 

married Thomas A. Baggs. Their residence 
was Toledo. She wrote several books, e.g., 
Colorado, the Queen Jewel of the Rockies 
. . . , Boston, 1918. WWW 1 

BAHMER, WILLIAM J. (Aug. 1, 1872-Nov. 
21, 1953), journalist, was born in Bakers- 
ville, Coshocton County. He was editor of 
the Coshocton Bulletin for four years, worked 
on newspapers in New York and Pittsburgh, 
was in the advertising department of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, and served as asses- 
sor of Allegheny County. Pa. He prepared 
for publication Centennial History of Co- 
shocton County . . . , 2 vols., Chicago, 1909. 

BAILEY, HENRY TURNER (Dec. 9, 1865- 
Nov. 26, 1931), teacher, was born in Scitu- 
ate, Mass. He was educated in Boston and 
also studied abroad. In 1917 he came to 
Cleveland, where he served in various capac- 
ities with the Cleveland School of Art, 
Cleveland Museum of Art, and John Hunt- 
ington Polytechnic Institute. He edited 
School Arts and wrote a number of text- 
books, technical studies of art education, 
and other books, e.g., Yankee Notions, Cam- 
bridge, [Mass.], 1929. WWW 1 

BAILEY, RAE (July 24, 1879-1958), was 
born in Savannah, Ashland County. She 
worked in Washington, D. C, as secretary to 
Senator Pomerene, 1914-17; attended Palm- 
er School of Chiropractic, Davenport, Iowa, 
1917-19; practiced in Savannah, 1919-34; 
and was employed by the Council of 
Churches Board of Education, 1935-47. She 
died in Washington, D. C. She wrote a his- 
tory of her native village and Clear Creek 
Township: Old Keys; An Historical Sketch 
. . . , Washington, D. C, 1941. 

1842-Nov. 19, 1928), was born in Cleve- 
land, Cuyahoga County. She was educated 
in Cleveland schools. During the Civil War 
she worked with the Potomac Division, help- 
ing the wounded. In 1866 she married Rev. 
William Folwell Bainbridge, a Baptist min- 
ister. While living in New York City, she 
was active in the Brooklyn City Mission So- 
ciety and in the Woman's Branch, New York 
City Mission Society. Her death occurred in 
New York City. 

'Round the World, Cleveland, 1881. 
Round the World Letters, Boston, 1882. 
Helping the Helpless in Lower New York, 

New York, [1917]. 
Jewels from the Orient . . . , New York, 

Yesterdays, New York, [1924]. 



BAIRD, SAMUEL JOHN (Sept. 17, 1817- 
April 10, 1893), clergyman, was born in 
Newark, Licking County, the son of a Pres- 
byterian clergyman. As a youth he assisted 
his father in editing The Christian Herald at 
Pittsburgh. He occupied various pulpits, most 
of them in the South. He is important in the 
history of Presbyterianism, not as a preacher 
but as a scholar and ecclesiastical historian. 
He was a prolific writer, and the following 
list of his works is selective. The Collection 
became an unofficial statute book of the Pres- 
byterian Church in America. He died in 
West Clifton Forge, Va. 
A Collection of the Acts, Deliverances, and 
Testimonies of the Supreme Judicatory of 
the Presbyterian Church from Its Origin 
in America to the Present Time . . . , 
Philadelphia, 1856. 
The Socinian Apostasy of the English Pres- 
byterian Churches . . . , Philadelphia, 1857. 
The First Adam and the Second. The Elohim 
Revealed in the Creation and Redemption 
of Man . . . , Philadelphia, 1860. 
A Rejoinder to the Princeton Review, upon 
the Elohim Revealed, Touching the Doc- 
trine of Imputation and Kindred Topics, 
Philadelphia, 1860. 
A History of the New School, and of the 
Questions Involved in the Disruption of 
the Presbyterian Church in 1838, Phila- 
delphia, 1868. 

BAKER, ALBERT RUFUS (March 24, 1858- 
April 5, 1911), ophthalmologist, was born in 
Salem, Pa. He earned an M.D. degree at 
Western Reserve University in 1879, and he 
did postgraduate work in medicine in New 
York and Europe, 1881-83. In 1888 he joined 
the faculty of the Cleveland College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons. He edited the Cleve- 
land Medical Gazette, 1885-96, and pub- 
lished one book: Coughs, Cold and Catarrh 
. . . , Cleveland, 1904. WWW 1 

1880-Sept. 22, 1941), clergyman, was born 
in Wapakoneta, Auglaize County. He gradu- 
ated from Defiance College in 1906, from 
McCormick Theological Seminary in 1909, 
and from Indiana University (Ph.D.) in 
1928. He served as pastor of various Pres- 
byterian churches, 1909-24, and after 1924 
did editorial work on Sunday school pub- 
lications. He wrote many religious books 
and articles and Hoofbeats in the Wilder- 
ness; A Tale of the Indiana Territory be- 
fore the Coming of Permanent Settlers, New 
York, 1930. WWW 1 

BAKER, CORNELIA (June 16, 1855-March 
12, 1930), was born in Jackson County. She 

was on the editorial staff of the Chicago 
Daily News and contributed stories and verse 
to various magazines. Her books include 
Coquo & the King's Children, Chicago, 
1902. WWW 1 

BAKER, JAMES HEATON (May 6, 1829- 
May 25, 1913), was born in Monroe, Butler 
County. He grew up in Lebanon and at his 
grandfather's home near Middletown. After 
graduating from Ohio Wesleyan University 
in 1852, he purchased the Scioto Gazette in 
Chillicothe. He was active in the formation 
of the Republican Party in Ohio and was 
elected Secretary of State in 1855. In 1857 
he emigrated to Minnesota, where he also 
was prominent in Republican councils, and 
in 1859 he was elected Secretary of State 
there. He served during the Civil War as 
colonel of the 10th Minnesota Volunteers. 
His regiment took part in the Indian War 
in Minnesota and later was on provost duty 
in St. Louis. After the war he held various 
public posts. His historical studies were 
largely an avocation which he pursued dur- 
ing his later years in Mankato, Minn. Sev- 
eral of his papers and addresses, published 
by the Minnesota Historical Society, are not 
listed below. 
A Song of Friendship. An Elegy on the Death 

of Charles Scheffer . . . , St. Paul, 1877. 
Lives of the Governors of Minnesota, St. 

Paul, 1908. 

BAKER, MAGDALENA D. H. (1897- ), 
was born in Washington Court House, Fay- 
ette County. She later lived in Ironton and 
Cincinnati. She published a collection of 
poems: Gleanings from Life, Cincinnati, 

BAKER, MAY ALLREAD (April 17. 1897- 
), was born in Darke County. She has 
published numerous poems in farm maga- 
zines and religious periodicals and a collec- 
tion of verse: Willow Brook Farm, Elgin, 
111., [1946]. 

BAKER, MELYN D. (Jan. 11, 1800-March 
31, 1852), clergyman, was born in Essex 
County, N. J. In 1802 his father moved to a 
farm near Cincinnati and in 1805 to Enon, 
Clark County. He became a minister of the 
Christian Church in 1841 and preached in 
Dayton and the surrounding area. A selection 
of his writings was edited by John Ellis 
Memoir of Melyn D. Baker, with Extracts 

from His Correspondence and Manuscripts, 

Springfield, 1853. 


Baldwin, W. H. 

BAKER, NAAMAN RIMMON (Feb. 2, 1868- 
), educator, was born in Lima, Allen 
County. He was educated at Mt. Morris Col- 
lege, 111., and Lineville College, Ala. He was 
principal of Chesterfield Academy, S. C, 
1891-95, president of Citronelle College, Ala., 
1895-99, and afterward a teacher and 
school superintendent in the Alabama public 

Constancy and Other Poems, Mt. Morris, 111., 

BAKER, NEWTON DIEHL (Dec. 3, 1871- 
Dec. 25, 1937), lawyer and public official, 
was born in Martinsburg, W. Va., but spent 
much of his life in Cleveland. He was as- 
sociated with Mayor Tom Loftin Johnson 
(q.v.) and as city solicitor led the fight 
against the traction companies. In 1911 and 
again in 1913 Baker was elected mayor of 
Cleveland and sought to carry out the aims 
of his predecessor. In 1916 President Wilson 
named him Secretary of War. The relation- 
ship between these two reserved, idealistic 
liberals was intimate. In 1920 Baker returned 
to Cleveland and resumed his law practice. 
His views grew increasingly conservative, and 
his opposition to the New Deal during its 
early years was pronounced. He died at his 
home in Shaker Heights and is buried in Lake 
View Cemetery, Cleveland. He published 
numerous speeches, magazine articles, and 
one book, Why We Went to War, New 
York, [1936]. DAB 22 

20, 1957), editor, was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County, where he attended St. 
Xavier School and Xavier University. In 
1907 he moved to Chicago. He was manag- 
ing editor of Extension magazine, 1907-51. 
He wrote many articles on economics and 
one book: The New Capitalism, Chicago, 

was born in Rock Creek, Ashtabula County. 
His death occurred in Alliance. His avoca- 
tion was writing poems and songs, which 
were collected in The Songs of a Carpen- 
ter, [Alliance, 1929]. 


1834-Feb. 2, 1895), lawyer and judge, was 
born in Middletown, Conn. His family moved 
to Elyria when he was five months old but 
returned to Connecticut in 1847 when the 
father died. After graduating from Harvard 
Law School in 1857, Baldwin returned to 
Cleveland to practice. He was elected circuit 
court judge in 1884 and served on the bench 
until his death. He was a founder of the 

Western Reserve Historical Society and was 
also a leader in moving Western Reserve 
College from Hudson to Cleveland. He 
was a keen student of regional history and 
archaeology, and wrote many genealogical 
works, papers, and addresses that are not 
listed below. 
Relics of the Mound Builders, [Cleveland, 

Early Maps of Ohio and the West, Cleveland, 

Notice of Historical and Pioneer Societies 

in Ohio, Cleveland, 1875. 
The Iroquois in Ohio . . . , [Cleveland, 

Indian Migration in Ohio . . . , [n.p., 1879]. 
Memorial of Colonel Charles Whittlesey . . . , 

[Cleveland, 1887]. 
History of Man in Ohio . . . , [n.p., 1890?]. 

1841-April 13, 1921), clergyman, born in 
Charleston, N. Y., graduated from Madison 
(Colgate) University in 1864 and Rochester 
Theological Seminary in 1868. Ordained to 
the Baptist ministry, he served churches in 
Chelsea, Mass., and Rochester, N. Y., be- 
fore coming to Granville in 1886. He pub- 
lished a volume of sermons in 1895 and The 
First American and Other Sunday Evening 
Studies in Biography, Granville, 1911. OBB 

1857-Sept. 26, 1927), journalist, was born 
in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. After grad- 
uating from Williams College in 1884, he 
studied at the University of Berlin for two 
years. He served on the editorial staffs of 
the Independent, New York Mail and Ex- 
press, and Outlook. His death occurred in 
Geneva. Switzerland. He wrote The World 
War; How It Looks to the Nations In- 
volved and What It Means to Us, New 
York, 1914. WWW 1 

1869-March 11, 1936), clergyman, was born 
in Pierpont, Ashtabula County. After attend- 
ing Mount Union College, he became a 
Methodist evangelist in 1890; he also served 
churches in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, 
Ohio, and Georgia. He wrote several books 
on religious themes, e.g., Holiness and the 
Human Element, Louisville, Ky., [1919]. 
WWW 1 

1851-Sept. 26, 1923), was born in Youngs- 
town, Mahoning County. He was associated 
with First National Bank, Youngstown, 1877— 
1900, and was also an executive of several 
steel companies. He retired in 1901 and de- 

Ball, A. E. 


voted the rest of his life to social work. After 
his retirement he lived in Washington, D. C. 
He published several articles and pamphlets 
on tuberculosis and family problems and one 
book: Family Desertion and Non-support 
Laws . . . , Washington, D. C, 1904. 
WWW 1 

BALL, ALICE ELIZA (1867-April 25, 1948), 
educator, was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. She taught at Hathaway-Brown 
School, Cleveland. Her death occurred in 
New York City. She wrote several books on 
ornithology, e.g., Bird Biographies, New 
York, 1923. 

BALL, EUSTACE HALE (Nov. 4, 1881- 
April 20, 1931), was born in Gallipolis, 
Gallia County. He graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati in 1903 and later stud- 
ied at Harvard and the Boston Conservatory 
of Music. A gifted violinist and painter, he 
also wrote for the New York Sun for several 
years. He died in Laguna Beach, Calif., where 
he had moved about three months before. 
He wrote several syndicated newspaper seri- 
als, fictional versions of movies, and Bub- 
bles from Gotham's Pierian Spring, New 
York, 1912. 

BALL, FRANK CLAYTON (Nov. 24, 1857- 
March 19, 1943), manufacturer, was born 
in Greensburg, Summit County. He settled 
in Muncie, Ind., in 1888, was president of 
Ball Bros. Co., and was associated with other 
industrial firms. His autobiography was pri- 
vately published: Memoirs . . . , Muncie, 
1937. WWW 2 


1848-Jan. 10, 1937), educator, was born in 
Washington, D. C. He graduated from 
Marietta College in 1868 and Union Semi- 
nary in 1872; he also studied at the Univer- 
sity of Leipzig. He served on the Oberlin 
College faculty, 1878-91, and as president 
of Oberlin, 1891-96. Besides publishing the 
titles below and several logic textbooks, he 
edited The Oberlin Jubilee (1883), a collec- 
tion of speeches and other material relative 
to the fiftieth anniversary of the college. 
Jehovah's Champion . . . , Oberlin, 1890. 
Christ in the Gospel of Mark, New York, 

Religious Education for the Coming Social 

Order, Boston, [1917]. 
The Young Man for Jerusalem, Boston, 

Understanding the Bible, Springfield, Mass., 

Discovering Jesus, New York, [1927]. 
Peggy in the Park, Verses . . . , Spring- 
field, Mass., [1933]. 

Biographical Notes, Together with Se- 
lected Addresses, Essays & Miscellaneous 
Poems, Stamford, Conn., 1939. 

BALLARD, HARLAN HOCE (May 26, 1853- 
Feb. 18, 1934), was born in Athens, 
Athens County. After graduating from Wil- 
liams College he made his home in Mas- 
sachusetts. He served as principal of Lenox 
High School and of Lenox Academy, and 
as librarian of the Berkshire Athaneum 
and Museum. In addition to the titles listed 
below, he wrote several language and sci- 
ence textbooks and translated Virgil's 
Aeneid into English hexameters. 
Pieces to Speak and How to Speak Them, 

New York, [1879]. 
Handbook of the St. Nicholas Agassiz As- 
sociation, Pittsfield, Mass., 1882. 
Open Sesame; One Hundred Answers in 
Rhyme to William Bellamy's Century of 
Charades, Boston, 1896. 
Re-open Sesame. Rhymed Acrostics An- 
swering Bellamy's "Second Century" . . . , 
Boston, 1897. 
The Tiler's Jewel .... Boston, 1921. 
Adventures of a Librarian, New York, 1929. 

13, 1903- ), was born in Cleveland, Cuya- 
hoga County. He attended Westtown Pre- 
paratory School in Pennsylvania and Wil- 
mington College. After working as an elec- 
trical engineer and editing an electrical 
trade magazine, he shifted to free-lance 
writing. He now lives in Sherman Oaks, 
Calif. He has published fiction in almost all 
national magazines and has written nu- 
merous Western stories and mysteries. Some 
of his mysteries were published under the 
pen name Harrison Hunt, e.g., Murder Picks 
the Jury, New York, 1947. 

BALLOU, ELSIE AULTMAN (April 4, 1894- 
), was born near Millersburg, Holmes 
County. After studying at Oberlin College, 
she taught for five years in Akron and 
Warren elementary schools. She graduated 
from the School of Religious Education, 
Boston University; served as educational di- 
rector, First Presbyterian Church, Boston; 
and taught in the Davton schools, while her 
husband, Luther Ballou, a Congregational 
minister, was serving a pastorate in that 
city. She now lives in Whitesboro, N. Y. 
She has published poems and articles in 
various periodicals and has published a col- 
lection of verse: Highways, Boston, 1931. 

1832-March 2, 1918), historian, publisher, 
and book collector, was born in Granville, 



Licking County. He was born 200 years 
after his earliest American ancestors landed 
in Massachusetts. His parents, Azariah Ash- 
ley Bancroft and Lucy Howe Bancroft, had 
come to Ohio from Granville, Mass. In his 
youth Hubert learned thrift and industry 
and other good Puritan traits. Lucy was a 
schoolteacher, but her son's formal educa- 
tion stopped at the local academy. How- 
ever, he is reported to have read the Bible 
at the age of three which, as he said, saved 
him much reading of the book later. He 
hated household and barnyard chores, but 
loved the fruit trees, Saturday night nut- 
cracking, and attempts at riding the un- 
broken colts. In 1847-48 he devoted him- 
self to studies in preparation for college, 
but soon renounced these endeavors in fa- 
vor of a business career, which began 
when, at the age of sixteen, he went to 
Buffalo, N. Y., to work in the bookstore 
of his brother-in-law, George H. Derby. 
He worked in the bindery and the counting- 
house and was a salesman on the road, 
picking up his books at Mansfield and ped- 
dling them to country merchants all over 
Ohio. When the gold fever reached its 
height in 1852, Bancroft sailed for Cali- 
fornia to be followed by a shipment of 
Derby's books worth some $5,000. With 
his father, who had gone to the gold re- 
gions in 1850, Bancroft tried his hand at 
mining until his books arrived. Then he 
learned of Derby's death and sold out the 
entire shipment for the benefit of his sis- 
ter. He obtained on credit a small stock of 
books and stationery which he took to 
Crescent City and enjoved a modestly suc- 
cessful venture. In 1855 he returned to 
Granville, but the hurly-burly of the West 
was now too much a part of him and he 
soon was back in San Francisco launched 
on an independent career in bookselling 
that was to bring him fame and fortune. 
To replenish his stock of books, he made 
frequent trips to the East, and on one of 
these he met and married Emily Ketchum. 
In 1859 he took into equal partnership his 
brother Albert L. Bancroft, whose name 
was used thereafter to designnte the firm. 
During the Civil War a great volume of 
business developed, and receipts were fur- 
ther increased by a windfall that enabled 
the firm to buy its books in the East for 
depreciated paper and sell them in the West 
for gold. Frequently moving into larger 
and better quarters, expanding operations 
in printing and allied fields, and associating 
with himself capable and dependable as- 
sistants, Bancroft achieved great business 
success. With his wife he journeyed sev- 
eral times to Europe, and whenever oppor- 

tunity offered he paid visits to Ohio. "Any- 
one who deals in books runs the risk of 
becoming a collector," significantly remarks 
J. W. Caughey, Bancroft's biographer. Few 
collectors, however, have been privileged to 
gather books on so grand a scale or to so 
practical an end. His collection began in 
1859, when he was publishing a Pacific 
Coast handbook. As a convenience he 
brought together all the items in stock on 
Western history, expressing surprise to find 
that they numbered more than half a hun- 
dred titles; he would certainly have been 
incredulous at the thought that during the 
next quarter-century he would build up a 
collection of some 60,000 volumes on this 
subject. Yet to this task he began to devote 
his energies, almost to the exclusion of busi- 
ness affairs. He searched the bookshops of 
San Francisco, kept an eye on the auction 
houses, took over private collections; and 
later he scoured Boston. New York, Phila- 
delphia, Washington, London, Paris, and 
other book centers. Books cascaded on cas- 
cades of books. At auction he secured large 
portions of the Andrade, Fischer, Squier, 
and Ramirez collections, purchases at the 
latter sale alone amounting to some $30,000. 
Agents all over the world were responsive 
to his requests, new books were acquired 
on publication, and catalogues of antiquar- 
ian booksellers yielded many treasures. One 
of the great additions to the library was the 
gift of the family of General Mariano G. 
Vallejo. Continuing his avid interest in 
books, Bancroft started acquiring vast 
quantities of manuscripts and newspapers, 
the latter collection itself finally exceeding 
5.000 volumes. In its day and for decades 
after it was formed, no library existed that 
could compare with Bancroft's for the his- 
tory of Western America. He meant to 
make good use of it. In order to create a 
history of Western America based on orig- 
inal sources, Bancroft became a reader. But 
it was soon apparent that to harness the 
knowledge in his 60,000 volumes would re- 
quire a dozen Methuselahs; time would not 
wait, it must be outdistanced. Applying big- 
business methods to scholarship, he found 
the way. He employed a corps of readers, 
note-takers, copyists, indexers. and writers 
who, some years and $100,000 later, had 
cubbyholed at finger-tip touch the sum total 
of recorded knowledge on any given topic 
at any given time for any given place on 
Bancroft's half of the American continent. 
Originally he planned to do all the writing 
— at least the final writing — of his histories. 
But again time obtruded. Of the 39 thick 
volumes of the Works — comprising some 
30,000 pages, including voluminous docu- 



mentation in small type — Bancroft outlined 
and supervised the whole, rewrote consider- 
able portions, and was sole author of ap- 
proximately ten of the volumes. His li- 
brarian, H. L. Oak, wrote an equal num- 
ber, and William Nemos wrote five vol- 
umes, as did Frances Fuller Victor (q.v.). 
Although the mass production was harshly 
criticized, there was nothing reprehensible 
about it unless it was the failure to give 
credit to the collaborators which, primarily 
for commercial reasons, was not done. 
Bancroft had a genius for simple, clear, 
and exact writing, and his guiding hand can 
be seen throughout large portions of the 
volumes that were not his personal assign- 
ment. The historian's devotion to his literary 
task was demonstrated when he declined in 
1875 the Republican nomination for Con- 
gress, saying that 10,000 stood ready to 
serve their country, but no one would take 
up his work should he abandon it. In 1876 
— Emily having died in 1869 — he took a 
second wife, Matilda Coley Griffing of New 
Haven, Conn. They had four children — 
Paul, Griffing, Philip, and Lucy. She was an 
ideal historian's wife, not tempting him to 
social frivolity, but providing encourage- 
ment in his work. The 39 volumes known as 
the Works comprise the following: Native 
Races (5 vols.), History of Central America 
(3 vols.), History of Mexico (6 vols.), His- 
tory of North Mexican States and Texas (2 
vols.), History of Arizona and New Mexico 
(1 vol.), History of California (7 vols.), His- 
tory of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming 
(1 vol.), History of Utah (1 vol.), History 
of the Northwest Coast (2 vols.), History of 
Oregon (2 vols.), History of Washington, 
Idaho, and Montana (1 vol.), History of 
British Columbia (1 vol.), History of 
Alaska (1 vol.), California Pastoral (1 
vol.), California Inter Pocula (1 vol.), Pop- 
ular Tribunals (2 vols.), Essays and Mis- 
cellany (1 vol.), and Literary Industries 
(1 vol.). The first volume appeared in 
1875 and the last in 1890. As perhaps the 
most gigantic literary undertaking of the 
nineteenth century, the creation of the his- 
tories had been remarkable, but no less so 
was the marketing of them. Taking on a 
project that would have seemed to most pub- 
lishers downright forbidding at best, the 
historian devised a system of subscription 
canvassing so effective that scarcely a literate 
home in the West lacked its volume or set 
of Bancroft. This success is the more amaz- 
ing when considered in relation to the cost 
of the sets, which ran from $175 to $390, 
depending on the binding. Sales exceeded a 
quarter-million volumes with a gross return 

of more than one million dollars. Reception 
of the monumental series at the hands of the 
critics and the public was mixed. Many of 
those who expressed themselves most forci- 
bly against it had no qualifications what- 
ever to judge its value, but unfortunately 
wielded wide influence. Others, who ordi- 
narily would have been qualified, were ani- 
mated by animosity or jealousy. Bancroft 
had not been a fence-straddler, and in tak- 
ing a stand on controversial matters he laid 
himself open to the violent jabs of those 
whose convictions differed from his own. 
On many points of disagreement a further 
sifting of the facts has vindicated Ban- 
croft's views, and today it is generally rec- 
ognized that he rendered a more important 
service than any other American historian 
and probably accomplished the greatest 
feat of historiography since Thucydides. 
Bancroft continued writing until he was 84, 
producing the Chronicles of the Builders 
series, Resources of Mexico (1893), The 
New Pacific (1900), The Book of Wealth 
(1909-10), Retrospection, Political and Per- 
sonal (1912), and In These Latter Days 
(1917). In all, he turned out more than 
sixty volumes, mostly on weighty matters, 
but handled with a charm and twinkling 
of humor that give us history at once re- 
liable and readable. How much would 
have been lost to us without him is as in- 
calculable as it would be appalling. For he 
has left not only his histories, but also his 
vast collection of source materials — the 
Bancroft Library of the University of Cali- 
fornia — an enduring monument to his fame 
and a living workshop for the scores of suc- 
cessors whose duty it will be to explore 
further particular avenues of Western his- 
tory to which Bancroft pointed the way. 
But, as he prophesied: "He who shall come 
after me will scarcely be able to undermine 
my work by laying another and deeper 
foundation." The bibliography below is, of 
necessity, extremely selective. 

Charles Eberstadt 
The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft . . . , 

39 vols., San Francisco, 1882-90. 
The Early American Chroniclers, San Fran- 
cisco, 1883. 
The Book of the Fair . . . , Chicago, 1893. 
The New Pacific, New York, 1900. 
Some Cities and San Francisco, and Resur- 

gam, New York, 1907. 
Retrospection, Political and Personal, New 

York, 1912. 
Modern Fallacies . . . , New York, 1915. 
Why a World Centre of Industry at San 

Francisco Bay?, New York, 1916. 
In These Latter Days, Chicago, 1917. 


Barker, M. L. 

BANKS, LOUIS ALBERT (Nov. 12, 1855- 
June 17, 1933), clergyman, born in Cor- 
vallis, Oreg., was pastor of First Methodist 
Church, Cleveland, in the late 1890s. He 
published many sermons and religious 
books, e.g., Heavenly Trade-Winds, Cincin- 
nati, 1895. 

BANNON, HENRY TOWNE (June 5, 1867- 
Sept. 6, 1950), lawyer, was born in Scioto 
County. He graduated from the University 
of Michigan in 1889, read law, and was ad- 
mitted to the Ohio bar in 1891. He served 
in the 59th and 60th Congresses. He prac- 
ticed law in Portsmouth. A big-game hunter, 
he contributed many articles to outdoor pe- 
riodicals. He also published Scioto Sketches 
. . . , Chicago, 1920. 


(March 27, 1834-1907), was born in 
Cheviot near Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 
When she was fourteen, her family moved 
to Covington, Ky., where she attended the 
Female Collegiate Institute. At the age of 
seventeen she married Joseph I. Perrin of 
Vicksburg; he died of yellow fever the fol- 
lowing year. When she returned North, her 
father moved to Bloomington, Ind.. where 
she married David D. Banta in 1856. They 
lived in Franklin, Ind. 
Songs of Home, Menasha, Wis., 1895. 

BARBEE, WILLIAM J. (1816-Oct. 27, 
1892), physician, was born in Winchester, 
Ky. He attended Miami University, studied 
medicine under Daniel Drake, and later 
practiced in Cincinnati, 1836-46. After 
leaving Ohio, he was a schoolteacher and 
minister of the Christian Church in Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, and Missouri. Besides a 
book on geology and several on religious 
themes, he wrote The Cotton Question, 
New York, 1866. 

physician, born in Hungary, came to Cleve- 
land in 1921. He practiced medicine there 
until 1945, when he left to become director 
of a hospital at Roslyn, N. Y. He wrote 
several plays which were produced in Cleve- 
land, including a play defending mercy- 
killing: Personal Tragedy . . . , Cleveland, 

1900- ), was born in Cincinnati, Ham- 
ilton County. She attended Cincinnati pub- 
lic schools and the University of Cincin- 
nati. Wife of Emanuel Bardon, a printer, 
she has written advertising for several Cin- 
cinnati department stores and agencies, 

edited Writer's Digest, and published fiction 
and articles in periodicals. She has also pub- 
lished a number of romances and mystery 
novels, e.g., The Case of the Dead Grand- 
mother, New York, [1937]. 

BAREIS, GEORGE F. (July 23, 1852-Jan. 
7, 1932), was born near Bremen, Fairfield 
County. In 1854 he removed with his par- 
ents to Empire Mills near Canal Winchester. 
He was educated in district and public 
schools. In the fall of 1868 he settled in 
Canal Winchester, where he conducted a 
successful lumber business. He was an en- 
thusiastic student of history and archaeol- 
ogy; he wrote History of Madison Town- 
ship, Including Groveport and Canal Win- 
chester, Franklin County, Ohio, Canal Win- 
chester, 1902. 

Feb., 1928), clergyman and educator, was 
born in Fredericktown, Knox County. He 
graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University 
in 1874 and Boston University (B.D., 1877; 
Ph.D., 1892) and was ordained a Methodist 
minister in 1876. He served churches in 
Massachusetts, 1876-78, Mexico, 1878-85, 
and New York State, 1885-89. After teach- 
ing one year at Ohio Wesleyan, he joined 
the sociology faculty at Boston University 
in 1899 and taught there until his retire- 
ment in 1921. He died at Newton Centre, 
History of Ohio Methodism; A Study in 

Social Science, Cincinnati, 1898. 
The Saloon Problem and Social Reform, 

Boston, 1905. 
The Social Gospel and the New Era, New 

York, 1919. 

9, 1866-April 28, 1927), was born in San- 
dusky, Erie County. Her father, Pitt Cooke, 
was associated with the banking firm or- 
ganized by his brother, Jay Cooke. When 
Jay Cooke & Co. failed in 1873, Pitt Cooke 
returned to Sandusky and recouped much of 
his lost fortune through real estate. Laura 
Cooke married Franklyn S. Barker. She 
died in Erie County. 

Society Silhouettes . . . , Cleveland, 1898. 
Mezzotints, Wausau, 1900. 
The Immutable Law, Aurora, N. Y., 1921. 

B. Franklin) (Aug. 5, 1912- ), was born 
in Youngstown, Mahoning County. She at- 
tended Ohio Wesleyan University and 
Youngstown College. Since her marriage in 
1946, she has lived in Denver. Colo. Her 
poems, most of them published under her 



maiden name, have appeared in various pe- 
riodicals; and she has also published several 
collections, e.g., Voices That Sang, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa, [1940]. 

May 21, 1947), advertising executive, 
moved to Cleveland from Chicago in 1917. 
He published two books on advertising and 
two collections of poetry, e.g.. The Tongues 
of Toil, and Other Poems, Chicago, 1911. 

BARNES, FAYE KING. See Faye King. 

1889-Aug. 12, 1945), educator, was born 
in Lincoln, Neb. He attended Ohio Wes- 
leyan University for two years and grad- 
uated from the University of Michigan in 
1912; he later earned his doctorate at the 
University of Michigan in 1929. He was 
professor of economics at Ohio Wesleyan. 
1920-45. He edited the letters of Theodore 
Weld (q.v.) and wrote a book designed to 
show that the antislavery movement orig- 
inated in Ohio: The Antislavery Impulse, 
1830-1844, New York, [1933]. WWW 2 

clergyman, was born in Stonington, Conn. 
After graduating from Yale Divinity School 
in 1836, he served Congregational churches 
in Indiana and Minnesota until 1886, when 
he settled in Marietta. The last fourteen 
years of his life were spent in that com- 

Jephthah and His Daughter and Other 
Poems, New York, 1887. 

BARNES, LEMUEL CALL (Nov. 6, 1854- 
July 18, 1938), clergyman, was born in 
Kirtland, Lake County. He graduated from 
Kalamazoo College in 1875 and from New- 
ton Theological Institution in 1878. Or- 
dained a Baptist minister in 1878, he 
served as a pastor in Minnesota. Pennsyl- 
vania, and Massachusetts. He retired from 
the ministry in 1924. He died in Yonkers, 
N. Y. A prolific writer, he wrote a num- 
ber of books and articles on religious and 
historical subjects, e.g.. Missions to the 
Heathen, New York, [1910]. WWW 1 

BARNES, WALTER (July 29. 1880- ), 
educator, was born in Barnesville, Belmont 
County. He graduated from West Virginia 
University in 1905 and New York Univer- 
sity (Ph.D.) in 1930. He taught English in 
West Virginia and New York colleges, 
1907-47. He now lives in West Braden- 
ton, Fla. Besides articles on educational 
subjects and textbooks on English, he has 

written The Photoplay as Literary Art, 
Newark, N. J., 1936. WW 27 



BARNEY, ELIAM E. (Oct. 14, 1807-1880), 
was born in Jefferson County, N. Y. After 
attending Lowville Academy and Union 
Academy, Belleville, N. Y., he graduated 
from Union College in 1831. In 1833 he 
moved to Ohio, where he taught for six 
months at Granville College, was principal 
of Dayton Academy, 1834-38, and of 
Cooper Female Academy, 1845-51. He 
then entered business and established the 
Dayton Car Works. Realizing that the for- 
ests were rapidly disappearing, he became 
interested in encouraging the growing of 
catalpa trees. 

Facts and Information in Relation to the 
Catalpa Tree . . . , Dayton, 1878. 

Additional Facts and Information in Rela- 
tion to the Catalpa Tree . . . , Dayton, 


(March 10, 1833- ? ), was born in Everett, 
Pa. He was brought to Ohio in his infancy 
when his parents settled in Crawford 
County. He attended Kenyon College, 
1853-54. In the late 1850s he was a clerk 
in the publishing firm of Mack R. Barnitz, 
Cincinnati. He must have lived in Cincin- 
nati for some time before the appearance 
of his volume of verse in 1857, for that 
work is dedicated to the Cincinnati pub- 
lisher H. M. Rulison, who is referred to 
therein as an early friend. According to 
Coggeshall, Barnitz was teaching elocution 
and studying law in Cleveland in 1860. 
The Mystic Delvings, Cincinnati, 1857. 

BARONE, ALLEN G. (Oct. 28, 1867-Nov. 
17. 1947). was born in Homer Township, 
Medina County. He attended district 
schools and Ohio Business College, Mans- 
field, after which he taught for a time at 
Heidelberg College. He wrote Cosmogony, 
A Study of the Origin of the World, Boston, 

1860-March 29, 1939), physician and jour- 
nalist, was born in Medway, Clark County. 
He attended Asbury College, 1877-80, 
Rush Medical College, 1882-83, and Jef- 
ferson Medical College, 1883-84. As a stu- 
dent at Asbury he was active in journalism, 
and in 1880 he and Lucien Stephens com- 
piled The Songs of Asbury University. He 
taught at the College of Physicians and 


Barrett, S. H. 

Surgeons, Keokuk, Iowa, 1890-98, and at 
Highland Park College of Pharmacy in Des 
Moines, 1915-16. As a journalist he was 
on the staff of the Keokuk Gate City, 1899- 
1902, and the Keokuk Standard, 1902-10. 
He wrote many articles and stories for 
magazines and medical journals. His books 
include Shacklett, the Evolution of a 
Statesman, New York, 1901. WW 13 

1808-Aug. 6, 1892), Swedenborgian 
preacher and writer, was born in Dresden, 
Maine. He graduated from Harvard Di- 
vinity School in 1838 and was ordained as 
a Unitarian minister. He had already be- 
come interested in the New Church Society, 
and in 1840 he became a New Church 
preacher in New York City. From 1848 to 
1850 he was with the New Church Society 
in Cincinnati. The remainder of his life 
was spent in Philadelphia and German- 
town. His numerous publications include 
Life of Emanuel Swedenborg . . . , New 
York, 1841. 

BARRETT, DON CARLOS (April 22. 1868- 
Jan. 19, 1943), educator, was born in 
Spring Valley, Greene County. He grad- 
uated from Earlham College in 1889 and 
Harvard University (Ph.D.) in 1901 and 
also studied in Germany. He served on the 
faculties of Earlham College. Harvard Uni- 
versity, and Haverford College. Besides 
many articles in journals, he published The 
Greenback and Resumption of Specie Pay- 
ment, 1862-1879, Cambridge, Mass., 1931. 
WWW 2 

1896-Nov. 4, 1947), was born in Den- 
nison, Tuscarawas County. A resident of 
Cleveland for many years, she died in Al- 
liance. She published Mrs. Colletti, and 
Other Poems, Los Angeles, [1936]. 

BARRETT, FRED W. (Nov. 15, 1858-March 
25, 1951), publisher, was born in Oxford, 
Butler County. His parents moved to 
Springfield in 1860, and he spent the rest 
of his life in that community. He was pres- 
ident of Barrett Brothers, publishers of le- 
gal forms. He wrote From a Diarv, Spring- 
field, 1934. 

BARRETT, GEORGE (Dec. 6. 1796-Aug. 
18, 1875), manufacturer, was born in 
Danby, Vt. In 1839 he moved to Dela- 
ware, where he operated a woolen mill, 
and in 1843 he moved to Spring Valley, 
Greene County, where he built a mill. He 
was a member of the Society of Friends 

and a firm abolitionist. When his house 
burned, he determined to erect one that 
could not burn. Following an account in a 
New York newspaper and improvising 
when necessary, he erected a house of 
concrete, probably the first such building 
in Ohio. His book describing the construc- 
tion is certainly one of the first do-it-your- 
self books. 

The Poor Man's Home, and Rich Man's 
Palace . . . , Cincinnati, 1854. 

1852-May 1, 1924), clergyman, was born 
in Isle of Wight County, Va. A minister of 
the Christian Church, he served churches 
in Montgomery County, 1903-19, and also 
edited the Herald of Gospel Liberty, pub- 
lished in Dayton. He died in Winston-Salem, 
N. C. He published his autobiography, 
Forty Years on the Firing Line; Or, Scenes, 
Incidents, and Experiences along the Way 
of a Soldier of the Cross . . . , Dayton, 
[1914]. OBB 

15, 1824-April 9, 1910), journalist, was 
born in Ludlow, Vt. In 1857 he moved to 
Cincinnati, where he served on the Daily 
Gazette, 1857-61, and on the Daily Chron- 
icle and Times, 1868-79. His biography of 
Lincoln was enlarged and reissued in 1864 
and again in 1865. He died at Loveland. 
Life of Abraham Lincoln . . . , Cincinnati. 

Abraham Lincoln and the Presidency, 2 
vols., Cincinnati, 1904. 

1874-Feb. 27, 1945), clergyman, was born 
in Covington, Ky. He graduated from Cen- 
tre College in 1898 and McCormick Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1900. Ordained in the 
Presbyterian ministry, he served a church 
in Cleveland, 1903-11, and he spent his last 
years in Wooster. His writings include Es- 
sence of Christianity, New York, [1929]. 
WWW 2 

1822-1883), clergyman, was born in Rut- 
land, Meigs County. He joined the Free 
Will Baptist Church in 1838 and soon after- 
ward, though almost entirely self-educated, 
he began teaching school. In 1845 he be- 
gan preaching; although he traveled as an 
evangelist throughout the Eastern states and 
Canada, Rutland remained his home. At 
one time he operated a drugstore there. 
The Journal of Selah Hibbard Barrett, 

Pomeroy, 1847. 
Autobiography . . . , Rutland, [1872]. 



BARRINGER, EDWIN C. (Sept. 19, 1892- 
), journalist, was born in Sandusky, Erie 
County, but attended public schools in Fre- 
mont, where his parents moved in 1900. He 
attended Case Institute of Technology and 
Western Reserve University, worked on 
Cleveland and Columbus newspapers, 
1912-17, was an associate editor of Penton 
Publishing Co., Cleveland, 1917-38, and in 
1938 became executive secretary of the 
Institute of Scrap Iron and Steel. He pub- 
lished a pamphlet on scrap steel: The Story 
of Scrap . . . , New York, [1939], which he 
enlarged and republished in 1947. WWCI 8 

1805-Sept. 14, 1888), clergyman and edu- 
cator, born in Mansfield, Conn., graduated 
from Yale University in 1826. He was a 
school principal in Hartford, Conn., 1826— 
31, was ordained to the Presbyterian min- 
istry in 1832, and served as pastor of the 
First Free Presbyterian Church, New York 
City, 1832-37. He served on the faculty of 
Western Reserve College, 1837-52, An- 
dover Theological Seminary, 1853-66, and 
Oberlin Theological Seminary, 1871-80. 

A View of the American Slavery Question, 

New York, 1836. 
Memoir of Everton Judson, Boston, 1852. 
Sacred Geography, and Antiquities . . . , 

New York, [1872]. 

BARROWS, JOHN HENRY (July 11, 1847- 
June 3, 1902), clergyman and educator, 
born in Medina, Mich., served pastorates 
in various states before becoming presi- 
dent of Oberlin College in 1898. During his 
administration he attempted to improve re- 
lations between the town and the college. 
He wrote several books, including a life of 
Henry Ward Beecher and The Christian 
Conquest of Asia . . . , New York, 1899. 

BARSCHAK, ERNA (Sept. 12, 1898-Oct. 12, 
1958), educator, born in Berlin, Germany, 
was a member of the psychology depart- 
ment, Miami University, from 1942 until 
her death. Besides professional publications, 
she published My American Adventure, 
New York, 1945. WWAW 1 

BARTELLE, JOHN PETER (Oct. 24, 1858- 
Jan. 8, 1946), was born in Toledo, Lucas 
County. He was secretary of the Kelsey- 
Freeman Lumber Co. and associate editor 
of the Wood Construction Publishing Co. 
After completing forty years in the lumber 
business, he wrote a volume of reminis- 
cences: Forty Years on the Road, Cedar 
Rapids, Iowa, 1925. 

1884- ), was born in East Liverpool, 
Columbiana County. He attended East Liv- 
erpool schools, Mercersburg Academy, Pa., 
and the Byron King School of Oratory. He 
was secretary of the East Liverpool Cham- 
ber of Commerce for twenty years and is 
now curator of the East Liverpool His- 
torical Society Museum. He prepared for 
publication History of Columbiana County 
. . . , 2 vols., Indianapolis, 1926. 

15, 1907- ), educator, was born in Salem, 
Columbiana County. He graduated from the 
University of Notre Dame in 1929 and the 
University of Kentucky (Ph.D.) in 1938. 
He has been on the Notre Dame faculty in 
the department of political science since 
1929. He has published American Govern- 
ment under the Constitution, Dubuque, 
Iowa, 1947. WW 30 

born in Wisconsin, was a reporter for the 
Toledo Blade, 1872-75. She afterward lived 
in Chicago, where she wrote a number of 
novels. She often wrote under the pen name 
Birch Arnold. 
Until the Day Break, Philadelphia, [1877]. 

Jane Richmond. 

1851-June 10, 1932), educator, was born 
in Hudson, Summit County. After graduat- 
ing from Dartmouth College in 1872, he 
taught school in Illinois and studied medi- 
cine. He graduated from Rush Medical Col- 
lege, Chicago, in 1879 but did not practice. 
He was in the chemistry department, Dart- 
mouth, 1879-1920. Besides textbooks and 
genealogical works, he published A Dart- 
mouth Book of Remembrance . . . , Hano- 
ver, N. H., 1922. WWW 1 

educator, was born in New York State. He 
graduated from Colgate University in 1910 
and Ohio State University (Ph.D.) in 1933. 
He spent the years 1915-25 in the Orient. 
He returned to the United States to become 
assistant to the president of Carleton Col- 
lege in Minnesota. He was later president of 
Rio Grande College in Ohio, and he 
was head of the Department of Education, 
Otterbein College, 1936-46. Since his retire- 
ment he has lived in Claremont, Calif. He 
wrote Education for Humanity, the His- 
tory of Otterbein College, Westerville, 1934. 


Bates, D. H. 

1812-June 20, 1885), lawyer, was born in 
Jefferson County. After the close of the 
War of 1812 his family settled on a farm 
near Mansfield, Richland County. He at- 
tended Jefferson College, Pa., studied law, 
and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1833. 
After long service in the general assembly 
he was elected speaker of the state senate 
in 1843, and upon Shannon's resignation he 
became acting governor from April 15 to 
Dec. 3, 1844. Elected to the state supreme 
court, he served from Feb., 1852. to Feb., 
1859, serving as chief justice for three 
years. He practiced law in Mansfield, Cin- 
cinnati, and Washington. D. C. from 1859 
until his death. Many of his speeches were 
published separately. 

The Rights of the Owners of Private Prop- 
erties Taken in War, to Just Compensa- 
tion . . . , Washington, D. C, 1873. 
A Review of the Currency Question, with 
Special Reference to Fiat Money Doc- 
trine, Washington, D. C, 1879. 

BARTON, BRUCE (Aug. 5, 1886- ), ad- 
vertising executive, born in Robbins, Tenn., 
spent his early boyhood in Ohio while his 
father Rev. William E. Barton (q.v.) was 
attending Oberlin Seminary and serving as 
a pastor. After graduating from Amherst 
College in 1907, he edited the Home Her- 
ald, Housekeeper, and Every Week and was 
an assistant sales manager for P. F. Collier 
& Son. He became one of the country's 
leading advertising men and is now chair- 
man of the board of Batten, Barton, Durs- 
tine, and Osborn. He has written many 
articles and a number of books, the best 
known of which was a best seller for two 
years: The Man Nobody Knows; A Discov- 
ery of Jesus, Indianapolis, [1925]. WW 30 

1891- ), was born in Wellington, Lo- 
rain County, the son of Rev. William E. 
Barton and younger brother of Bruce Bar- 
ton (qq.v. ). He graduated from Amherst 
College in 1912 and has been in the adver- 
tising business in Akron since 1918. He was 
a war correspondent in World War II. He 
has written several books on hobbies, sales- 
manship, and similar topics, e.g., Let Your- 
self Go ... , New York, 1937. 

BARTON, THOMAS H. (Dec. 8. 1828-Dec. 
28, 1911), was born in Bedford Township, 
Meigs County. He was educated in local 
schools and studied medicine under his 
brother. He began practicing in 1851. Dur- 
ing the Civil War he was a hospital stew- 
ard for three years in the 4th West Vir- 

ginia Infantry. After the war he returned 
to the practice of medicine, served a term 
as justice of the peace, and became a retail 
druggist. As a full and interesting narrative 
of his personal experience in the Civil War, 
his book is important. On the other hand, 
he has recorded in great detail his expe- 
riences as a physician, justice of the peace, 
and druggist in Meigs County, and his book 
is also an important contribution to the 
local history of the county. He died in Syra- 
cuse, Meigs County. 

Autobiography of Dr. Thomas H. Barton, 
the Self-made Physician of Syracuse, 
Ohio . . . , Charleston, W. Va., 1890. 

1861-Dec. 7, 1930), clergyman, father of 
Bruce and Fred B. Barton (qq.v.), born in 
Sublette, 111., graduated from Oberlin Sem- 
inary in 1890 and afterward served Con- 
gregational churches in northeastern Ohio 
until 1899, when he moved to Oak Park, 
111. He wrote a number of biographies and 
religious books; while in Ohio, he published 
Life in the Hills of Kentucky, Oberlin, 

1796-Sept. 8, 1850), clergyman, born in 
Hancock, N. Y., spent the formative years 
of his ministry in Ohio. His family moved 
first to western New York, then to Mays- 
ville, Ky., and in 1813 to Brown County, 
Ohio. Here at the age of seventeen he was 
licensed as a Methodist preacher. For three 
years he preached on circuit in the Ohio 
Corference. After preaching in Tennessee 
and Kentucky, he was returned to Ohio for 
one more year, 1822-23. He later served as 
chaplain of the U. S. Senate, as president of 
Transylvania University, and as Bishop of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. He 
published Methodism and Slavery, [Frank- 
fort, Ky., 1845], and two volumes of ser- 
mons, which sold widely. His Works were 
published in four volumes. He was a pow- 
erful orator and took an active part in the 
debates that led to the division of the 
Methodist churches. 

BATES, DAVID HOMER (c.l837-June 15, 
1926), telegrapher, was born in Steuben- 
ville, Jefferson County. He was a railroad 
telegrapher at Altoona, Pa., when on April 
22, 1861, he became one of the first four 
operators to form the nucleus of the U. S. 
Military Telegraph Corps. He was assigned 
to duty in the telegraph office of the War 
Department, where he served throughout 
the Civil War. His duties threw him into 

Bates, E. 


intimate contact with President Lincoln. 
"The bonds were close between Lincoln 
and David Homer Bates," wrote Carl Sand- 
burg, one of several leading writers on Lin- 
coln who have leaned heavily upon Bates's 
Recollections. After the Civil War Bates 
worked for Western Union. He wrote Lin- 
coln in the Telegraph Office. Recollections 
of the United States Military Telegraph 
Corps during the Civil War, New York, 

BATES, ELISHA (c. 1779-1861), was born 
in Virginia. Around 1817 he came to 
Mount Pleasant, Belmont County, where 
he became the leader of orthodox Quakers 
in Ohio and also published several maga- 
zines: The Philanthropist, 1818-22, The 
Moral Advocate, 1821-22, and The Miscel- 
laneous Repository, 1829-36. He spent 
some years in England. 
The Juvenile Expositor . . . , Mount Pleas- 
ant, 1821. 
The Doctrines of Friends . . . , Mount 

Pleasant, 1825. 
The Retrospect: Or, Reflections of the 

Goodness of Providence . . . , Mount 

Pleasant, 1825. 
Sermons Preached by Mr. Elisha Bates . . . 

With Extracts from His Writings . . . , 

London, England, 1836. 
An Examination of Certain Proceedings 

and Principles of the Society of Friends 

. . . , St. Clairsville, 1837. 

1879-Dec. 4, 1939), educator, was born in 
Gambier, Knox County. He attended Uni- 
versity School in Cleveland and graduated 
from the University of Michigan in 1902 
and Columbia University (Ph.D.) in 1908. 
He taught at Oberlin College, the Univer- 
sity of Arizona, and the University of 
Oregon. Although he wrote on a variety 
of subjects, he is best known for his books 
and articles about the Bible, e.g.. Biography 
of the Bible .... New York, 1937. WWW 1 

May 2, 1890), lawyer and judge, was born 
in Canandaigua, N. Y. After graduating 
from Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y., in 
1833, he read law. He came to Columbus 
in 1835 and began to practice. He served 
as a judge in Franklin County, 1851-66, 
and as director of the Ohio State Peniten- 
tiary, 1866-74. He wrote a life of his 
father-in-law, Alfred Kelley. His death oc- 
curred in Columbus. 

Alfred Kelley; His Life and Work, Colum- 
bus, 1888. 

SPERGER (Oct. 6, 1844-1927), was born 
in Fremont, Sandusky County. After teach- 
ing school in Ohio and Indiana, she mar- 
ried Charles A. Bates of Indianapolis. She 
wrote book reviews, articles, and poems and 
compiled several collections of recitations 
and monologues for school use. Around 
1890 she moved to New York City; her 
death occurred in that city. The Chamber 
over the Gate and A Woman's Love were 
published under the pen name Margaret 

Manitou, Indianapolis, 1881. 
The Chamber over the Gate, Indianapolis, 

The Price of the Ring, Chicago, 1892. 
Shylock's Daughter, Chicago, 1894. 
Jasper Fairfax, New York, [1897]. 
In the First Degree, New York, 1907. 
Silas Kirkendowne's Sons, Boston, 1908. 
Paying the Piper, New York, 1910. 
Hildegarde, and Other Lyrics, New York, 

Browning Critiques, Chicago, 1921. 
A Woman's Love, Chicago, [n.d.]. 

BATES, MINER SEARLE (May 28, 1897- 
), clergyman and educator, was born 
in Newark, Licking County, the son of 
Miner Lee Bates, Disciples of Christ clergy- 
man and president of Hiram College from 
1908 to 1921. After graduating from Hi- 
ram in 1916. he was named a Rhodes 
scholar and studied at Oxford; he later 
earned a Ph.D. in history from Yale Uni- 
versity in 1935. He was on the faculty of 
Nanking University, 1920-50, and since 
1950 has taught at Union Theological Sem- 
inary. He has written Half of Humanity; 
Far Eastern Peoples and Problems, New 
York, [1942]. DAS 3 

BATES, RALPH ORR (June 29, 1847-Dec. 
27, 1909), was born in Mansfield, Richland 
County. He enlisted in the 9th Ohio Cav- 
alry in 1862; he subsequently was captured 
and confined in various prisons in the Con- 
federacy. Upon his release from Anderson- 
ville in an incredibly weakened condition, 
he claimed to have been sent to Washing- 
ton by General Sherman, as a horrible ex- 
ample of the manner in which Federal 
prisoners were being treated at Anderson- 
ville. He finally returned to his home in 
Mansfield, where his former neighbors 
were outraged by his appearance. After- 
ward he went on the lecture platform and 
traveled about the United States giving his 
lecture, "From Andersonville Prison, Geor- 
gia, to the White House." A careful search 
of Mansfield newspaper files and other rec- 


Baxter, W. 

ords, however, reveals nothing to confirm 
Bates's story; and the directories of Mans- 
field do not disclose his name or that of 
his father, Calvin, who is supposed to have 
been most active in "putting down the re- 
bellion." He died at Santa Cruz, Calif. A 
posthumous book was published: Billy and 
Dick from Andersonville Prison to the 
White House, Santa Cruz, Calif., 1910. 

BATH, CYRIL JOHN (Dec. 21, 1890- ), 
manufacturer, was born in London, Eng- 
land, but has lived in Cuyahoga County 
since 1909. President of Cyril Bath Co., 
Solon, manufacturers of heavy machine 
tools, he has also published numerous 
pamphlets on economic and international 
questions, e.g., Europe in the Modern Age, 
New York, [1948]. 

BAUDER, LEVI F. (Jan. 28, 1840-Oct. 2, 
1913), was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. He attended Oberlin College and 
later taught school. During the Civil War 
he served in the 7th O.V.I, and was dis- 
charged with the rank of ordnance ser- 
geant. He was auditor of Cuyahoga County, 
1879-81, and for several years was a justice 
of the peace. He was admitted to the bar 
in 1890. For five years he was a member 
of the board of the Cleveland Public Li- 
brary. An inveterate contributor of short 
poems to Cleveland newspapers, he printed 
Passing Fancies for private circulation. 
Passing Fancies: Poems, Cleveland, 1880. 

BAUER, MARY T. (March 25, 1885-Aug. 
24, 1949), educator, was born in Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga County. After graduating from 
Cleveland Kindergarten Training School in 
1905, she taught in Cleveland kindergartens 
until her retirement in 1944. She died in 
Cleveland at the age of 64. She published 
Happy Childhood, Boston, [1934]. 

BAUGHMAN, ABRAHAM J. (Sept. 5, 1838- 
Oct. 1, 1913), journalist and historian, was 
born in Richland County. He attended dis- 
trict schools, taught school, and studied 
law. He was connected with the New York 
World and the Chicago Inter-Ocean and 
also worked on a number of Ohio news- 
papers. His death occurred in Mansfield. He 
wrote several histories of Ohio counties, 
e.g., History of Richland County . . . , Chi- 
cago, 1908. 

BAUSLIN, DAVID HENRY (Jan. 21, 1854- 
March 3, 1922), clergyman and educator, 
was born in Winchester, Va. He graduated 
from Wittenberg College in 1876 and from 

the seminary in 1878. Ordained a Lutheran 
minister in 1878, he served as pastor in 
several Ohio churches, 1878-96; he then 
became professor of practical theology in 
Wittenberg Theological Seminary and was 
made dean in 1911. He was editor of the 
Lutheran World, 1901-12. His death oc- 
curred in Bucyrus. His writings on religious 
subjects include The Lutheran Movement 
of the Sixteenth Century; An Interpretation, 
Philadelphia, [1919]. 


Joseph M. Bimeler. 

1839-Jan. 5, 1908), physician and financier, 
was born in Lima, Allen County. He col- 
laborated with Charles C. Miller in writing 
History of Allen County, Chicago, 1906. 

BAXTER, WILLIAM (July 6, 1820-Feb. 11, 
1880), clergyman, was born in Leeds, York- 
shire, and was brought to Allegheny City, 
Pa., by his parents in 1828. When he was 
eighteen he joined the Disciples of Christ, 
and after his graduation from Bethany Col- 
lege in 1845 he devoted the rest of his life 
to church-related service. He served pasto- 
rates in Pennsylvania, Mississippi, and Loui- 
siana, and for three years he was a profes- 
sor at Newton College, Miss. On March 7, 
1854, he married Mrs. Fidelia Vail, the 
widow of a Mississippi planter but a native 
of Massachusetts. Presumably she shared 
her new husband's antislavery views. In 
1859 he became president of Arkansas Col- 
lege in Fayetteville, Ark. When the war 
broki out and the student body disinte- 
grated, Baxter was unable to maintain his 
pro-Northern views in safety, and the col- 
lege building, used as a barracks, was 
burned on March 4, 1862. Baxter and his 
family fled the state. His Pea Ridge and 
Prairie Grove describes the experiences of 
a Northern sympathizer in a border state. 
Baxter wrote war poems which were pub- 
lished in Harper's Weekly, other poems, and 
the popular hymn "Let Me Go." In Cincin- 
nati from 1863 to 1865, he was active as a 
journalist and preacher. From 1865 to 1875 
he was pastor of the Christian church at 
Lisbon. Some of his temperance speeches 
were published in pamphlet form. He died 
in New Castle, Pa. 

Pea Ridge and Prairie Grove; Or, Scenes 
and Incidents of the War in Arkansas, 
Cincinnati, 1864. 
Life of Elder Walter Scott . . . , Cincin- 
nati, 1874. 
Life of Knowles Shaw, the Singing Evan- 
gelist, Cincinnati, 1879. 

Bayer, E. R. 


BAYER, ELEANOR R. (Oct. 13, 1914- ), 
was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. 
She graduated from Western Reserve Uni- 
versity in 1935. She has published maga- 
zine fiction and with her husband, Leo G. 
Bayer (q.v.), has published several mystery 
novels under the pen name Oliver Weld 
Bayer, e.g., Brutal Question, New York, 

BAYER, LEO G. (Sept. 6, 1908- ), lawyer, 
was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, 
and graduated from Western Reserve Uni- 
versity (A.B., LL.B.). He began practicing 
law in Cleveland in 1933. He has col- 
laborated with his wife, Eleanor R. Bayer 
(q.v.), in writing several mystery stories. 

BAYER, OLIVER WELD. Pseud. See Eleanor 
R. and Leo G. Bayer. 

1870-Jan. 28, 1934), educator, was born 
in Marietta, Washington County. He grad- 
uated from Marietta College in 1891 and 
Yale Divinity School in 1896. After serv- 
ing about fifteen years as a Congregation- 
alist minister, he completed his doctorate 
at the University of Michigan in 1913 and 
joined the Marietta faculty as professor of 
English in the same year. He wrote A Pio- 
neer College; The Story of Marietta . . . , 
[Chicago], 1935. WWW 1 

1867-Dec. 20, 1943), naval officer, was 
born in Toledo, Lucas County. He grad- 
uated from the U. S. Naval Academy in 
1888 and served in the Regular Navy until 
1921. After his retirement he was a lec- 
turer at Stanford University. His death oc- 
curred at Palo Alto, Calif. He wrote a 
number of novels on navy life. e.g.. An An- 
napolis Plebe, Philadelphia, 1907. WW 16 

BEACH, JOHN NOBLE (Jan. 29, 1829-July 
17, 1897), physician, was born in Amity, 
Madison County. He studied at Ohio Wes- 
leyan University and at Starling Medical 
College, where he graduated in 1850. He 
practiced at Unionville Center and Plain 
City, and after 1858 at Jefferson. He served 
in the Civil War with the 40th O.V.I. 
History of the Fortieth Ohio Volunteer In- 
fantry, London, 1884. 

BEADLE, JOHN HANSON (March 14, 1840- 
Jan. 15, 1897), journalist, was born in 
Parke County, Ind. In 1867 he was em- 
ployed on the editorial staff of the Cincin- 
nati Commercial and went to the Far West 
as correspondent of that newspaper in the 

summer of 1868. He served as correspond- 
ent of the Commercial for a number of 
years in the Far West and in Ohio, finally 
severing the connection when he became 
owner-editor of the Rockville, Ind., Trib- 
une in 1879. He wrote a number of books 
which had a popular appeal, e.g., Life in 
Utah; Or, the Mysteries and Crimes of 
Mormonism . . . , Philadelphia, 1870. 

2, 1865-?), was born near New Phila- 
delphia, Tuscarawas County. She taught 
school and afterward studied nursing in 
Illinois. In 1905 she married Dr. Judson 
T. Beall of Coshocton. In 1940 she was 
a resident of Los Angeles, Calif. She wrote 
A New Day, [Los Angeles, 1940]. 

BEAN, ELIJAH HARRY (April 25, 1875- 
), osteopathic physician, was born in 
Guysville, Athens County. After graduating 
from the American School of Osteopathy, 
Kirksville, Mo., in 1910. he practiced in 
Columbus. He now lives in Pensacola, Fla. 
He has written several medical articles and 
one book, Food Fundamentals; A View of 
Ill-Health as Caused by Wrong Habits of 
Living . . . , [Columbus, 1916]. OBB 

BEAR, JOHN W. (1800-Feb. 12, 1880), 
born in Frederick County, Md., was made 
a bound boy working in a tavern, but ran 
away in 1816 and came to Belmont County. 
He served for a time at the Wyandot Indian 
Agency at Upper Sandusky and also lived 
in other parts of the state. At the Whig 
Convention of 1840 in Columbus, he ap- 
peared on the platform wearing his black- 
smith's apron and carrying his hammer 
and tongs. Called the "Buckeye Black- 
smith," he was widely known as a political 
orator and also lectured on temperance. 
He later served in the customs house in 
Philadelphia, Pa. In his autobiography he 
advises his readers to avoid politics and 
strong drink. 

Life and Travels of John W. Bear, "The 
Buckeye Blacksmith" . . . , Baltimore, 

BEARD, ADELIA BELLE (1857-Feb. 16, 
1920). was born in Painesville, Lake 
County. She was educated in private schools, 
studied drawing and painting at Cooper 
Union and the Art Students' League, taught 
drawing, and was an illustrator for books 
and magazines. She also invented the 
"Beard animals" and the "Beard birds." She 
and her younger sister, Mary Caroline 
(q.v.), lived in Flushing, Long Island. All 
of the titles below are collaborations. 


Beard, J. C. 

How to Amuse Yourself and Others . . . , 

New York, 1887. 
New Ideas for Work and Play . . . , New 

York, 1902. 
Indoor and Outdoor Handicraft and Rec- 
reation for Girls, New York, 1904. 
Things Worth Doing and How to Do 

Them, New York, 1906. 
Home Mission Handicraft . . . , New York, 

Little Folks' Handy Book, New York, 1910. 
The National Organization, Girl Pioneers of 

America . . . , New York, 1914. 
On the Trail; An Outdoor Book for Girls, 

New York, 1915. 
Mother Nature's Toy-Shop, New York, 


BEARD, DANIEL CARTER (June 21, 1850- 
June 11, 1941), was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. His father, James Henry 
Beard (May 20, 1812-April 4, 1893), had 
come to Cincinnati from Painesville around 
1835; he was a successful portrait painter, 
and his four sons and two daughters all be- 
came artists. Daniel attended school in 
Covington, Ky. His boyhood spent on the 
shores of the Ohio River left him with a 
lifelong love of the outdoors and an interest 
in pioneer life. While in his late teens, he 
began work as a surveyor in the office of 
the Cincinnati city engineer. He became a 
skillful map-maker. Discovering a gift for 
drawing animals, he followed the lead of 
his brothers and sisters in determining to 
become an artist. He went to New York, 
studied at the Art Students' League, 1880— 
84, and worked on various magazines. He 
taught drawing at the Women's School of 
Applied Design. He illustrated various 
books, including Mark Twain's Connecticut 
Yankee at King Arthur's Court. His books 
and articles for boys were extremely pop- 
ular, and he organized the Sons of Daniel 
Boone and Boy Pioneers; but his nation-wide 
fame began in 1910 when he joined Ernest 
Thompson Seton and others in forming the 
Boy Scouts of America. Until his death 
he was known as Uncle Dan to millions of 
Boy Scouts. Throughout this period he 
wrote regularly for Boys' Life. Wearing a 
buckskin costume he lectured to boys' 
groups. He died at Suffern, N. Y. 

What to Do and How to Do It ... , 

New York, 1882. 
Moonblight and Six Feet of Romance, New 

York, 1892. 
Outdoor Games for All Seasons . . . , New 

York, 1896. 
For Playground, Field and Forest . . . , 

New York, 1900. 

New Ideas for American Boys . . . , New 
York, 1900. 

The Jack of All Trades: Fair Weather 
Ideas, New York, 1904. 

New Ideas for Out of Doors . . . , New 
York, [1906]. 

Dan Beard's Animal Book and Camp-fire 
Stories, New York, 1907. 

The Boy Pioneers, Sons of Daniel Boone, 
New York, 1909. 

Boat-building and Boating, New York, 1911. 

Shelters, Shacks, and Shanties, New York, 

The American Boys' Book of Bugs, Butter- 
flies and Beetles, Philadelphia, 1915. 

Camp Hints for Hike and Bike . . . , [New 
York, 1916]. 

The American Boys' Book of Signs, Signals 
and Symbols, Philadelphia, 1918. 

The American Boys' Handybook of Camp- 
Lore and Woodcraft, Philadelphia, 1920. 

The Black Wolf Pack, New York, 1922. 

The American Boys' Book of Birds and 
Brownies of the Woods, Philadelphia, 

Do It Yourself: A Book of the Big Out- 
doors, Philadelphia, 1925. 

Wisdom of the Woods, Philadelphia, 1926. 

Buckskin Book for Buckskin Men and Boys, 
Philadelphia, [1929]. 

Boy Heroes of Today . . . , New York, 

Hardly a Man Is Now Alive . . . , New 
York, 1939. 

BEARD, FRANK. See Thomas F. Beard. 

BEARD, JAMES CARTER (June 6, 1837- 
Nov. 15, 1913), artist, older brother of 
Daniel C. Beard (q.v.), was born in Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton County. He read law 
with Rutherford B. Hayes and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1861, but practiced 
only briefly. Like his talented brothers and 
sisters he turned to art and enjoyed great 
success as an illustrator of books and maga- 
zine articles. He was probably best known 
for his articles on nature in St. Nicholas 
and other national magazines. He served 
for many years on the staff of D. Appleton 
and Company. He lived in Brooklyn, N. Y., 
until around 1910, when he moved to New 
Orleans, where he spent the last three years 
of his life. 

Little Workers . . . , New York, 1871. 
The Artist's Manual . . . , New York, 

Painting on China . . . , New York, [1882]. 
Curious Homes and Their Tenants, New 

York, 1897. 
Billy Possum, New York, [1909]. 

Beard, M. C. 


Aug. 13, 1933), was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. She attended a private 
school in Covington, Ky., and Wesleyan 
Academy, Cincinnati; and like her sister, 
Adelia (q.v.), studied art in New York. 
She founded the Good Citizenship League 
of Flushing, Long Island, and the Girl 
Pioneers of America, an organization in- 
tended to parallel the Boy Pioneers, founded 
by her brother, Daniel Carter Beard (q.v.). 
All of her books were written with her 
sister, Adelia. 

Sept. 28, 1905), known professionally as 
Frank Beard, was born in Cincinnati, Ham- 
ilton County, the son of James Henry 
Beard, a portrait painter. At the age of 
twelve he began submitting sketches to na- 
tional magazines. While serving with the 
7th O.V.I., he drew sketches for Leslie's 
Weekly and Harper's Weekly. After the 
war he lectured widely and developed the 
chalk talk as his specialty; he also provided 
illustrations and cartoons for Judge and 
other periodicals. He was professor of es- 
thetics at Syracuse University, 1881-84, 
and in 1890 he became editor of the Ram's 
Horn, a religious weekly published in 
The Black-board in the Sunday School, New 

York, 1877. 
Picture Puzzles . . . , Toronto, Ontario, 

Fifty Great Cartoons, Chicago, [189-?]. 
Bible Symbols . . . , Chicago, [1904]. 

1825-Feb. 20, 1900), portrait painter, was 
born in Painesville, Lake County. In 1857 
he went abroad to study art, and in 1860 
he settled in New York. He was widely 
known for his allegorical pictures and for 
the humor portrayed in his pictures of ani- 
mals. He wrote a textbook, Action in Art, 
in 1893 and also published various maga- 
zine articles. He died in New York City. 
Humor in Animals . . . , New York, [1885]. 

March 31, 1921), clergyman and educator, 
was born in Ottawa County. After graduat- 
ing from Rutgers University, he served 
several churches and taught at Western 
Theological Seminary, Holland, Mich., 
1888-1917, and at New Brunswick Semi- 
nary, 1917-21. 

The Bible among the Nations, Chicago, 

BEARDSLEY, DANIEL B. (May 12, 1832- 
Sept. 29, 1894), was born in Licking 
County. His parents moved to Hancock 
County in 1834. After attending district 
schools, he began teaching in 1850, read 
law, and was admitted to the bar in 1856. 
He served 27 years as justice of the peace 
for Findlay Township. In 1872 he was 
elected mayor of Findlay. His death oc- 
curred in Findlay. 

History of Hancock County . . . , Spring- 
field, 1881. 

BEATTY, JOHN (Dec. 16, 1828-Dec. 21, 
1914), soldier and banker, was born near 
Sandusky, Erie County. In 1854 he married 
Lucy Tupper of Cleveland and settled in 
Cardington, where he and his brother Wil- 
liam organized Beatty Brothers Bank. In 
1861 he joined the 3rd O.V.I, as a captain; 
he was promoted to lieutenant colonel, and 
in March, 1863, was brevetted brigadier 
general. In Jan., 1864, he resigned from 
the army and returned to Cardington. His 
resignation may have been due to his dis- 
like of West Point officers and his advocacy 
of total war against the South, or it may 
have been motivated by his brother William's 
desire to serve in the army. Through- 
out his career he was active in the Republi- 
can Party; he served in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, 1868-73, and though he held 
no more elective offices he spoke widely in 
support of Republican candidates and poli- 
cies. In 1873 he opened the Citizen's Sav- 
ings Bank in Columbus; he retired in 1903. 
He died in Columbus and is buried in 
Sandusky. His most important book, his 
war memoirs, was republished in 1946. His 
three novels have little merit, but The 
Acolhuans, a fantastic story of the Mound 
Builders, attracted some notice. 
The Citizen Soldier; Or, Memoirs of a 

Volunteer, Cincinnati, 1879. 
The Belle O'Becket's Lane . . . , Philadel- 
phia, 1883. 
McKinleyism, As It Appears to a Non- 
partisan, [Columbus, 1894]. 
Answer to Coin's Financial School, 1896. 
High or Low Tariff, Which? Columbus, 

The Acolhuans . . . , Columbus, 1902. 
McLean, a Romance of the War, Columbus, 

BEAUCHAMP, LOU JENKS (Jan. 14, 1851- 
June 4, 1920), journalist and lecturer, was 
born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. Self- 
educated, he joined the staff of the Cincin- 
nati Star while still in his teens. He sold 
sketches and poems to various newspapers 


Bedell, G. T. 

and magazines, became managing editor of 
the Fort Wayne, Ind.. Gazette, and later 
lived in Hamilton. He also delivered over 
10,000 lectures on humorous topics and on 
temperance, some of which were reprinted 
in pamphlet form. 

Sunshine. Written in the Interest of Temper- 
ance, Sunshine and Good Humor . . . , 
Hamilton. 1879. 
This, That and the Other; A Collection of 
Stories Sketches and Poems, Wise and 
Otherwise, Hamilton, 1882. 
What the Duchess and I Saw in Europe 
. . . , Hamilton, 1896. 

BEAUDRY, EVIEN G. (April 11, 1894- 
), born in Brunswick, Mich., attended 
Michigan Ferris Institute and Western State 
Teachers College and taught school for 
several years in Michigan before coming to 
Akron in 1925. In 1934 she joined the edi- 
torial staff of Saalfield Publishing Company; 
now retired, she still lives in Akron. She has 
published poems, articles, and stories in 
various magazines under the name Goldie 
Beaudry and has also published books for 
children, e.g.. Puppy Stories, New York, 

BEAUDRY, GOLDIE. See Evien G. Beaudry. 

1906- ), clergyman and educator, was 
born in Hamilton, Butler County. He gradu- 
ated from Oberlin College in 1928 and 
Cornell University (Ph.D.) in 1933. He 
has also studied at Yale Divinity School, 
the University of Munich, and Union The- 
ological Seminary. He has served Evangeli- 
cal and Reformed churches in Cincinnati 
and other cities and has taught in several 
seminaries. Since 1955 he has been a mem- 
ber of the federated theological faculty, 
University of Chicago. His writings include 
The Year of Grace, St. Louis, [1935]. WW 

1877-March 12, 1946), journalist, was born 
in St. Clairsville, Belmont County. He 
worked on newspapers in Pittsburgh and 
New York. He published Account of the 
Ball Given in Honor of Charles Dickens in 
N. Y. City, 1842, [New York, 1908]. WWW 

C.) (June 1, 1890- ), educator, was born 
in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. She at- 
tended Baldwin-Wallace College and has 
been for many years a teacher in the Cleve- 

land public schools. She has published sto- 
ries and poems in juvenile magazines and 
one book: On the Farm with Bob and 
Nancy, Akron, 1933. 

BECK, JOHN CRAFTON (Jan. 19, 1822-?), 
physician, was born in Vienna, Ind. After 
graduating from the Medical College of 
Ohio, Cincinnati, he returned to Indiana 
to practice. In 1858 he joined the faculty 
of Cincinnati College of Medicine and 
Surgery. He was a surgeon in the Civil 
War, afterward practiced in Newport, Ky., 
but in 1870 returned to Cincinnati to prac- 
tice. He edited Cincinnati Medical and 
Surgical News. 
Opiumania . . . , [Cincinnati, 1874]. 

BECKER, HENRY JACOB (June 19, 1846- 
Dec. 1, 1934), clergyman, was born in Mas- 
sillon. Stark County. As a young man he 
worked in coal mines, attended Heidelberg 
College, and served in the 188th O.V.I., 
Feb.-Sept., 1865. He was converted to the 
United Brethren church after the war and 
in 1869 was licensed to preach. He served 
as an itinerant minister in Ohio until 1875, 
when he went to California as a missionary. 
In 1905 he became a Presbyterian. He 
spent his old age in Dayton. 
Borachio's Bo-Peep; Or, the Drunkard's 

Plav with Children . . . , [Sacramento?, 

Calif., 1882]. 
Dr. Becker's Brownies Rummaging among 

the Mediums of Modern Spiritualism 

. . . , [Huntington, Ind.], 1900. 

BECKMAN, THEODORE N. (Sept. 3, 1895- 
), educator, was born in Russia. He 
graduated from Ohio State University 
(A.B., 1920; Ph.D., 1924) and has since 
taught economics and sociology there, spe- 
cializing in marketing. He has also been a 
consultant to various state and national 
agencies. He has written economics text- 
books and some studies of economic ques- 
tions, e.g., The Chain Store Problem . . . , 
New York, 1938. WW 30 , 

27, 1817-March 11, 1892), clergyman, 
born in Hudson, N. Y., served Episcopal 
churches in New York and Virginia before 
being elected bishop coadjutor of Ohio in 
1859. He served as bishop, 1873-89. Living 
at Gambier, he also taught some courses 
at Bexley Seminary, Kenyon College. 
A Votive Pillar, New York, 1853. 
Personal Presence of God the Holy Ghost 
. . . , Cleveland, 1874. 

Bedell, M. C. 


The Pastor. Pastoral Theology, Philadel- 
phia, 1880. 

Enlightened Public Opinion in the Church 
. . . , Cleveland, 1881. 

), was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. She graduated from Smith College 
and afterward lived in Ithaca, N. Y. She 
wrote Modern Gypsies, the Story of a 
Twelve Thousand Mile Motor Camping 
Trip Encircling the United States, New 
York, [1924]. 

6, 1800-May 12, 1878), eldest daughter of 
Lyman Beecher (q.v.), was born in East 
Hampton, Long Island, N. Y. She attended 
Miss Pierce's School but also educated her- 
self through wide reading. In 1822 Alex- 
ander M. Fisher, a brilliant professor at 
Yale, to whom she was engaged, was lost 
at sea — an event later used by her sister, 
Harriet Beecher Stowe (q.v.), in The Min- 
ister's Wooing. The loss of her fiance and 
the responsibility for younger brothers and 
sisters imposed on her by the death of her 
mother confirmed her lifelong character of 
headstrong, domineering spinsterhood. She 
conducted Hartford Female Seminary, 
1824-32. She accompanied her father on 
his first visit to Cincinnati, and that city 
was her nominal home from 1832 to 1850, 
but she traveled widely in the interests of 
educational projects in which she was inter- 
ested. She organized the Western Female 
Institute in Cincinnati, 1832-37, and was 
a founder of the Board of National Popu- 
lar Education. She assisted in the prepara- 
tion of McGuffey's Fourth Reader, and 
echoed another textbook to such an extent 
that a charge of plagiarism was made. She 
established a number of schools and de- 
voted her life to education of women, espe- 
cially in domestic arts; but she was a deter- 
mined opponent of women's suffrage. Her 
old age was spent in the homes of her 
brothers and sisters. She died in Elmira, 
N. Y., at the home of her half-brother, 
Thomas (q.v.). Besides the titles below, 
she published numerous textbooks, the most 
important of which treat domestic science 
for women. 

An Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism . . . , 

Boston, 1837. 
A Treatise on Domestic Economy . . . , 

Boston, 1841. 
Letters to Persons Who Are Engaged in 

Domestic Service, New York, 1842. 
The Duty of American Women to Their 

Country, New York, 1845. 

Truth Stranger Than Fiction . . . , Boston, 

The True Remedy for the Wrongs of 
Women . . . , Boston, 1851. 

Letters to the People on Health and Happi- 
ness, New York, 1855. 

Common Sense Applied to Religion . . . , 
New York, 1857. 

Religious Training of Children . . . , New 
York, 1864. 

The American Woman's Home . . . , Bos- 
ton, 1869. 

Woman Suffrage and Woman's Profession, 
Hartford, 1871. 

Woman's Profession as Mother and Edu- 
cator . . . , Philadelphia, 1872. 

Educational Reminiscences and Suggestions, 
New York, 1874. 

BEECHER, CHARLES (Oct. 7, 1815-April 
21, 1900), clergyman, son of Lyman 
Beecher (q.v.), was born in Litchfield, 
Conn. After graduating from Bowdoin Col- 
lege in 1834, he came to Lane Seminary, 
where his father was president. Uncertain 
of his religious faith, he gave up plans for 
the ministry and taught music for a time in 
Cincinnati. He then was a shipping clerk in 
New Orleans, and his descriptions of Louisi- 
ana and of a brutal overseer furnished a 
setting and the character of Simon Legree 
for his sister's novel. Uncle Tom's Cabin. In 
1844 he regained his faith while living in 
Indianapolis, Ind. He later served as a 
minister in New Jersey, Massachusetts, and 
Pennsylvania. He wrote on spiritualism and 
music and also wrote several books ex- 
pounding his own peculiar, somewhat mys- 
tical theology, e.g., Redeemer and Re- 
deemed, Boston, 1864. 

BEECHER, EDWARD N. (May 6, 1846- 
Nov. 2, 1933), druggist, was born in Homer, 
Licking County, but grew up in Oberlin. He 
graduated from Oberlin College in 1866 
and in 1889 settled in Cleveland, where he 
operated a drugstore for forty years. He 
died in Cleveland at the age of 87. 
The Lost Atlantis; Or, "The Great Deluge 
of All." An Epic Poem, Cleveland, 1897. 

BEECHER, GEORGE (May 6, 1809-July 1, 
1843), clergyman, was born in East Hamp- 
ton, Long Island, N. Y. After graduating 
from Yale University in 1828, he taught at 
Groton, and in 1832 he accompanied his 
father, Lyman Beecher (q.v.), to Cincin- 
nati. After being ordained to the Presby- 
terian ministry in 1833, he served churches 
at Batavia, Rochester. N. Y., and Chilli- 
cothe. He died in Chillicothe when a gun 
with which he intended to frighten birds 



from his fruit trees discharged accidentally. 
A posthumous collection of his writings was 
edited by Catherine Beecher: The Biographi- 
cal Remains of Rev. George Beecher . . . , 
New York, 1844. 

BEECHER, HENRY WARD (June 24, 1813- 
March 8, 1887), the most popular clergy- 
man of his day, was born in Litchfield, 
Conn. Like his brothers, he spent only a 
short time in Cincinnati, where his father, 
Lyman Beecher (q.v.), was president of 
Lane Seminary, 1832-50. He came to Lane 
Seminary in 1834 after graduating from 
Amherst College, studied theology inter- 
mittently, helped found the Cincinnati 
Young Men's Temperance Society, pub- 
lished some anonymous anti-Catholic ar- 
ticles in the Daily Evening Post, and edited 
the Cincinnati Journal for a few months in 
1836. In 1837 he accepted a call to Law- 
renceburg, Ind.; two years later he took a 
church in Indianapolis; and in 1847. he 
was called to Plymouth Church, Brooklyn 
where he remained for the rest of his life 
A prolific writer like most of the Beechers 
he published many sermons and essays 
From a literary point of view his most in 
teresting work is a novel, Norwood . . . 
New York, 1868. 

BEECHER, LYMAN (Oct., 1775-Jan. 10, 
1863), clergyman, was born in New Haven, 
Conn. After graduating from Yale, he was 
ordained to the Presbyterian ministry in 
1799 and served pastorates in East Hamp- 
ton, Long Island, 1779-1810, Litchfield, 
Conn., 1810-26, and Boston, 1826-32. In 
this latter charge he was a militant oppo- 
nent of Unitarianism and Catholicism. In 
1832 he accepted the presidency of Lane 
Seminary, Cincinnati, and was also ap- 
pointed pastor of the Second Presbyterian 
Church. Almost immediately after he 
brought his large family to the city, he 
found himself in difficulties. Conservative 
Presbyterians, led by Joshua L. Wilson 
(q.v.), who had secured his appointment to 
Lane Seminary, attacked him for his the- 
ological views. He was acquitted by the 
local presbytery and by the synod meeting 
in Dayton, but the bitterness engendered 
by the controversy did much to harm the 
Presbyterian cause in the West. The chief 
difficulty, however, arose within the Lane 
Seminary student body. Led by Theodore 
Weld (q.v.). the students formed an anti- 
slavery society which scandalized the city. 
Thev refused to heed Beecher's pleas for 
moderation and his advocacy of coloniza- 
tion. While he was in the East raising funds, 
the students left the seminary, most of 

them transferring to Oberlin College and a 
few to Western Reserve College at Hudson. 
Until his resignation in 1850, Beecher 
struggled to keep the seminary operating 
and to induce students to attend. After re- 
tiring, he bought a house in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., to be near his famous son, Henry 
Ward Beecher, and there he passed the re- 
mainder of his days. Besides the titles 
below, many of his sermons were published. 
A Plea for the West, Cincinnati, 1835. 
Views in Theology, Cincinnati, 1836. 
Autobiography . . . , 2 vols., (Charles 
Beecher, ed.), New York, 1864. 

10, 1824-March 14, 1900), clergyman, was 
born in Litchfield, Conn. In 1832 he came 
to Cincinnati with his father, Lyman 
Beecher (q.v.). After graduating from Illi- 
nois College in 1843, he was a high school 
principal in the East, 1846-52. In 1854 he 
became pastor of the Independent Con- 
gregational Church, Elmira, N. Y. He spent 
the remainder of his life in Elmira, where 
his independent, sometimes eccentric be- 
havior made him one of the town's best- 
known citizens, universally known as 
'Father Tom" in his old age. He contrib- 
uted many outspoken editorials to local 
newspapers, and some of his sermons were 
printed. After his death a collection of 
stories for children was published: In Tune 
with the Stars, Elmira, 1901. DAB 2 

1838-May 10, 1912), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Vinton County. After 
graduating from Hamilton College in 1858, 
he taught at Whitestown, N. Y., Seminary, 
1858-61: and after graduating from Au- 
burn Theological Seminary in 1864, he was 
ordained to the Presbyterian ministry. He 
taught at Knox College, 111., 1865-69, and 
was pastor of the First Church of Christ, 
Galesburg. 111., 1869-71. He served on the 
faculty of Auburn Seminary, 1871-1908. 
His death occurred in Auburn. He wrote a 
number of works on religious themes, e.g., 
The Prophets and the Promise . . . , New 
York, [1905]. 

1911- ). educator, was born in Bucyrus, 
Crawford County. He graduated from the 
University of Michigan in 1932, was a 
Rhodes scholar, 1932-35. and completed 
his doctorate at Harvard in 1943. He was 
associated with the New York Post and 
Fortune magazine before joining the de- 
partment of government at Harvard in 
1938. He served in the army during World 



War II. He has published an exposition of 
liberalism based on the metaphysics of Al- 
fred North Whitehead: The Citx of Reason, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1949. WW 30 

BEERY, JESSE (June 13, 1861-Feb. 22, 
1945), was born near Pleasant Hill, Miami 
County, and spent his life in that area. Ap- 
plying the principles developed by John S. 
Rarey (q.v.), he broke horses on his father's 
farm and acquired considerable renown. 
He gave public exhibitions and established 
a correspondence school of horsemanship. 
Jesse Beery's Practical System of Colt 

Training . . . , [Lima, 1890]. 
The Thoroughbreds, [Piqua, 1912]. 
The Beery System of Horsemanship . . . , 

[Dayton, 1914]. 
Prof. Beery's Saddle-Horse Instructions 

. . . , [West Carrollton], 1934. 

ERICK (Dec. 18, 1839-May 22. 1900), 
clergyman, was born in Nymwegen, Hol- 
land. When he was five, his family came to 
Ohio, where he grew up. In 1862 he gradu- 
ated from Denison University and in 1865 
from Rochester Theological Seminary. In 
1873 he became pastor of the First Baptist 
Church in Cleveland, but in Jan., 1876, he 
resigned his pulpit because of his opposi- 
tion to restricted communion. He became a 
Congregationalist minister, first in Provi- 
dence, R. I., and after 1883 in Brooklyn, 
N. Y. He was popular and successful as a 
minister and as a public lecturer. Numer- 
ous sermons, in addition to the titles below, 
were published. 

In Memoriam Harriet E. Hatch . . . , Provi- 
dence, 1882. 
The World for Christ, New York, 1896. 
The Old Testament under Fire, New York, 

The Christ of Nineteen Centuries, (William 
Herries, comp.), Brooklyn, 1904. 

BEHRMAN, ETHEL KNAPP (Nov. 9. 1880- 
June 20, 1943), was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. Known as the Story Lady 
of the Air, she broadcast popular programs 
over various Cincinnati radio stations. She 
published a collection of her verse: Door- 
ways, Cincinnati, 1936. 

BEILER, IRWIN ROSS (Jan. 14, 1883- 
), clergyman and educator, was born 
in Lima, Allen County. He graduated from 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1907, Boston 
University School of Theology in 1911, and 
Boston University (Ph.D.) in 1918. He 
was on the faculty of Baker University, 
Kansas, 1913-18, was pastor of a Methodist 

church in Minneapolis, 1918-20, and was 
on the faculty of Allegheny College, 1920- 
48. He is now living in Meadville, Pa. He 
wrote Studies in the Life of Jesus, [Nash- 
ville, 1936]. WW 27 

1896-Feb. 26, 1949), was born in Pitts- 
burgh, but she grew up in Cleveland, where 
her family moved when she was three years 
old. She wrote and conducted a children's 
radio program on Cleveland radio station 
WGAR, wrote numerous plays for children, 
and published several children's books, e.g., 
Just Peggy, Philadelphia, [1939]. 

BELDEN, GEORGE P. (c.1845-?), the 
"White Chief." was born near New Phila- 
delphia, Tuscarawas County. In his book 
he relates that he ran away from home at 
the age of thirteen, landed in Brownsville, 
Nebraska Territory, and promptly wrote 
and induced his father to come out and 
establish the Nemaha Valley Journal. This is 
untrue and it is probable that the rest of 
his narrative is a series of brash fabrica- 
tions strung on a thin thread of historical 
fact, although the editor, General James S. 
Brisbin, vouches for the fidelity of the nar- 
rative to the original manuscript. When last 
heard from, Belden was trapping in hostile 
Indian country on Medicine Creek. 
Belden, the White Chief; Or, Twelve Years 

among the Wild Indians of the Plains 

. . . , Cincinnati, 1870. 

BELDEN, HENRY S. (July 4, 1840-April 20, 
1920), was born in Canton, Stark County. 
He attended Kenyon and Wittenberg Col- 
leges and graduated from Cincinnati Law 
School in 1861. He developed the coal and 
clay resources of the Canton region and 
manufactured paving brick used in Canton 
and other cities. Besides articles in religious 
journals, he wrote Heaven . . . , [Akron, 

1898-Sept. 23, 1949), manufacturer, born 
in Syracuse, N. Y., lived in Toledo about 
twenty years while president of American 
Mat Corp. He published a definitive work, 
Milk Glass, New York, 1949. 

BELL, ALVIN EUGENE (April 10, 1882- 
), clergyman, was born in Mansfield, 
Richland County. He graduated from Wit- 
tenberg College in 1905 and from Hamma 
Divinity School in 1908. Ordained a Lu- 
theran minister in 1908, he served in Bryan, 
1908-13, and at Glenwood Avenue Church, 
Toledo, 1913-52. Besides articles and books 



on devotional subjects, he published a book 
in opposition to the teachings of Mary 
Baker Eddy: The Word of a Woman, versus 
the Word of God . . . , Burlington, Iowa, 
1917. WW 30 

BELL, ARCHIE (March 17, 1877-Jan. 27, 
1943), drama critic and world traveler, was 
born in Geneva, Ashtabula County, and 
later lived in Cleveland. He worked on the 
Cleveland World and was drama critic for 
the Cleveland News. Besides numerous 
travel books, he wrote The Clevelanders . . . 
An Expose of High Life in the Forest City, 
New York, [1907]. WW 20 

BELL, BERNARD IDDINGS (Oct. 13. 1886- 
Sept. 5, 1958), clergyman and educator, 
was born in Dayton, Montgomery County. 
He graduated from the University of Chi- 
cago in 1907 and was ordained to the 
Episcopal priesthood in 1910. He served 
as pastor of various churches and taught 
at Stephens College, N. Y., 1919-33, and 
Columbia University, 1930-33. He was con- 
sultant to the Bishop of Chicago on educa- 
tional matters. 1946-55. He published 
numerous articles, books of sermons, devo- 
tional books and others on religious themes, 
e.g., Religion for Living, a Book for Post- 
modernists, London, 1939. WWW 3 

1894- ), artist, was born in Tiffin, Sen- 
eca County. He attended high school in 
Sandusky and studied at the University of 
Michigan and Western Reserve University. 
He was an advertising and book illustrator 
in Cleveland. 1922-44. In 1921 he married 
Thelma Harrington (see Thelma Harring- 
ton Bell), whose books he has illustrated. 
Since moving to Sapphire, N. C, he has 
published magazine articles and books on 
the hill regions of his adopted state, e.g., 
Come Snow fer Christmas . . . , Cleveland, 

BELL, FRANK. Pseud. See Mildred W. Ben- 

BELL, JAMES MADISON (April 3, 1826- 
1902), Ohio's first native Negro poet, was 
born in Gallipolis, Gallia County, where he 
resided until 1842, when he went to Cin- 
cinnati to learn the plasterer's trade. Dur- 
ing his twelve years' stay in that city he ap- 
pears to have been a plasterer and nothing 
more; an examination of contemporary 
local publications discloses no contributions 
from his pen. In 1854 he moved to 
Chatham, Canada West, where four years 
later John Brown was to call his "Provi- 
sional Constitutional Convention," prepara- 

tory to his raid upon Harper's Ferry. Dur- 
ing the Congressional investigation that fol- 
lowed the raid, the original records of the 
Chatham convention were made public, and 
it was disclosed that Bell had played an 
active role. He fled to California early in 
1860. It was there that his earliest known 
separately published poem appeared. He re- 
turned to Ohio and took up permanent resi- 
dence at Toledo, probably early in 1866. 
The year 1865 is usually given, but he was 
present in San Francisco on Jan. 1, 1866, 
when he delivered a poem in commemora- 
tion of the anniversary of the Emancipa- 
tion Proclamation at Zion Church. He was 
a member of the national convention 
which nominated Ulysses S. Grant for the 
Presidency in 1868. 
A Poem Entitled The Day and the War 

. . . , San Francisco, 1864. 
An Anniversary Poem Entitled The Progress 

of Liberty . . . , San Francisco, 1866. 
A Poem Entitled The Triumph of Liberty 

. . . , Detroit, 1870. 
The Poetical Works of James Madison Bell, 

Lansing, Mich., [1901]. 


(Dec. 29, 1790-Oct. 9, 1834), born in Con- 
necticut, was the niece of Timothy Dwight. 
In 1810 she left New Haven, Conn., to live 
with cousins in Warren, Trumbull County. 
In 1811 she married William Bell, Jr., and 
around 1815 they moved to Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Her journal kept during her wagon trip to 
Ohio was edited by Max Farrand: A Jour- 
ney to Ohio . . . , New Haven, 1912. 

1896- ), was born in Detroit, Mich. 
She attended Cleveland public schools and 
graduated from Western Reserve Univer- 
sity. She was an advertising copywriter until 
her marriage to Corydon W. Bell (q.v.) 
in 1921. She lived in Cleveland, 1910-44, 
and now lives in Sapphire, N. C. She has 
written a number of books for juvenile 
readers, e.g., Black Face, New York, 1931. 


(March 17, 1842-?), was born in Troy, 
Miami County. At the age of sixteen he was 
apprenticed to a monument carver in St. 
Joseph. Mo. In 1867 he moved to Sidney, 
where he later published a humorous paper, 
The Old Man. Under various pseudonyms 
(Joe Jot, Washington Whitehorn, Noah 
Nuff), he wrote verse and fiction for vari- 
ous New York periodicals. He also wrote 
dime novels in various Beadle series, e.g., 
Peter, the Dandy Greenhorn . . . , New 
York, 1891. 

Bender, E. J. 


BENDER, ERIC J. (Aug. 8, 1902- ), edi- 
tor, was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. He graduated from Ohio State Uni- 
versity in 1925 and has since been asso- 
ciated with various educational publishers. 
In 1939 he joined Row Peterson as editor 
of educational films. He now lives in Wil- 
mette, 111. His writings include a book on 
sweepstakes and lotteries: Tickets to For- 
tune . . . , New York, [1938]. WW 28 

BENDER, GEORGE H. (Sept. 27, 1896- 
June 19, 1961), Republican political leader, 
was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. 
He served seven terms in Congress and was 
named to complete the Senatorial term of 
Robert A. Taft in 1954. He wrote The 
Challenge of 1940, New York, 1940. WW 30 

BENDER, JOHN S. (1827-Oct. 9, 1912), 
born near Carlisle, Pa., was brought to 
Wayne County when he was eleven years 
old and lived there until early manhood, 
when he moved to Indiana. He taught 
school, practiced law, and operated a news- 
paper in Plymouth, Ind. He wrote a book 
on currency and A Hoosier's Experience in 
Western Europe . . . , Plymouth, 1880. 

Jan. 5, 1950), educator, was born in Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton County. She graduated 
from Vassar College and later studied in 
Europe and at Columbia University. She 
was editor of The American Child, was a 
research editor with the National Associa- 
tion of Day Nurseries, and at the time of 
her death was director of Center Academy, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. She wrote several books 
on children and education, including a his- 
tory of American education: Progress to 
Freedom .... New York, [1942]. 

1851-Oct. 24, 1922), wife of Wayland R. 
Benedict (q.v.), was born in Rochester, 
N. Y. While her husband was a minister 
and teacher in Cincinnati, she took an 
active part in various Cincinnati organi- 
zations and in the Ohio State Federation 
of Women's Clubs. In 1879 she was one 
of the organizers of the Cincinnati Kinder- 
garten Association. Most of her writings 
were stories for the American Baptist Pub- 
lishing Society. 

The Fisherman's Daughter, Philadelphia, 

Centa, Child Violinist, Philadelphia, [n.d.]. 
The Hathaway' s Sister, Philadelphia, [n.d.]. 
Island Story, Philadelphia, [n.d.]. 
My Wonder Story, Boston, [n.d.]. 

BENEDICT, HESTER A. (Oct. 2, 1838-?). 
was born in Streetsboro, Portage County. 
She was educated at Western Reserve 
Seminary. In 1856 she married Hamon 
Benedict of Streetsboro, and after his death 
she married P. T. Dickinson of Sacramento, 
Calif. She afterward lived in Sacramento 
and Alameda, Calif. Besides the volume of 
verse listed below, she contributed to vari- 
ous magazines and newspapers. 
Vesta, Philadelphia, 1872. 


(Jan. 9, 1848-July 21, 1915), educator, 
husband of Anne K. Benedict (q.v.), was 
born in Rochester, N. Y. He graduated from 
the University of Rochester in 1865 and 
Rochester Theological Seminary in 1870. 
Ordained to the Baptist ministry, he was a 
pastor at Mt. Auburn, 1873-75, before 
joining the University of Cincinnati faculty, 
on which he served from 1875 to 1907. 
After his retirement he lived in Cambridge, 
Mass. He wrote a number of textbooks be- 
sides the titles listed below. 
Theism and Evolution, [n.p.], 1886. 
New Studies in the Beatitudes . . . , [Cin- 
cinnati, 1894]. 
World Views and Their Ethical Implications 
. . . , [Cincinnati], 1902. 

BENNETT, EMERSON (March 16, 1822- 
May 11, 1905), was born on a farm near 
Monson, Mass. At the age of seventeen he 
ran away from home and wandered about 
the East. In 1840 he was in New York 
City, where he published The Brigand, a 
story in verse which was greeted with deri- 
sion by the critics. In 1843 he was in Phila- 
delphia. After an unsuccessful love affair, 
he came to Cincinnati in the spring of 1844; 
here he was to launch his literary career. 
For a time he worked soliciting subscrip- 
tions to the Western Literary Journal, 
edited by E. C. Z. Judson (Ned Buntline) 
(q.v.). He began selling stories to the Cin- 
cinnati Commercial. In 1846 Bennett and 
J. H. Green (q.v.) published the Casket at 
Lawrenceburg, Ind. He also served as an 
editor of the Columbian and Great West. In 
the late autumn of 1850 he returned to 
Philadelphia, where he spent the remainder 
of his life. He turned out a great many 
frontier melodramas and some city stories, 
which were published in twenty-five-cent 
editions by U. P. James of Cincinnati and 
T. B. Peterson of Philadelphia. A typical 
work, written during his Cincinnati years, 
was Mike Fink: A Legend of the Ohio, Cin- 
cinnati, 1848. The country around Lan- 
caster is the setting for The Forest Rose; 
A Tale of the Frontier. Cincinnati, 1850. 


Bennett, J. 

1863-April 30, 1924), brother of John Ben- 
nett (q.v.), was born in Chillicothe, Ross 
County. He graduated from Kenyon Col- 
lege in 1886, after which he studied land- 
scape painting at the Art Students' League, 
New York City. He then spent several years 
in the West engaged chiefly in railroading. 
He served as a reporter and city editor on 
the Scioto Gazette in Chillicothe, 1893-97, 
retiring from journalism to spend the rest 
of his days in writing poetry, short stories, 
and forthright articles on labor relations 
and in illustrating books. His verse and 
short stories appeared in leading magazines 
— McClure's, Century, Lippincott's, Youth's 
Companion, and St. Nicholas, among 
others. Reprinted in many readers and an- 
thologies, his best-known poem, "The Flag 
Goes By," which was first published in 
Youth's Companion, is a part of the un- 
forgettable poetry to which Ohio poets 
have contributed so heavily. His death 
occurred in Chillicothe. Besides a book on 
army life and an art book, he wrote The 
County of Ross . . . , Madison, Wis., 1902. 
WWW 1 

BENNETT, JOHN (May 17, 1865-Dec. 28, 
1956), was born in Chillicothe, Ross 
County; he died in Charleston, S. C, where 
he had lived for many years. If the many- 
sided John Bennett had done nothing more 
than write the graceful verses with which 
not too many associate his name, his fame 
would be that of many another poet whose 
name is embalmed in the more inclusive 
anthologies of American poetry. Or if he 
had been content only with his study of the 
speech and folklore of the Gullah Negro, 
he would be remembered for that contribu- 
tion. Or, lacking either of these, he might 
well be remembered as a composer, as a 
not unsuccessful playwright, as an illus- 
trator, or as an editor. Yet, for none of 
these will John Bennett be best and longest 
remembered: he will be remembered, and 
for a long and unpredictable time to come, 
as the author of two of the best juvenile 
books ever produced in the United States: 
Master Skylark and Barnaby Lee. John 
Bennett was born in 1865, a year that 
marks (somewhat roughly) the great turn- 
ing point in American juvenile literature. 
Virtually everything produced in the United 
States for children before that year was 
written with a determined emphasis on 
"moral improvement" or education (so- 
called), and with pure entertainment either 
wholly disregarded or present in minute, 
perhaps accidental or unconscious, quantity. 
The middle 1860s saw the advent of such 

radicals as Edward S. Ellis, Harry Castlemon, 
Horatio Alger, Jr., Oliver Optic, and Louisa 
May Alcott who, consciously, wrote with 
the thought of entertainment first and with 
moralizing either a secondary quality or al- 
most wholly lacking. These and a few others 
laid the foundation for what was to come: 
the golden age of American juvenile litera- 
ture as exemplified by all that is best in 
Our Young Folks, Harper's Round Table, 
Youth's Companion, and, above all, 5/. 
Nicholas of blessed memory. Some authors 
of the earlier dreary period continued to 
grind out preachments thinly disguised as 
juvenile reading, as, for example, Bennett's 
fellow townswoman Martha Finley Far- 
quharson (q.v.), creator of Elsie Dinsmore. 
But these less gifted authors were to be con- 
signed to oblivion by succeeding generations 
of young readers, and our present era sees 
them as little more than curious period 
pieces. John Bennett was untouched by the 
output of these; his work shows none of 
their influence. John Bennett reached his 
greatest height with his contributions to 5/. 
Nicholas: Master Skylark and Barnaby Lee, 
both of which have a quality of timelessness 
that gives the positive impression that they 
will be read, reread, and loved long after 
many (perhaps most) of Bennett's contem- 
poraries are forgotten. To both of these 
novels he brought so thorough a knowledge 
and understanding of the periods of which he 
wrote that as the Critic (New York) for 
Oct. 16, 1897, commented: "Master Sky- 
lark . . . has a positive educational value, 
aside from its interest as a story." Or, to 
quote the austere London Athenaeum of 
Dec. 11. 1897: "the writer knows the Eliza- 
bethan age, and his romance is better than 
many a history lesson." Bennett exhibited a 
rare talent: the ability to produce a histori- 
cally accurate atmosphere without sacrifice 
of action. The dialogue in Master Skylark 
is not pure Elizabethan but is, rather, a 
skillful and necessary compromise — not a 
weak imitation liberally besprinkled with 
thees and thous in the fatuous hope that 
these would be sufficient to flavor the whole. 
As a master storyteller John Bennett never 
made the mistake of assuming that young 
readers, being young, are unable to distin- 
guish genuine from counterfeit. Bennett's 
prose is the happy product of a writer who 
feels as a poet and sees as a painter. As a 
conscious poet he wrote: 

These are the hills the Lord hath 

That man may fear him unafraid. 
Up through the gateway of the 


Bennett, R. K. 


Their purple slopes of peace arise 
Like sunlit paths to Paradise. 
But his poetry often emerges when he is 
least aware of it. Indeed, not a few of his (if 
you please) prose passages can be offered in 
"poetic form" as, for example, the following 
from Master Skylark, which I take the lib- 
erty of rearranging: 
Beyond was a wood of chestnut-trees 
As blue and leafless as a grove of spears; 
And when the painter's influence is upper- 
most we find such splendid splashes of color 

A cloud of dust was rising from the Lon- 
don road and drifting off across the fields 
like smoke when the old ricks burn in 
damp weather — a long, broad-sheeted 
mist; and in it were bits of moving gold, 
shreds of bright colors vaguely seen, and 
silvery gleams like the glitter of polished 
metal in the sun. And as he looked the 
shifty wind came down out of the west 
again and whirled the cloud of dust away, 
and there he saw a long line of men upon 
horses coming at an easy canter up the 
highway. Just as he had made this out the 
line came rattling to a stop, the distant 
drumming of hoofs was still, and as the 
long file knotted itself into a rosette of 
ruddy color amid the April green, a clear, 
shrill trumpet blew and blew again. 
But above all John Bennett is a teller of tales, 
and so skilled in the art that he can cause 
Nick Atwood to say "I'd rather be my moth- 
er's boy" and not have his young readers 
think Nick a milksop. In the hands of a lesser 
writer the passage could be mawkish; but 
John Bennett, being a master of his craft, 
causes it to be natural and realistic. John 
Bennett's place in literature is secure. He 
had the rare privilege of seeing at least one 
of his books become a classic — and more 
than that cannot be given to any teller of 

tales - Jacob Blanck 

Master Skylark; A Story of Shakespeare's 
Time, New York, 1897. 

Barnaby Lee, New York, 1902. 

The Treasure of Peyre Gaillard . . . , New 
York, 1906. 

Songs Which My Youth Sung, Charleston, 
S. C, 1914. 

Madame Margot; A Grotesque Legend of 
Old Charleston, New York, 1921. 

Apothecaries' Hall, a Unique Exhibit at 
the Charleston Museum; An Ancient 
Drug-shop Whose Business Survived 
Plagues, Wars, Great Fires and Earth 
Quakes for One Hundred and Forty 
Years . . . , Charleston, S. C, 1923. 

The Pigtail of Ah Lee Ben Loo . . . , New 
York, 1928. 

Blue Jacket, War Chief of the Shawnees, 
and His Part in Ohio's History, Chilli- 
cothe, 1943. 

The Doctor to the Dead; Grotesque Leg- 
ends & Folk Tales of Old Charleston, 
New York, [1946]. 

BENNETT, R. KING. Pseud. See Richard N. 

BENSON, HENRY CLARK (1815- ? ), clergy- 
man, was born near Xenia, Greene County. 
He became a Methodist minister in 1842, 
taught Greek at Asbury University, 1850— 
52, and in 1852 moved to the West, where 
he was a missionary to the Choctaw In- 
dians and also edited religious papers in 
California and Oregon. 
Life among the Choctaw Indians . . . , 
Cincinnati, 1860. 

BENSON, MILDRED WIRT (July 10, 1905- 
), born in Ladora, Iowa, has lived in 
Toledo since 1923. She is the widow of 
George A. Benson, former editor of the 
Toledo Times, a paper on which she has 
also worked as courthouse reporter. A pro- 
lific author of well over a hundred books 
for children, she has written under various 
pen names, e.g., John M. Foster, Ruth Dar- 
row in the Fire Patrol . . . , New York. 
[1930]; Joan Clark, Penny Nichols Finds 
a Clue, Chicago, [1936]; Dorothy West, 
Dot and Dash at Happy Hollow, New York, 
[1938]; Frank Bell, Flash Evans, Camera 
News Hawk, New York, [1940]: and Fred 
C. Rotsvald, Linda, New York, [1940]. 

1862-April 16, 1941), clergyman, was born 
in Wilmington, Clinton County. After gradu- 
ating from Bethany College in 1890, he 
studied agriculture at Ohio State University. 
Under the auspices of the Disciples of 
Christ Church, he went to China as a mis- 
sionary. In 1898 he established the College 
of Science in Central China; he wrote sev- 
eral textbooks for use there and translated 
books into Chinese. After returning to the 
United States he served a church in San 
Francisco and was on the faculty of Chap- 
man College. He published a collection of 
verse: Where Fountains Play, New York, 

BENTON, ARIEL (Feb. 13, 1792-Nov. 7, 
1883). who came to Chardon from New 
England in 1815, spent his life in Geauea 
County. His recollections of pioneer life 
in the Western Reserve were published for 
the family by his nephew, Ira E. Benton of 
Peoria, 111. 



Life and Times of Ariel Benton . . . , Peoria, 
111., 1882. 

BENTON, ELBERT JAY (March 23, 1871— 
March 28, 1946), educator, was born in 
Dubuque, Iowa. He earned his Ph.D. at 
Johns Hopkins University in 1903. After 
teaching in Kansas and Indiana, he joined 
the faculty of Western Reserve University, 
where he remained until his retirement in 
1941. He published several scholarly his- 
torical studies, collaborated in the writing 
of several American history textbooks, and 
wrote concerning Cleveland, e.g., Cultural 
Story of an American City, Cleveland, 
Cleveland, 1943. WWW 2 

BENTON, GUY POTTER (May 26, 1865- 
June 28, 1927), educator, was born in Ken- 
ton, Hardin County. He served as president 
of several institutions: Upper Iowa Uni- 
versity (1899-1902), Miami University 
(1902-11), and University of Vermont 
(1911-19). From 1921 to 1924 he was 
chief educational consultant to the presi- 
dent of the University of the Philippines. 
He wrote The Real College, Cincinnati, 
[1909]. WWW 1 

BENTON, WALTER J. (Oct. 27. 1907- ), 
was born Walter Potashnik in Austria. His 
family came to America in 1922 and settled 
in Warren, Trumbull County, where he 
attended public schools. After graduating 
from Ohio University in 1933, he worked 
for five years as an investigator for the De- 
partment of Welfare, New York City, served 
in the Signal Corps during World War II, 
and now lives in New York City. He has 
published poems in many national maga- 
zines; his first collected volume was pub- 
lished during the war: This Is My Beloved, 
New York, 1943. 

BERDAN, JOHN MILTON (July 9, 1873- 
April 3, 1949), educator, was born in 
Toledo, Lucas County. After graduating 
from Yale in 1896, he taught in Toledo for 
a time before joining the Yale faculty. He 
retired from teaching in 1941. His advice 
was valued by Sinclair Lewis and numerous 
other writers who were his students at Yale. 
He published several textbooks and Early 
Tudor Poetry, New York, 1920. WWE 1 

1846- ? ), educator and folklorist, was born 
in Mansfield, Richland County. She gradu- 
ated from Antioch College in 1875. She 
taught school in Mansfield, in Cleveland, 
and at Antioch College. The first two titles 
below were written in collaboration with 

her husband, Joseph Y. Bergen (q.v.); the 
last two were prepared under the sponsor- 
ship of the American Folklore Society. 
The Development Theory . . . , Boston, 

Glimpses at the Plant World, New York, 

Current Superstitions . . . , New York, 

Animal and Plant Lore . . . , New York, 


BERGEN, JOSEPH YOUNG (Feb. 22, 1851- 
Oct. 10, 1917), was born in Red Bank, 
Maine. After graduating from Antioch Col- 
lege in 1872, he worked for a time on the 
Ohio Geological Survey. He collaborated 
with his wife, Fanny D. Bergen (q.v.), in 
writing two books and also wrote a num- 
ber of science textbooks. 

BERGER, DANIEL (Feb. 14, 1832-Sept. 12, 
1920), clergyman, was born near Reading, 
Pa. In 1838 the family moved to Spring- 
field, where Daniel grew up on a farm. 
After two years' attendance at the Ohio 
Methodist Conference high school, he spent 
three years teaching at an academy in New 
Carlisle and afterward became principal of 
a school in Springfield. In 1853 he married 
Mary Frances Merry (c.l833-Feb. 10. 1915), 
a cousin of Cardinal Merry del Val. A 
convert to Protestantism before her marriage, 
she published in 1913 a widely read pam- 
phlet: In and Out of Catholicism. Daniel be- 
came a minister of the United Brethren 
Church in 1854, served as a pastor until 
1858, edited the Religious Telescope in Day- 
ton, 1858-69, and was editor of the Sunday 
School literature of the United Brethren 
Church, 1869-95. 

History of the Church of the United 
Brethren in Christ, New York, 1894. 

BERGER, ELMER (May 27, 1908- ), 
rabbi, was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. He attended Cleveland public 
schools and graduated from the University 
of Cincinnati in 1930 and Hebrew Union 
College in 1932. He was a rabbi in Pontiac, 
Mich., 1932-36, and Flint, Mich., 1936-43. 
He is executive director of the American 
Council for Judaism and has written several 
books, e.g., The Jewish Dilemma, New 
York, 1945. 

BERING, JOHN A. (1839-1922), was born 
in Highland County. He served in the 48th 
O.V.I, from Oct., 1861. to June, 1865. He 
was taken prisoner in April, 1864, and was 
imprisoned until the end of the war. He 




collaborated with Thomas Montgomery in 

writing the regimental history listed below. 

History of the Forty-eiglith Ohio Veteran 

Volunteer Infantry . . . , Hillsboro, 1880. 

BERKMAN, JACK N. (Feb. 12, 1905- ), 
laywer, born in London, England, was 
brought when two years old to Canton, 
where he grew up. After graduating from 
the University of Michigan in 1926, he at- 
tended Harvard Law School and on com- 
pleting his work began practice in Steuben- 
ville. He has published Playing God, a 
Heroesque Comedy . . . , Boston, [1931]. 

1889-May 27, 1948), was born in Clyde, 
Sandusky County. She attended the public 
schools of Tiffin and after 1914 lived in 
Toledo. She published short stories in maga- 
zines and one book, Diana of Briarcliffe, 
Boston, [1923]. WW 16 

1879-July 1, 1954), Catholic priest, was 
born near Morganville, Morgan County. A 
graduate of Mount Saint Mary's College, 
Emmitsburg, Md., he taught in country 
schools in Morgan County, 1896-99, studied 
at Mount Saint Mary's of the West, Cin- 
cinnati, 1901-06, served various parishes in 
Ohio, 1906-22, and taught philosophy and 
theology at Mount Saint Mary's, Md., from 
1922 until his death. He published several 
books on religious themes, e.g., The Apoca- 
lypse of St. John, Columbus, 1921. 

BESSE, HENRY (1823-1901), physician, was 
born in Licking County. He read medicine 
for two years, took a term of lectures at 
Starling Medical College, and began prac- 
ticing in East Liberty in 1847. In 1857 he 
graduated from Western Reserve Medical 
College, and in 1863 he moved to Delaware, 
where he practiced until 1899. In March, 
1871, he became agent and physician to 
Mina and Minnie, Siamese twins born the 
year before in Morrow County. The "dou- 
ble babe" was exhibited in several Ohio 
cities but died in July soon after the ex- 
hibition reached Boston. About one-third 
of Dr. Besse's curious book is devoted to 
a description of the united babies. 
Diploteratology; Or, a History of Some of 
the Most Wonderful Human Beings That 
Have Ever Lived in Double Form . . . , 
Delaware, 1874. 

BEST, NOLAN RICE (April 9, 1871-July 
20, 1930), editor, was born in Rich Hill, 
Knox County. He graduated from Otterbein 
College in 1892. After a year with the 

United Brethren Publishing House, Dayton, 
and six years with the Zanesville Daily 
Courier, he joined the staff of The Interior 
(later The Continent); he was associated 
with this periodical from 1901 until 1924, 
when he became executive secretary of the 
Baltimore Federation of Churches. His 
death occurred in Baltimore, Md. His books, 
written on religious and inspirational themes, 
include The College Man in Doubt, Phila- 
delphia, 1902. WWW 1 

1869-March 13, 1944), educator, was born 
in Cincinnati, Hamilton County, and spent 
her entire life in that city. A teacher in the 
elementary schools, she published articles 
and poems in various periodicals and also 
composed valentine verses for a commercial 
publisher. She also wrote several titles in 
a series, World Famous Stories in Historic 

The Fallen Pillar Saint, and Other Poems, 

New York, 1890. 
Altar Candles, Boston, [1927]. 
Leaves from Life's Tree, a Book of Verse, 

Philadelphia, [1947]. 

BETTAN, ISRAEL (Jan. 16, 1889-Aug. 5, 
1957), rabbi, was born in Lithuania. He 
graduated from the University of Cincinnati 
in 1910 and was ordained a rabbi in 1912. 
He served a synagogue in Charleston, W. 
Va., 1912-22, and was on the faculty of 
Hebrew Union College, 1922-55. He pub- 
lished several books on religious subjects, 
e.g., The Five Scrolls; A Commentary . . . , 
Cincinnati, 1950. 

BETTEN, FRANCIS SALES (Salesius) (April 
16, 1863-Dec. 8, 1942), clergyman and 
educator, born in Wocklum, Germany, came 
to America in 1898. A member of the 
Society of Jesus, he taught in several Catho- 
lic universities, including St. Ignatius (John 
Carroll) in Cleveland, 1909-28. He wrote 
several history textbooks and some religious 
works, e.g., St. Boniface and St. Virgil . . . , 
[Washington, D. C, 1927]. WWW 2 


1929- ), was born in Mount Vernon, Knox 
County, but moved to Columbus at an 
early age. He attended Ohio State Uni- 
versity and in 1960 is studying for his doc- 
torate at the University of Nebraska. While 
a student at Ohio State, he published a 
collection of poems under the pen name 
Robert Lawrence: The Ninth Hour, New 
York, [1948]. 



April 27, 1927), lawyer, historian, and U. S. 
Senator, was born in Highland County, but 
lived only the first three years of his life 
in Ohio. When he was three, his parents 
moved to Illinois, and throughout his ma- 
ture life he was a resident of Indiana. He 
graduated from Asbury University, Green- 
castle, Ind., in 1885, read law and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1887, practiced in 
Indianapolis, and took an active part in 
Indiana Republican politics. He served in 
the Senate, 1899-1910, noted chiefly as an 
exponent of imperialism. His joining the 
Progressive movement in 1912 probably 
was the cause of his subsequent failures to 
win public office. As a historian and biogra- 
pher, his masterpiece was The Life of John 
Marshall, 4 vols., New York, 1916-19. His 
biography of Lincoln, which is probably 
better known, was left incomplete at the 
time of his death. DAB 2 

1888- ), was born and educated in 
Cincinnati, Hamilton County. She graduated 
from the University of Cincinnati in 1909 
and later did graduate work in several uni- 
versities and taught school in Iowa and 
Ohio. She has lived in Columbus since 
1940, when her husband, Howard L. Bevis, 
became president of Ohio State University. 
Mrs. Bevis has published a historical study 
of Harvard: Diets and Riots . . . , Boston, 
1936. WWAW 1 


(July 17, 1846- ? ), was born in Zanesville, 
Muskingum County. After working on New 
York newspapers for some years, she came 
to Cincinnati around 1883 to work on the 
Penny Post. She married Henry M. Bevis, a 
Cincinnati printer and publisher. She was 
one of the founders of the Woman's Press 
Club in Cincinnati. 
Poems, Cincinnati, 1890. 

30, 1827-March 29, 1894), journalist, was 
born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. He 
attended Cincinnati schools and Bethany 
College. At the age of twenty he became 
city and commercial editor of the Louisville 
Daily Courier. In 1850 he joined the rush 
to the gold fields of California; after work- 
ing in various capacities on San Francisco 
newspapers, he returned to Ohio in 1854. 
He wrote his book on Rosecrans' campaign 
while in the field as a war correspondent for 
the Cincinnati Commercial. When the Day- 
ton Journal was destroyed by a mob on 
May 5, 1863, he was invited to take charge 

and re-establish the newspaper. He assumed 
proprietorship, a position he held until his 
death in Dayton over thirty years later. 
Rosecrans' Campaign with the Fourteenth 
Army Corps, or the Army of the Cum- 
berland: A Narrative of Personal Obser- 
vations . . . , Cincinnati, 1863. 
From Ohio to the Rocky Mountains . . . , 
Dayton, 1879. 

BICKLEY, GEORGE W. L. (1823-1867), 
born in Russell County, Va., was left an 
orphan at the age of twelve. He went to 
Europe, where he spent a number of years 
trying to trace his family. Wherever he 
happened to be, he attended medical lec- 
tures — Paris, London, Edinburgh, New York, 
Philadelphia. Later, though apparently lack- 
ing an academic degree, he is believed to 
have taught in medical schools in the South; 
meanwhile his mind was occupied with 
grandiose schemes. At one time he is said 
to have toyed with the idea of overthrow- 
ing the Mexican government and establish- 
ing himself as emperor, while on another 
occasion he promoted a project for buying 
the entire coal output of the Dominican 
Republic. He turned up at Jeffersonville. 
Tazewell County, Va., about 1850, opened 
an office in the Union Hotel, and began prac- 
ticing medicine there. It was during this 
lull in his otherwise eventful career that 
he took time out — a scant seven weeks — to 
gather the materials and write a creditable 
history of the county. He turned up at 
Cincinnati in 1851 with the manuscript, 
found a publisher, and the following year 
began teaching materia medica at the 
Eclectic Medical Institute. Declaring that 
his work as a lecturer was eminently satis- 
factory, Dr. Otto Juettner said: "He was 
the equal of any medical writer in the 
West at that time. His style reminds one 
of Drake, rhetorical and of classic purity." 
In 1853 he published a popular novel, Ad- 
alaska, which was translated into German 
and French. In April of that year — airily de- 
nying pecuniary considerations — he founded 
the West American Review "to elevate and 
purify the tone of American literature by 
a critical examination of its defects and 
merits." A serial feature was included "to 
meet a morbid appetite which has mani- 
fested itself in the constant and ever in- 
creasing demand for popular Magazines in 
the United States." The following Novem- 
ber the Review absorbed the Parlor Maga- 
zine, of which Alice Cary was editor, and 
continued until Oct., 1854, under the title 
American Monthly. Shortly after its sus- 
pension Bickley went underground. Little is 
actually known of Bickley's movements dur- 



ing the next two years. He is said to have 
toured the South, where he espoused the 
cause of the Southern Rights Clubs, and to 
have organized "castles" of his subversive 
Knights of the Golden Circle. His only 
known portrait, believed to have been taken 
at this time, shows him wearing the insignia 
of the order. As quietly as he had slipped 
away, he returned to the practice of medi- 
cine in Cincinnati and to the faculty of the 
Eclectic Medical Institute in 1857. The 
next year he became editor of the Scientific 
Artisan, and in conjunction with Dr. R. S. 
Newton he established the Cincinnati Eclec- 
tic and Edinburgh Review. With secession 
almost an accomplished fact in 1860, he 
again went underground and began organiz- 
ing the Knights in the border states. He 
emerged long enough in May, 1861, to 
address a defiant "Open Letter to the Ken- 
tucky Legislature" wherein he boasted of 
8,000 Knights scattered through every county 
of that state. He could hardly have chosen 
a more inopportune moment, for this was 
the very month in which that implacable 
foe of the Knights, the Union Club, was 
organized in Louisville, and that was the 
last heard of him in Kentucky. With a glib 
story of having been caught in the deep 
South at the outbreak of hostilities and 
forced to serve in the Confederate army, 
he turned up at General Rosecrans' head- 
quarters in July, 1863, seeking a pass to 
Cincinnati. Long since he had become a 
marked man in the North, and it was prob- 
ably with tongue in cheek that the General 
granted him the pass, accompanied by the 
injunction that he must travel direct to 
Cincinnati with no stops between. He made 
the mistake of stopping at New Albany, 
Ind., where he found a military reception 
committee awaiting him. and then and there 
he went out of circulation for the duration 
of the war. Afterward he toured Europe lec- 
turing and sightseeing. He died in Baltimore, 

Ernest J. Wessen 
History of the Settlement and Indian Wars 
of Tazewell County, Virginia . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1852. 
Adalaska: Or, the Strange and Mysterious 
Family of the Cave of Genreva, Cincin- 
nati, 1853. 
Physiological and Scientific Botany, [Cin- 
cinnati, 1853]. 
Principles of Scientific Botany, Cincinnati, 

Concentrated Preparations, Cincinnati, 1855. 

1825-May 29, 1916), was born on her 
father's farm at Great Bend, Meigs County. 

In 1846 she was married to Isaac Cowdery, 
but in 1854 she obtained a divorce and re- 
assumed her maiden name. She taught school 
in Meigs County, was superintendent of a 
Methodist home for the aged in New York 
State, and returned to Ohio to become ma- 
tron of the Meigs County Children's Home. 
After retiring she lived in Pomeroy, where 
she died at the age of 91. Throughout her 
life she published poetry in various periodi- 
cals, but the volume below is her only col- 
Violets, and Other Poems, New York, 1897. 

1811-May 13, 1900), lawyer and judge, was 
born in a log cabin in what is now Hocking 
County. He attended district schools, read 
law in Lancaster under Hocking H. Hunter, 
and was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1839. 
In the same year he left Ohio for Indiana, 
and the remainder of his life was spent 
in that state. He practiced in Logansport, 
served as circuit court judge, and also served 
on the State Supreme Court. 1874-81. In 
his home on Biddle's Island in the Wabash 
River, he maintained the largest private 
library in the state, translated works from 
several European languages, and entertained 
a wide circle of friends. An edition of the 
first title below is said to have appeared in 
1849, but no copy has been located. 
A Few Poems, Cincinnati, 1858. 
The Musical Scale, Cincinnati, 1860. 
Poems, New York, 1868. 
Biddle's Poems, New York, 1872. 
The Definition of Poetry . . . , Cincinnati, 

Glances at the World, [n.p.], 1873. 
My Scrap Book, Logansport, 1874. 
American Boyhood, Philadelphia. 1876. 
The Analvsis of Rhxme . . . , Cincinnati, 

An Essay on Russian Literature, Cincinnati, 

1877. ' 
The Tetrachord .... Cincinnati, 1877. 
Amatories by an Amateur, Cincinnati, 1878. 
The Elements of Knowledge, Cincinnati, 

Prose Miscellany, Cincinnati. 1881. 
Last Poems, Cincinnati. 1882. 
The Eureka . . . , Logansport, 1886. 
Life and Services of John B. Dillon, (with 

John Coburn), Indianapolis, 1886. 

BIDDLE, JACOB ALBERT (Dec. 24, 1845- 
Sept. 24, 1914), was born in Rochester, 
Lorain County. He was president of Philo- 
math College, Oreg., and later served as 
pastor in Milford and South Norwalk, Conn. 
His death occurred in South Manchester, 


Bierce, A. G. 

Social Regeneration, Hartford, 1896. 
The Perfect Life, Boston, [1915]. 

BIDWELL, JOHN (Aug. 5, 1819-April 4, 
1900), was born in Chautauqua County, 
N. Y. His family moved to Ashtabula 
County in 1831 and later moved on to 
Darke County. In 1836 young Bidwell 
walked the nearly 300 miles back to Ashta- 
bula in order to enter Kingsville Academy. 
There he made such progress that he was 
elected principal of the institution for 1837. 
He taught school in Darke County in 1838 
and then decided to seek his fortune in the 
West. In May, 1841, he joined the Bartleson 
party at Independence, Mo., and thus be- 
came a member of the first emigrant train 
to make the journey to California from 
Missouri. From his arrival until his death — 
from the Bear Flag revolt of 1846 to his 
candidacy for Governor of California in 
1890 on the Prohibition ticket — he played 
an active role in shaping the history of 
California. In 1849 he acquired the exten- 
sive Rancho Chico of 22,000 acres, which 
he brought to such a high state of develop- 
ment that he was recognized as the out- 
standing agriculturist of the state. He was 
one of the early regents of the University 
of California and a benefactor of the State 
Normal School. 
John Bidwell's Trip to California, 1841, [St. 

Louis, Mo., 1842]. 
Echoes of the Past; An Account of the First 
Emigrant Train to California, Fremont 
in the Conquest of California, the Dis- 
covery of Gold and Early Reminiscences, 
Chico, Calif., [1900]. 


24, 1842-1914?), remembered principally 
for the macabre short stories in Tales of 
Soldiers and Civilians and Can Such Things 
Be?, and The Devil's Dictionary, was born 
in Meigs County. His father, Marcus Aure- 
lius Bierce, and his mother, Laura Sherwood, 
were both born in Cornwall, Conn. The 
families migrated to Portage County, where 
Marcus married Laura in 1822. In 1840 
the family moved to Horse Cave, Meigs 
County. The reticence of Bierce about his 
early childhood and the scarcity of family 
records prevent our knowing much about his 
early life. It is said that the father had an 
unusually large number of books and that 
he had a taste for poetry. In 1846 they left 
Ohio for Walnut Creek, Ind. The uncle 
of Ambrose Bierce was Lucius Verus Bierce 
(q.v. ), whose flamboyant career was of the 
sort which would have attracted the nephew. 

Family tradition has it that Ambrose visited 
Lucius at various times in Akron and that 
Lucius sent him to the Kentucky Military 
Institute for a period. Bierce's inclination 
to say little about his youth prevents our 
knowing what his associations with his uncle 
were. Nor is information from Lucius avail- 
able on this interesting subject. Early after 
the outbreak of the Civil War, Bierce joined 
Company C of the Ninth Regiment of In- 
diana Volunteers. His war years proved 
him a good soldier, and he was to receive 
citations for bravery in action and for ex- 
cellence of service. He fought at Girard 
Hill, Carrick's Ford, Shiloh, Chickamauga, 
Missionary Ridge, and Kennesaw Moun- 
tain, where he was wounded in the head. 
He received a discharge early in 1865. His 
war experiences provided him with material 
for most of his memorable short stories and 
for some of his finest sketches. In 1866 he 
became attached to the staff of General 
William B. Hazen (q.v.), under whom he 
had served in the army. Bierce's job was 
mapping and topographical studies. When 
the expedition reached California, Bierce 
was disappointed to learn that his conscien- 
tious service was ill rewarded by a second 
lieutenancy. He resigned. He was to remain 
in California for the next five years. In 
1867 he began contributing to the journals 
and magazines on the West Coast, the Cali- 
fornian printing his earliest poems. Soon 
he was appearing in the News Letter, The 
Golden Era, and other publications. Decem- 
ber 25, 1871, he was married to Mollie 
Day. The bride's father gave the young 
couple a trip to England as a wedding gift. 
They were to remain in England until the 
autumn of 1875. Bierce worked on the 
staff of Fun, edited the short-lived Lantern 
for the Empress Eugenie, and contributed 
to Hood's Comic Annual. He made various 
acquaintances among London's literary fig- 
ures, including George Augustus Sala, W. 
S. Gilbert, and Thomas Hood. His mordantly 
humorous sketches (observed in his early 
books. The Fiend's Delight and Nuggets 
and Dust Panned out in California) earned 
for him the sobriquet "Bitter Bierce." In 
1876 the Bierces were back in San Francisco. 
Bierce worked on the Wasp and the Argonaut 
until William Randolph Hearst took over 
The Examiner in 1887. As conductor of the 
column "Prattle." which appeared on the 
editorial page, Bierce made himself the lit- 
erary dictator of the Pacific coast; his 
satirical and witty mots were widely quoted. 
His first volume of stories, Tales of Soldiers 
and Civilians (1891), however grim and 
vivid, was not a publishing success. In 1892 
he revised and rewrote G. A. Danziger's 

Bierce, C. B. C. 


The Monk and the Hangman's Daughter. 
Can Such Things Be? (1893) contained 
some of his memorable stories, dealing with 
supernatural occurrences and weird episodes. 
It was in the early years of this decade that 
Bierce achieved his greatest work. Hearst 
sent Bierce to Washington in 1896 to write 
against Huntington's proposed refunding bill; 
the following year he was again in the 
East, this time as correspondent of the 
New York American. In 1906 appeared The 
Cynic's Word Book, later titled Devil's Dic- 
tionary, remembered for its sardonic defini- 
tions and its devastating disillusionment. 
His best work was now over; there remained 
principally his garnering of fugitive pieces. 
He edited his Collected Works (1909-12) 
in a dozen volumes. This was an ill-advised 
undertaking, for the material republished 
was largely inferior; Bierce was unwilling 
to omit patently immature work or stuff 
better left hidden. His reputation gained 
nothing by the pretentious row of volumes. 
By 1913 he felt lonely and tired. He had 
been disappointed in the publishing fiasco 
of his Collected Works; moreover, many of 
his friends were now dead. He made a 
nostalgic tour of the battlefields upon which 
he had fought and remembered the old 
excitement. The political disturbances in 
Mexico attracted him, and he decided to 
cross the border. From time to time word 
was heard from him; but after December 
26, 1913, there was only silence. The vari- 
ous myths concerning his death have re- 
mained unresolved, but he found what he 
sought, "the good, kind darkness." He re- 
mains an important though not a key figure 
in American literature. While his work may 
suggest the manner and material of Poe, it 
is actually not very much like Poe's. No 
doubt he learned method from Poe and 
from Bret Harte. In turn he seems to have 
anticipated such unlike writers as Stephen 
Crane and O. Henry. 

Charles Duffy 
Nuggets and Dust Panned Out in California, 
(by Dod Grile, Collected and loosely ar- 
ranged by J. Milton Sloluck), London, 
The Fiend's Delight, (by Dod Grile), New 

York, 1873. 
Cobwebs from an Empty Skull, (by Dod 

Grile), New York, 1874. 
Tales of Soldiers and Civilians, San Fran- 
cisco, 1891. 
Black Beetle in Amber, San Francisco, 1892. 
The Monk and the Hangman's Daughter, 

Chicago, 1892. 
Can Such Things Be?, New York, [1893]. 
Fantastic Fables, New York, 1899. 
Shapes of Clay, San Francisco, 1903. 

The Cynic's Word Book, New York, 1906. 
A Son of the Gods and a Horseman in the 

Sky, San Francisco, 1907. 
The Collected Works . . . , 12 vols., New 

York, 1909-12. 
The Shadow on the Dial, and Other Essays, 

San Francisco, 1909. 
Write It Right . . . , New York, 1909. 
The Letters of Ambrose Bierce . . . , (Bertha 

C. Pope, ed.), San Francisco, 1922. 
Twenty-one Letters . . . , (Samuel Loveman, 

ed.), Cleveland, 1922. 

1802-Dec. 31, 1846), was born in Beckett, 
Mass. Her parents brought her to Portage 
County in 1811. She taught school in Penn- 
sylvania during the summers of 1819 and 
1821 and married H. N. Bierce in 1823. 
Twenty-three years after her death from 
tuberculosis, her son, Rev. D. E. Bierce, 
discovered, edited, and published her jour- 

Journal and Biographical Notice . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1869. 

BIERCE, LUCIUS VERUS (Aug. 4, 1801- 
Nov. 11, 1876), youngest of the seven chil- 
dren of William and Abigail (Bell) Bierce, 
was born in Cornwall Bridge, Conn. His 
father was a Revolutionary War veteran 
who, as a farmer and shoemaker, kept his 
family in "comfortable circumstances." Aside 
from the modest fame that Lucius enjoyed, 
none of the family achieved distinction. His 
eldest brother, Marcus Aurelius, was the 
father of Ambrose Bierce (q.v.), and, ac- 
cording to family legend, young Ambrose 
modeled himself somewhat on his favorite 
uncle, Lucius. Soon after the death of Abigail 
in Sept., 1815, the family migrated to Nel- 
son, Portage County, in the Connecticut 
Reserve of Ohio. There were no advanced 
schools in the newly settled Western Re- 
serve, so young Bierce enrolled in the 
Academy of Ohio University in Dec, 
1817. His Roman name suited him well, 
for the college's classical curriculum left 
a decided mark upon his mind, and his par- 
ticipation in the weekly debates of the 
Athenian Literary Society introduced him 
to a lifelong interest in forceful oral expres- 
sion. In Sept., 1822, he graduated from the 
University with an A.B. degree. One month 
later Bierce started what might be described 
as the American frontier's "Grand Tour." 
In company with a college chum he set 
forth on foot on a year-long, 1,800-mile 
"ramble" through the South. He stayed 
briefly at Lancaster, S. C, where he "played 
pedagogue" and read law. In May, 1823, 
having walked on to Athens, Ala., he com- 


Bierce, L. V. 

pleted his legal reading and was licensed as 
an attorney. Upon his return to Ohio, Bierce 
continued his study of law and was licensed 
to practice in Ohio. He settled in the West- 
ern Reserve, where in 1826 he commenced 
his career of public service as prosecuting 
attorney for Portage County and justice of 
the peace of Ravenna Township, offices 
which he held for eleven years. Commis- 
sioned a captain in the Ohio Militia in 
1832, he attained the rank of brigadier 
general five years later. That same year 
Bierce moved a few miles west to the 
young canal town of Akron, where he lived 
until his death. Here he practiced law, 
served six terms as mayor, was president 
of the Akron School Board at a time when 
the influential Akron School Law was pro- 
mulgated, and was elected state senator. 
He was a founder of Akron Lodge, Free 
and Accepted Masons, and its Master for 
many years. In 1853 he became Grand Mas- 
ter of the Grand Lodge of Ohio. Bierce 
supported the Washingtonian temperance 
movement, urged local resistance to the Fugi- 
tive Slave Act of 1850. extolled the virtues 
of John Brown and aided him in his Kan- 
sas ventures. On patriotic occasions he came 
to be the unofficial public orator of the city 
and its surrounding areas. Most colorful of 
his many undertakings was the abortive 
military foray that he led into Windsor, 
Ontario, during the Canadian Rebellion of 
1837-38. As a leading spirit in the Hunters 
or Patriot movement, Bierce was commis- 
sioned Major General and Commander in 
Chief of the Patriot forces in Canada, and 
in Dec, 1838, he personally led the western 
forces across the Detroit River. His "army." 
variously estimated at 147 to 400 men. was 
routed by Canadian militia, and most of 
his force was captured, but Bierce and a 
few followers made good their escape to 
Michigan. Bierce was twice indicted in 
Federal court for violating American neu- 
trality laws, but both indictments were 
dropped. Too old for active campaigning 
in the Civil War. Bierce raised a company 
of volunteers for the Union armies and two 
companies of Marines which he delivered 
at his own expense to the Washington Navy 
Yard. He served as assistant adjutant gen- 
eral of Volunteers in Ohio, as inspector for 
Ohio, and, near the war's end. as a com- 
mandant of Camp Washburne and Camp 
Randall, Wis. Throughout his life Bierce 
was a keen observer of people and places. 
On his long Southern walk he kept notes 
that he expanded into a journal which he 
later edited, evidently with an eye toward 
publication. Despite his pretentious style, 
one feels the force of Bierce's convictions, 

the slash of his caustic wit. This is evident 
in his description of his first encounter with 
Negro slavery, his assessment of Indians 
and half-breeds, and his description of ec- 
centric characters such as the Kentuckian 
who claimed to be Jesus Christ. This jour- 
nal was one of the items Bierce donated to 
the library of the recently established 
Buchtel College, now the University of Ak- 
ron. Though never properly published, 
poorly edited portions of the journal were 
serialized in the Akron Alumni Quarterly 
(1919-22). Local history, specifically the 
history of the Western Reserve, was the 
subject of most of Bierce's published writ- 
ing. Sometime in the ante-bellum period he 
determined to record the story of this re- 
gion he had claimed for his own. Soon after 
he settled in Akron he began collecting his- 
torical material which he organized into 
sketches of the various townships of Sum- 
mit County. In 1854 the Canfield brothers 
of Akron published eighteen of these 
sketches in a collection called Historical 
Reminiscences of Summit County. Between 
1855 and 1868, seventeen similar sketches 
of Portage County townships appeared in 
the Portage County Democrat under the 
title "Home Reminiscences." They were in- 
tended to be part of a history of the West- 
ern Reserve which never materialized. 
Bierce had published an introductory essay 
for this proposed history in the Akron Ar- 
gus (1873-74). This essay and the sketches 
form a substantial basis for such a history. 
Numerous other historical articles and ora- 
tions were printed in newspapers and pam- 
phlets, and had Bierce been able to gather 
all his writings in one publication, it would 
have constituted the most extensive material 
yet compiled about the history of the West- 
ern Reserve. Bierce was not a great stylist. 
His histories are not analytical nor do they 
deal with the broad sweep of events, but 
they do represent a detailed account of the 
lives of the people who first settled the Re- 
serve. He has properly labeled his writings 
"reminiscences" — reminiscences of Indians, 
of big hunts, of pioneer hardships. He was 
much concerned, as were the pioneers, with 
"firsts," and the first settler, the first child 
born in an area, the first church were ac- 
counted for whenever possible. By preserv- 
ing and recording the recollections of early 
settlers he performed an important historical 
function. Only a small portion of Bierce's 
writings concern subjects other than the Re- 
serve. In 1855 he published his revision of 
Sir Roger L'Estrange's abstract of Seneca's 
Morals. In 1868 he tried his hand at biog- 
raphy with a brief assessment of Asaph 
Whittlesey of Tallmadge. He also left a 



number of unpublished essays on science 
and religion. Bierce regretted his lack of 
surviving heirs. In 1836 he married Frances 
C. Peck, who bore him a son. The infant's 
death in Feb., 1839, was followed in six 
months by his mother's. In 1840 Bierce 
married Sophronia Ladd. She survived him 
by six years, but their daughter died when 
nineteen. On Nov. 11, 1876, in the Centen- 
nial Year, "General" Bierce, as he was re- 
spectfully called, died quietly at his Akron 

George W. Knepper 
Historical Reminiscences of Summit County 
. . . , Akron, 1854. 

1872-Jan. 6, 1955), educator, was born in 
Milford Center, Union County. He grad- 
uated from Ohio Wesleyan University in 
1894 and from Harvard University (Ph.D.) 
in 1901. He served on the biology faculty, 
Columbia University, 1899-1939. He pub- 
lished a number of textbooks and a series 
of lectures: Sex Education . . . , New York, 
1916. WWW 3 

BIGGER, DAVID DWIGHT (May 18, 1849- 
Feb. 3, 1932), clergyman, born in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., was pastor of First Presbyterian 
Church, Tiffin, 1878-96. His death occurred 
in St. Petersburg, Fla. He wrote at least 
two biographies, e.g., a life of General 
William H. Gibson: Ohio's Silver-Tongued 
Orator . . . , Dayton, 1901. 

BIGGERS, EARL DERR (Aug. 26, 1884- 
April 5, 1933), was born in Warren, Trum- 
bull County. After graduating from Har- 
vard in 1907, he wrote for the Boston Trav- 
eler. His first popular success came in 1913 
with Seven Keys to Baldpate, which was 
fairly successful as a novel but spectacularly 
so as a play starring George M. Cohan. Big- 
gers' best-known character, Charlie Chan, 
appeared first in The House Without a Key, 
Indianapolis, [1925]. The suave, sagacious 
Chinese detective caught the public's fancy 
and has been reincarnated in a comic strip, 
motion pictures, and television plays. Alto- 
gether, Biggers wrote six Charlie Chan nov- 
els, all of them first serialized in the Satur- 
day Evening Post and all immensely pop- 
ular. The amiable, patient Chinese is one 
of the half-dozen best-known fictional de- 
tectives. DAB 21 

BIGGS, LOUISE OGAN (July 24, 1882-Oct. 
28, 1958), educator, was born in Elk Town- 
ship, Vinton County. After graduating from 
Ohio University, she taught school in Mc- 
Arthur and also in Wisconsin and West 

Virginia. She published a book of Bible 
stories and A Brief History of Vinton 
County, Columbus, 1950. 

BILES, ROY EDWIN (May 12, 1888-March 
3, 1941), was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. After he became interested in gar- 
dening, he lectured widely on the subject 
and published articles in the Cincinnati En- 
quirer and other newspapers. He published 
two books, the first of which was The Book 
of Garden Magic, [Cincinnati, 1935]. 

BILLINGS, JOHN SHAW (April 12, 1838- 
March 11, 1913), physician and librarian, 
was born in southeastern Indiana. He at- 
tended Miami University and Medical Col- 
lege of Ohio during the 1850s and practiced 
in Cincinnati during 1860-61. He was a 
prolific and influential writer of articles, 
pamphlets, and books on medicine, statistics, 
hospital construction, libraries, and related 

BILLINGS, JOSH. Pseud. See Henry W. 

1818-Oct. 12, 1897), clergyman, was born 
near East Palestine, Columbiana County. 
He graduated from Jefferson College in 
1847 and Allegheny Theological Seminary 
in 1850. He served as pastor of several 
churches, as a missionary in Nebraska and 
Colorado, and as an army chaplain. The 
first title below was also published as From 
the Flag to the Cross. . . . He died in 
Statesville, N. C. 
Christianity in the War . . . , Philadelphia, 

The Life of the Great Preacher, Reverend 

George Whitefield . . . , Philadelphia, 


Aug. 27, 1853), was the leader of the Ger- 
man Separatists who founded the village of 
Zoar in Tuscarawas County from the time 
of their migration from Wiirttemberg in 
1817 until his death. The colony was or- 
ganized on 5,500 acres of land purchased 
with the aid of Quakers in Philadelphia, 
where the colonists landed on their arrival 
in America. Little is known of Bimeler's 
early life, but he is said to have been a 
schoolteacher in Munich as a young man. 
His interests were broad; he had a profes- 
sional knowledge of weaving and had more 
than a passing interest in music, he had 
read widely in the fields of medicine, chem- 
istry, astronomy, and history. The out- 
standing success of the Zoar experiment in 


Bird, A. M. P. 

communal living is sufficient proof of his 
acumen as a businessman. His guiding hand 
was sadly missed after his death, although 
the village continued to prosper and, even 
as late as the 1890s, was described by city 
dwellers as a rural paradise. The three vol- 
umes listed below, containing more than 
2,500 pages, are adequate testimony both 
of Bimeler's mastery of Separatist theology 
and of his recognition by the villagers as 
their spiritual guide. The volume Etwas 
Fiirs Herzf, which was the last to be 
printed, covers the period 1822-29 and 
therefore antedates the material in the two 
volumes of Die Wahre Separation. These 
addresses (they were never referred to as 
sermons), more than 500 in all, represent 
approximately one-third of those delivered 
by Bimeler in the course of thirty years. 
Herr Bimeler did not write these sermons. 
He spoke extemporaneously Sunday after 
Sunday, believing along with his listeners 
that the Holy Spirit was speaking through 
him. The addresses were preserved under 
circumstances that might be described as 
fortuitous. Johannes Neef, a young member 
of the Society and for a time the village 
schoolmaster, began in 1822 to make notes 
of Bimeler's remarks in order that his 
father, who was deaf, might know what the 
leader was saying. His early efforts, pre- 
served in Etwas Fiirs Herz!, were in the na- 
ture of summaries, but his skill increased 
with the years, and Die Wahre Separation 
apparently contains the lectures almost as 
they were delivered. Neef continued his 
labor of love until his untimely death in 
1832, and all save Part Four of Die Wahre 
Separation may be attributed to him. An- 
other amanuensis appeared in 1834, but 
his name has been lost. The Separatists had 
a passion for anonymity; Bimeler's name 
does not appear in these volumes, and it is 
only by tradition that Jacob Sylvan is iden- 
tified as the editor of the volumes and the 
author of the valuable introduction. Bim- 
eler's death was a tragic blow to the So- 
ciety, for there was no obvious successor in 
either secular or religious leadership. For 
a time the regular Sunday service consisted 
of reading from religious literature, but this 
did not appeal to the congregation. It then 
occurred to some of the villagers that 
Neef's manuscripts might be printed as a 
source of spiritual guidance. After an un- 
successful experiment with a small press, 
they purchased adequate equipment and 
hired an experienced printer. The press was 
sold after the single project was completed. 
Aside from these volumes and two hymnals, 
no Zoar imprints of this period have been 
identified. The communal life at Zoar has 

attracted perennial interest because of its 
economic program, but to the villagers 
themselves the religious beliefs that they 
held in common were of transcendent im- 
portance. Bimeler's writings are the source 
for the study of those beliefs and are there- 
fore of interest to the specialist. The reader 
will seek in vain for more than passing ref- 
erence to the daily life of these unique 

William T. Utter 
Die Wahre Separation, Oder die Wieder- 
gehurt, Dargestellet in Geistreichen und 
Erbaulichen Versammlungs-reden und 
Betrachtungen . . . , 4 parts in 2 vols., 
Zoar, 1856-60. 
Etwas Fiirs Herz! Oder Geistliche Brosa- 
men von des Herrn Tisch Gefallen . . . , 
2 parts in 1 vol., Zoar, 1860-61. 

1897- April 11, 1940), educator, was born 
in Mannheim, Pa. He was educated at Stan- 
ford University (A.B., 1922; Ph.D., 1927). 
From 1929 until his death he was a mem- 
ber of the history department of Western 
Reserve University. Besides technical books 
and articles on historical research, he wrote 
Responsible Drinking, New York, [1930]. 
WWW 1 

29, 1883- ), educator, was born in Al- 
len County. He graduated from Ohio 
Northern University in 1907 and Ohio State 
University (Ph.D.) in 1936. He taught in 
Ohio public schools, 1900-21, after which 
he joined the faculty of Ohio Northern. His 
books include The Powers of the President; 
Problems of American Democracy, New 
York, 1937. WW 30 

BIRD, ANNA M. PENNOCK (June 28, 1855- 
Oct. 10, 1946), was born in Lancaster, Pa., 
where she was reared a Quaker and where 
she began teaching school at the age of 
eighteen. She moved to Toledo in 1894 and 
spent the remainder of her life in that com- 
munity. Her lectures on applied psychology 
led to the formation of mothers' and teach- 
ers' clubs, which are said to have been the 
first Parent-Teachers Association in Toledo. 
In 1903 she married C. L. Bird, a civil en- 
gineer. She was a Theosophist and was 
president of Harmony Lodge, Toledo, for 
36 years. She was also a vegetarian and 
conducted classes in preparing vegetable 
meals. She wrote articles for New Thought 
and other magazines and published many 
letters and articles in Toledo newspapers. 
Creative Force in the Vegetable, Animal 
and Human World . . . , Toledo, [1897]. 

Bird, H. L. B. 


Inside of Our Own Doors, Toledo, [1897]. 
The Thought Circle, Toledo, [1898]. 

5, 1826-Dec. 20, 1907), was born in North 
Charlestown, N. H. In 1838 she removed 
with her family to Bucyrus and, shortly 
after, to Ravenna. She began contributing 
verse to the press in 1844, the year in 
which she married Edwin Bostwick. Within 
a few years her verse was appearing in 
many leading periodicals. "I bestow upon 
Mrs. Bostwick a sincere praise that need 
not waste itself in compliment. Her poems 
betray study of the best authors of our 
language, without being the less original. If 
her faculty does not amount to genius, it 
is at least transcendent talent." Thus wrote 
William Dean Howells in 1860. Yet, her 
best work was to follow the death of Mr. 
Bostwick, on Sept. 9, 1860. Her contribu- 
tions appeared in the National Era, the New 
York Independent, the Atlantic Monthly, 
and other periodicals. Her "Drafted" was 
one of the best-known poems of Civil War 
days; it won its place in public school 
repertories, where it remained until protests 
against the draft became unfashionable. So 
too with the rest of the work of this once 
very popular poet: it has since been ob- 
scured by the vagaries of fashion. Follow- 
ing her marriage to Dr. John F. Bird in 
1875 she moved to Philadelphia, where she 
spent the remainder of her life. 
Buds, Blossoms, and Berries, Columbus, 

Four O Clocks. Poems, Philadelphia, 1880. 

1887-Sept. 3, 1941), lawyer, was born in 
Hungary. He came to the United States in 
1903 and, after graduating from Franklin 
and Marshall College in 1913, settled in 
Cleveland. He graduated from Western Re- 
serve University law school in 1916 and 
afterward practiced in Cleveland. He pub- 
lished both articles and books on his native 
country, e.g., The Tragedy of Hungary; An 
Appeal for World Peace, Cleveland, [1924]. 

1, 1848-June 10. 1914), army officer, was 
born in Somerset, Perry County. After 
serving as a private in the 4th Iowa Volun- 
teer Cavalry, 1864-65, he attended the 
U. S. Military Academy, where he graduated 
in 1870. He rose to the rank of brigadier 
general and retired, at his own request, 
after forty years' service in 1906. His death 
occurred in Washington, D. C. 
The Law of Appointment and Promotion in 

the Regular Army of the United States 

. . . , New York, 1880. 

Historical Sketch of the Organization, Ad- 
ministration, Materiel and Tactics of the 
Artillery, United States Army, Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1884. 

Military Government and Martial Law . . . , 
Washington, D. C, 1892. 

BISHOP, JESSE P. (June 1, 1815-Oct. 28, 
1881), lawyer, was born in New Haven, 
Vt. After coming to Ohio in 1836, he en- 
tered Western Reserve College, where he 
graduated the following year. He read law, 
was admitted to the Ohio bar, and prac- 
ticed in Cleveland. 
Presidential Question. A Legal View of the 

Presidential Conflict of 1876, [Cleveland, 

. The Southern Question. A View of the 

Policy and Constitutional Powers of the 

President . . . , Cleveland, 1877. 

1833-March 23, 1922), clergyman, was 
born in St. Clair Bottom, Va. Ordained to 
the ministry of the Christian Church in 
1856, he preached in several states. From 
1890 until 1915 he devoted himself to the 
missionary endeavors of his church. He 
founded and edited the Christian Missionary, 
published in Dayton. He died in Watertown, 
Mass. He wrote a volume on missionary 
activities of his church: The Christians and 
the Great Commission . . . , Dayton, 1914. 

1777-April 29, 1855), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born near Edinburgh, Scotland. 
He was licensed to preach by the pres- 
bytery of Perth in 1802 and sailed for 
America the same year. After serving for 
two years as a missionary in southern Ohio, 
he was made professor of philosophy at 
Transylvania University, where he remained 
until 1824. He was the first president of 
Miami University, 1824—41, and taught his- 
tory and political science there, 1841-44. 
He taught at Farmers' College, Pleasant 
Hill, from 1845 until his death. His theories 
regarding the influence of society on the in- 
dividual make him a pioneer in the develop- 
ment of sociology. He opposed slavery, a 
stand which led to his leaving Miami, but 
he also opposed the extreme measures of 
the abolitionists. Besides the titles below, 
he published sermons, pamphlets, and text- 
books in logic and government. 
An Apology for Calvinism, Lexington, 1804. 
A Legacy to Vacant Congregations, Lex- 
ington, 1804. 
An Outline of the History of the Church in 
the State of Kentucky . . . , Lexington, 


Blackwell, E. 

Sketches of the Philosophy of the Bible 

. . . , Oxford, 1833. 
Addresses Delivered at Miami University 

1829-1834, Hamilton, 1835. 

May 6, 1957), educator, was born in Roots- 
town, Portage County. A graduate of West- 
ern Reserve University in 1903, he taught 
in the Cleveland schools for many years. 
He wrote a family history, articles on edu- 
cation and literature, and a number of 
plays, e.g., When Marble Speaks, a Dream 
of World Peace, Cleveland, [1934]. 

1859-1907), was born in Cleveland, Cuya- 
hoga County. She compiled a book of pray- 
ers, wrote genealogical works, and published 
a valuable historical study: The Germans in 
Colonial Times, Philadelphia, 1901. 

BLACK, EFFIE SQUIER (March 4, 1866- 
April 18, 1906), was born in Sulphur 
Springs, Crawford County. After her mar- 
riage to Thomas B. Black in 1885, she lived 
in Kenton, Hardin County. She is said to 
have written articles for magazines and 
composed hymns which were used by lead- 
ing evangelists. 
Heart-Whispers, Cleveland, [1900]. 

1894-Sept. 21, 1943), educator, was born 
in Tiffin, Seneca County. He was admitted 
to the Ohio bar in 1920 and practiced for 
one year in Tiffin, after which he entered 
college teaching. He served on the faculties 
of several universities and spent ten years 
in government service. He published nu- 
merous magazine articles, both professional 
and popular; his books include Ill-Starred 
Prohibition Cases . . . , Boston [1931]. 
WWW 2 

BLACK, GLENN G. (May 6, 1888- ), 
was born in Bedford, Cuyahoga County, 
but spent much of his life in Lucas County. 
Since his retirement in 1956 as sales man- 
ager for the Dog Food Division, Kasco 
Mills, Toledo, he has lived in Tryon, N. C. 
Deeply interested in hunting and field 
sports, he has written numerous articles for 
outdoors magazines and one book, Ameri- 
can Beagling, New York, [1949]. 

BLACK, JAMES RUSH (March 3, 1827- 
Nov. 19, 1895), physician, born in Lanark, 
Scotland, came to America in 1841. He 
studied at Denison University and the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, New York 
City. After practicing a few years in Lin- 

ville and Hebron, he went to California. 
During the Civil War he served as surgeon 
of the 113th O.V.I, and afterward prac- 
ticed medicine in Newark, Licking County, 
and taught at Columbus Medical College. 
He wrote a number of scientific and med- 
ical articles, both professional and popular. 
Alcohol as Medicine, and How It Affects 

the Temperance Cause, Syracuse, N. Y., 

The Ten Laws of Health . . . , Philadelphia, 


1859-Oct. 17, 1913), was born in Dayton, 
Montgomery County. After teaching school 
for a time in Indianapolis, Ind., she moved 
to Mansfield in 1890. Her death occurred 
in Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Hadassah; Or, Esther, Queen to Ahasuerus, 
Chicago, 1895. 

1881-Jan. 24, 1954), lawyer and railroad 
president, was born in Norwood, Hamilton 
County. He graduated from Yale Univer- 
sity in 1903 and Harvard Law School in 
1906. He practiced in Cincinnati and also 
served as president of the Little Miami 
Railroad. He wrote The Little Miami Rail- 
road, Cincinnati, [1940]. WWW 3 

BLACK, SAMUEL CHARLES (Sept. 6, 1869- 
July 25, 1921), Iowa-born clergyman, was 
pastor of Collingwood Avenue Presbyterian 
Church in Toledo, 1910-19. While living in 
Ohio, he wrote Progress in Christian Cul- 
ture, Philadelphia, 1912. WWW 1 

1857-1937), was born on a farm near 
Fredericktown, Knox County. In 1936 she 
was living in Bellville. She published a 
novel: Who Knows . . . , [Mt. Vernon, 
1926], and as Cella Foote Blackledge, a 
collection of verse: The Minstrel's Inspira- 
tion . . . , Fredericktown, 1915. 

24, 1849-Sept. 5, 1926), clergyman and 
educator, was born in Milwaukee, Wis. He 
was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 
1885 and taught at St. Xavier's College, 
Cincinnati, from 1886 to 1888 and at St. 
Ignatius' College, Cleveland, from 1917 
until his death. His writings include several 
studies of Shakespeare and Spiritism, Facts 
and Frauds, New York, 1924. WWW 1 

3, 1897), was born in England. In the 1860s 
she came to Toledo, where she gave music 

Blackwell, E. 


lessons and was active in the cultural life 

of that city. 

Poems, [Toledo, 1884]. 

May 31, 1910), pioneer woman doctor and 
sister of Henry B. Blackwell (q.v. ), spent 
about four years in Cincinnati (1838-42). 
In 1849, despite serious obstacles she be- 
came a physician; and in 1857 with her 
sister Emily she founded the New York 
Infirmary and College for Women and de- 
voted her life to the cause of women's prac- 
ticing medicine. She wrote numerous books 
on medical, educational, and social ques- 

1825-Sept. 7, 1909), editor and reformer, 
was born in Bristol, England. In 1832 the 
family came to New York and in 1838 
moved to Cincinnati. The father died soon 
after they arrived in Cincinnati, leaving his 
widow with nine children to support. Henry 
worked at various jobs before becoming a 
hardware dealer. Like the other members 
of his family he was a vigorous opponent 
of slavery and just as vigorous a propo- 
nent of women's rights. In 1855 he married 
Lucy Stone, Oberlin graduate and reformer. 
Having pledged himself to the cause of 
women's suffrage, he devoted his life to 
this and other humanitarian causes. His 
proposal that the South institute women's 
suffrage to offset the effects of Negro suf- 
frage illustrates his single-minded commit- 
ment to the cause of women's rights. An ex- 
cellent businessman, he made enough money 
from various ventures to support the causes 
in which he and his wife were interested. 
He published pamphlets and edited the 
Women's Journal. His death occurred in 
Dorchester, Mass. 

What the South Can Do. How the South- 
ern States Can Make Themselves Masters 
of the Situation, [New York, 1867]. 
Reciprocity, a Republican Issue, Boston, 

BLAINE, HABBY G. (Nov. 25, 1858-Jan. 
31, 1930), physician, was born in Wheeling, 
Va., but in 1861 he was brought to Attica, 
Seneca County, and grew up there. At six- 
teen he began teaching school. After study- 
ing medicine with an Attica doctor, he at- 
tended Indiana Eclectic Medical College, 
Indianapolis, where he graduated in 1882. 
He practiced in Reedstown for a year and 
afterward in Attica and Toledo. In 1884 he 
established a monthly magazine, Medical 
Compend. He also taught at Toledo Medi- 
cal College. 

The Physician: His Relation to the Law 
. . . , Toledo, 1893. 

1868-Jan. 16, 1945), physician, was born 
in Orwell, Ashtabula County. After grad- 
uating from Western Reserve University 
Medical School in 1902, he practiced in 
Cleveland and Youngstown. He published 
the Letters (1931) and the Diary (1934) 
of a Dr. Amos Betterman (1825-1910), an 
old-style country doctor. All evidence indi- 
cates that he was an imaginary character 
invented by Blanchard to exemplify virtues 
he admired. Besides numerous pamphlets, 
verse, and medical works, he published 
Our Unfinished Revolution, Youngstown, 

23, 1876- ), clergyman, was born in 

Jersey City, N. J. He graduated from Am- 
herst College in 1898 and Yale Divinity 
School in 1901. He was pastor of Euclid 
Avenue Congregational Church, Cleveland, 
1915-51. After retiring he continued to live 
in Cleveland. He has written hymns and 
religious books, e.g., For the King's Sake, 
East Orange, N. J., 1909. WW 28 

BLANCHABD, JONATHAN (Jan. 19, 1811- 
May 14, 1892), clergyman, was born in 
Rockingham, Vt. He attended Lane Theo- 
logical Seminary, and was installed as pastor 
of the Sixth Presbyterian Church, Cincin- 
nati, in 1838. He was a vigorous opponent 
of slavery and of the Masons and Odd 
Fellows. A record of his debate with N. L. 
Rice (q.v.) was reprinted at least twice: 
A Debate on Slavery . . . , Cincinnati, 

6, 1869-April 23, 1927), educator, born in 
Boston, Mass., graduated from Belmont 
College, Cincinnati, in 1888 and served on 
its faculty as professor of Greek and Latin, 
1888-94. She later taught at Bartholomew's 
School for Girls, Cincinnati. She spent her 
later life in Salt Lake City, Utah. She wrote 
several books for juvenile readers, e.g., 
Chico; The Story of a Homing Pigeon, 
Boston, [1922]. WWW 1 

BLANEY, CHABLES E. (c.l875-Oct. 21, 
1944), dramatist and producer, was born 
in Columbus, Franklin County. He wrote 
his first play at 21 and rapidly became suc- 
cessful as a writer and producer of melo- 
dramas. He was associated with various 
theatrical chains, and at the time of his 
retirement from the theatrical business in 
1919 he owned several theaters. In the last 


Blue, H. T. O. 

25 years of his life he was in the real- 
estate business in New Canaan, Conn. Of 
the more than 180 plays that he wrote and 
produced, few were committed to print, 
although a few novels were printed that 
were based on his more popular melo- 
dramas, e.g., The Child Slaves of New 
York . . . , New York, 1904. 

1809-Dec. 8. 1877), studied at Kenyon 
College after his graduation from the U. S. 
Military Academy in 1830. He was on the 
Kenyon faculty, 1833-34, and that of 
Miami University. 1835-36. A militant 
controversialist, he is best known for his 
defense of secession: Is Davis a Traitor; Or, 
Was Secession a Constitutional Right Pre- 
vious to the War of 1861?, Baltimore, 1866. 

BLISS, DANIEL (Aug. 17, 1823-July 27, 
1916), founder of the American Univer- 
sity, Beirut, was born in Georgia, Vt. After 
the death of his mother when he was nine, 
he lived with relatives near Painesville and 
Kingsville. He graduated from Kingsville 
Academy in 1848. after which he entered 
Amherst College. His Reminiscences . . . , 
New York, 1920, was edited by his son 
Frederick. DAB 2 

BLISS, PHILEMON (July 28, 1813-Aug. 
24, 1889), congressman and judge, was 
born in North Canton, Conn. He resided in 
Ohio for twenty years (1841-61). He prac- 
ticed law in Elyria. served as judge of the 
14th district from 1849 to 1852, and served 
in Congress from 1854 to 1856. In 1861 he 
moved to the Dakota Territory and in 
1863 to Missouri. He published several of 
his speeches in the House of Representatives 
and a treatise on legal pleading. 
Of Sovereignty, Boston, 1885. 

1870- ), was born in Toledo, Lucas 
County. She attended the schools of Toledo 
and Des Moines, Iowa. After studying mu- 
sic at Syracuse University, she was a church 
organist and music teacher in Vermont. She 
now lives in Rochester, Vt. She has written 
Quests; Poems in Prose, Montpelier, Vt., 
1920, and a book of verse: Sea Level, North 
Montpelier, Vt., 1933. WWNAA 7 

11, 1834-Aug. 1, 1902), lawyer, was born 
in Perry County, Pa. He taught school, 
farmed, and read law before coming to 
Ohio in 1856. He served as mayor of 
Shelby, 1858-63, and in 1864 began the 
practice of law. He edited the Shelby News, 

1868-89. He was active in Democratic pol- 
itics and served in the state legislature, 
1864-68 and 1878-82. He moved to Colum- 
bus in 1891 but returned to Shelby before 
his death. 

Why Are You a Democrat? . . . , Cincin- 
nati, 1880. 
Why We Are Democrats . . . , Cincinnati, 

One Hundred Years of Platforms, Prin- 
ciples and Policies of the American De- 
mocracy, Shelby, 1900. 

BLOOMER, JAMES M. (1842-Sept. 22, 
1923), journalist, was born in Zanesville, 
Muskingum County, and attended the 
schools of that community. He attended 
business college in Cincinnati and also 
learned the machinist's trade. He settled in 
Toledo in 1873 and while serving as prin- 
cipal of St. Mary's School studied law; he 
was admitted to the bar in 1878. Around 
1880 he and J. P. Coates took over the 
Toledo News, which had been founded by 
the Knights of Labor, and operated it as a 
Democratic, pro-labor paper. It was later 
merged with the Toledo Bee. He lived in 
Los Angeles, Calif., 1913-19, but returned 
to Toledo four years before his death. 
The Co-operative Educator. A Key to the 
Mines of Wealth Accessible to Honest 
Producers . . . , [Toledo, 1888]. 
D Mar's Affinity . . . , New York, [1903]. 

1827-May 28. 1876), lawyer and journal- 
ist, was born in Irisburg, Vt., but grew up 
in Watertown. N. Y., where his father 
moved in 1830, and in Oswego, N. Y. In 
1850 he was admitted to the New York 
bar, and in 1852 he moved to Cincinnati 
to practice. In 1866 he moved to Branch 
Hill. Clermont County, and commuted to 
Cincinnati every day. He began writing for 
the Enquirer and remained on the editorial 
staff of that newspaper until his death in 
a railway accident. 

Life of George H. Pendleton, Cincinnati, 

Historic and Literary Miscellany, Cincinnati, 


BLOUGH, ELIZABETH R. D. See Elizabeth 
D. Rosenberger. 

BLUE, GUY. Pseud. See Rollin J. Britton. 

9, 1887- ), educator, was born in Ada, 
Hardin County, but was reared in Kenton. 
He graduated from Ohio Northern Univer- 
sity in 1913 and Hiram College in 1918. 



He was a teacher and principal in Hardin 
County schools for nine years and a 
teacher in Canton, 1919-54. In summer he 
served on the staff of the Kenton Times 
and now writes historical feature stories for 
that newspaper. He still lives in Canton. He 
has written two county histories: History of 
Stark County . . . , Chicago, 1928, and 
Centennial History of Hardin County . . . , 
[Canton, 1933]. 

BLYMYER, WILLIAM H. (March 4, 1864- 
April 15, 1939), lawyer, was born in Mans- 
field, Richland County. He lived in Pelham 
Manor, N. Y., but returned to Mansfield to 
spend his summers. Besides legal works he 
wrote Doctrine and Discipline; Or, the 
Failure of the American Educational Sys- 
tem, [Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1927]. 

March 17, 1946), American Red Cross of- 
ficial, was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. She was educated in private schools 
of Cleveland and New York and in Europe. 
In 1896 her family moved to Washington, 
D. C. Her service with the Red Cross won 
her many decorations and honors from for- 
eign governments. Her death occurred in 
Washington, D. C. Her writings include 
Under the Red Cross Flag at Home and 
Abroad, Philadelphia, 1915. WWW 2 

BODLE, ALAN. Pseud. See Emory Norris. 

1831-June 15, 1888), educator, was born 
in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. She grad- 
uated from Wesleyan College, Cincinnati, 
in 1849 and taught there until 1860. In 
1865 she was appointed professor of chem- 
istry and toxicology at Women's Medical 
College of Pennsylvania. She died in Phila- 
delphia. Besides the title below, she pre- 
pared a catalogue of Joseph Clark's herb- 
arium which was published in Cincinnati 
in 1865. 
The College Story, Philadelphia, 1881. 

BOGEN, BORIS D. (1869-June 30, 1929), 
was born in Moscow, Russia, and came to 
the United States in his early twenties. He 
served as librarian at the Jewish Educa- 
tional Alliance, New York City, and as 
superintendent of an agricultural school in 
Woodbine, N. J. He was named superin- 
tendent of United Jewish Charities, Cincin- 
nati, was a field agent of National Jewish 
Social Service during World War I, and in 
1925 became executive secretary of B'nai 
B'rith with headquarters in Cincinnati. He 
wrote Jewish Philanthropy, New York, 

1917, and an autobiography, published 
posthumously: Born a Jew, New York, 1930. 

1874-Sept. 5, 1955), educator, was born in 
Catlin, 111. From 1910 to 1915 he taught 
history and economics at Lucknow Chris- 
tian College, India, and afterward taught 
at Baldwin-Wallace College, 1916-41. He 
wrote a book describing his experiences in 
India: First Days in India, Cincinnati, 
[1912]. WW 20 

BOHN, FRANK (Sept. 26, 1878- ), au- 
thor and lecturer, was born in Cuyahoga 
County. He graduated from Ohio State 
University in 1900 and the University of 
Michigan (Ph.D.) in 1904. He has lectured 
and written on the labor movement, eco- 
nomic questions, and international rela- 
tions. He collaborated with Richard T. 
Ely in writing The Great Change; Work 
and Wealth in the New Age, New York, 
1935. WW 30 

BOLLES, JAMES AARON (1810-Sept. 19, 
1894), clergyman, was born in Norwich, 
Conn. He graduated from Trinity College 
in 1830 and General Seminary in 1833. 
After serving as assistant rector or rector 
of several churches, he was rector of Trin- 
ity Church, Cleveland, 1853-59. After liv- 
ing twelve years in Boston, he returned to 
Cleveland in 1871 to spend the remainder 
of his life. 

The Episcopal Church Defended: With an 
Examination into the Claims of Method- 
ist Episcopacy . . . , Batavia, N. Y., 
Holy Matrimony, New York, 1870. 
Connecticut and Bishop Seabury . . . , 
Cleveland, 1890. 

13, 1857), was born in Philadelphia, Pa. 
On July 22, 1806, he was received into the 
Concord Meeting of Friends on a certificate 
from the Philadelphia Meeting dated May 
30, 1806. He established a school in Bel- 
mont County and supplemented his income 
by selling books. On Sept. 26, 1811, he was 
disowned by the Short Creek Monthly 
Meeting of Friends, to which he had trans- 
ferred, for marrying contrary to discipline. 
What little is known of his career does not 
indicate that he was amenable to any dis- 
cipline. All of his known writings were in 
verse and, for the most part, on highly con- 
troversial subjects. Sometime before 1827 
he became affiliated with the Shakers. In 
1832 in his reply to "sundry defamatory 
letters written by A. M. Bolton," Richard 


Bolton, S. K. 

McNemar (q.v.) referred to him as "late 
a catechumen in the United Society, at 
Union Village (Ohio)." By this time Bol- 
ton had probably moved on to neighboring 
Dayton, where in 1841 he was elected re- 
corder of the city council. He was re- 
elected in 1842. His death occurred in 

The Independency of the Mind, Affirmed. 
A Poem, in Two Parts. With Occasional 
Notes, Wheeling, 1807. 
The Art of Domestick Happiness, and 

Other Poems, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1817. 
The Whore of Babylon Unmasked; Or, a 
Cure for Orthodoxy . . . , Philadelphia, 
Present Prospects . . . , Dayton, 1841. 
Some Lines in Verse about the Shakers. 
Not Published by Authority of the So- 
ciety So-called, New York, 1846. 

1841-1901), was born in South Hadley 
Falls, Mass., and graduated from Amherst 
College in 1865. After marrying Sarah K. 
Bolton (q.v.), he lived in Cleveland, where 
he was active in a number of industries and 
mercantile firms. He also patented several 
inventions. He traveled frequently in Eu- 
rope and lectured about his trips. 
Notes from Letters of Charles E. Bolton 

. . . , Cambridge, Mass., 1892. 
A Model Village of Homes, and Other 

Papers, Boston, 1901. 
Travels in Europe and America, New York, 

The Harris-Ingram Experiment, Cleveland, 


1867-Nov. 19, 1950), antiquarian, son of 
Sarah K. and Charles E. Bolton (qq.v.), 
was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. 
After graduating from Harvard University 
in 1890, he served on the staffs of the Har- 
vard Library, 1890-93, Brookline, Mass., 
Library, 1894-98, and the Boston Atha- 
neum, 1898-1933. He died at Ayer, Mass. 
In addition to the titles below, he wrote 
numerous articles and compiled a bibliog- 
raphy of heraldry and a family history. 
The Gossiping Guide to Harvard and 

Places of Interest in Cambridge . . . , 

Cambridge. Mass., 1892. 
Saskia, the Wife of Rembrandt, New York, 

On the Wooing of Martha Pitkin; Being a 

Versified Narrative of the Time of the 

Regicides . . . , Boston, 1894. 
The Love Story of Ursula Wolcott, Being 

a Tale in Verse . . . , Boston, 1895. 

Brookline; The History of a Favored Town, 
Brookline, Mass., 1897. 

The Private Soldier under Washington, 
New York, 1902. 

Scotch Irish Pioneers in Ulster and Amer- 
ica, Boston, 1910. 

The Elizabeth Whitman Mystery at the 
Old Bell Tavern in Danvers . . . , Pea- 
body, Mass., 1912. 

The Founders; Portraits of Persons Born 
Abroad Who Came to the Colonies in 
North America before the Year 1 701 
. . . , 3 vols., [Boston], 1919-26. 

The Real Founders of New England . . . , 
Boston, 1929. 

Terra Nova: The Northeast Coast of North 
America before 1602 . . . , Boston, 1935. 

1841-Feb. 21, 1916), was born in Farm- 
ington, Conn. Precocious and gifted, she 
was a publishing poet at fifteen. After grad- 
uating from Hartford Female Seminary in 
1860, she taught in Natchez, Miss., until 
forced by the outbreak of war to return 
north. In 1866 she married Charles E. 
Bolton (q.v.) and afterward, except for 
rather extensive traveling, lived in Cleve- 
land. She served on the editorial staff of 
the Congregationalist, 1878-81, and trav- 
eled in Europe, studying women's education 
and labor conditions, 1881-83. She was ac- 
tive in the temperance movement and in 
various humanitarian reforms, especially 
those opposing cruelty to animals. She was 
also a prolific writer, especially in the area 
of biography. 

Orlean Lamar, and Other Poems, New 

York, 1864. 
The Present Problem, New York, 1874. 
Facts and Songs for the People. Prepared 

Specially for Use in the Blaine and 

Logan Campaign, Cleveland, 1884. 
How Success Is Won, Boston, [1885]. 
Lives of Poor Boys Who Became Famous, 

New York, [1885]. 
Lives of Girls Who Became Famous, New 

York, [1886]. 
Social Studies in England, Boston, [1886]. 
Stories from Life, New York, [1886]. 
Famous American Authors, New York, 

From Heart and Nature, (with Charles K. 

Bolton), New York, 1887. 
Famous American Statesmen, New York, 

Successful Women, Boston, [1888]. 
Famous Men of Science, New York, [1889]. 
Famous English Authors of the Nineteenth 

Century, New York, [1890]. 
Famous European Artists, New York, 


Bond, B. W. 


Famous English Statesmen of Queen Vic- 
toria's Reign, New York, [1891]. 

Famous Types of Womanhood, New York, 

Famous Voyagers and Explorers, New 
York, [1893]. 

Famous Leaders among Men, New York, 

Famous Leaders among Women, New York, 

The Inevitable, and Other Poems, New 
York, [1895]. 

Nuggets; Or, Secrets of Great Success, (with 
F. T. Wallace), Cleveland, 1895. 

Famous Givers and Their Gifts, New York, 

The Story of Douglas, Cleveland, 1898. 

Every-day Living, Boston, 1900. 

Our Devoted Friend, the Dog, Boston. 1902. 

Charles E. Bolton; A Memorial Sketch, 
Cambridge, 1907. 

Sarah K. Bolton; Pages from an Intimate 
Autobiography, Edited by Her Son, Bos- 
ton, 1923. 

1878- ), educator, was born in Blacks- 
burg, Va. He served in the history depart- 
ment of the University of Cincinnati, 1920- 
49, and has lived in Cincinnati since his 
retirement. He was also associated with the 
Historical and Philosophical Society (cura- 
tor, 1939-42; president, 1942-45). He has 
written several articles and books on his- 
torical subjects, e.g.. The Quit-rent System 
in the American Colonies, New Haven, 
Conn., 1919. WW 26 

BOND, LEWIS HAMILTON (July 28, 1838- 
Aug. 11, 1912), lawyer, was born in Nel- 
sonville, Athens County. He was admitted 
to the Ohio bar in 1859 and, except for his 
Civil War service, practiced in Cincinnati 
until 1907. In 1862 he superintended re- 
cruiting in Ohio, and in 1863 he was placed 
in command of a battalion of the Third 
Ohio Infantry and sent in pursuit of Mor- 
gan. He received Morgan's surrender at 
Salinesville, July 26, 1863. In 1866 he was 
appointed U. S. district attorney in Cincin- 
nati. Besides the titles below, he published 
two volumes of legal reports. 
One Year in Briartown, Cincinnati, 1879. 
The Capture and Trial of a Confederate 

Spy Sent to Ohio by Jefferson Davis . . . , 

Cincinnati, 1887. 

31, 1830-Sept. 17, 1906), journalist, was 
born in Cornwall, England. He was a re- 
porter in London and Liverpool before 
coming to Cleveland in 1851. In 1857 he 

joined the staff of the Cleveland Herald, 
where he had been publishing articles since 
his arrival in the city. When the Herald was 
acquired by the Plain Dealer in 1885, 
Bone became chief editorial writer and lit- 
erary editor. His comments were often 
signed "Spectacles." An authority on Eliza- 
bethan literature and owner of one of the 
largest libraries in Ohio, he was an intimate 
friend of James Russell Lowell. He pub- 
lished articles on literary and historical sub- 
jects in leading magazines of the day. One 
of his major exploits was publishing the 
story of Matthew Brayton (q.v.). Highly 
respected in journalistic circles, he contin- 
ued to send his pieces to the Plain Dealer 
even while on his deathbed. 
Stories and Legends; With Other Poems, 

Boston, 1852. 
Petroleum and Petroleum Wells . . . , Phila- 
delphia, 1865. 

1842-?), clergyman, was born in Green- 
field, Highland County. He graduated from 
Muskingum College in 1860 and from 
Pittsburgh Theological Seminary in 1865. 
As a Presbyterian minister, he served pas- 
torates in various states. Besides articles 
and pamphlets, he wrote Saving the World; 
What It Involves and How It Is Being Ac- 
complished, Middletown, N. Y., 1902. 
WWW 3 

21, 1860-Aug. 4, 1935), educator and mu- 
seum curator, was born in Dayton, Mont- 
gomery County. After graduating from Ot- 
terbein College in 1899, he taught in 
Spokane, Wash.; in 1918 he became curator 
of the Spokane Museum. The Ohio State 
Academy of Science published his Ecolog- 
ical Study of Big Spring Prairie, Wyandot 
County, Ohio, Columbus, 1903. WWW 1 


1873-March 13, 1946), writer and artist, 
was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 
He worked in various capacities in jour- 
nalism and in the motion-picture industry; 
he was art manager of Warner Brothers, 
1923-31. In a single year he published 
three books of nursery rhymes, e.g., The 
Sandman Rhymes, New York, [1904]. 
WWW 2 

BOOKWALTER, JOHN W. (1837-Sept. 26, 
1915), was born in Rob Roy, Ind. Studious 
and possessed of a strong original mind, 
he early grappled with such problems as 
the steam or mist which arose from the 
waters that fell over a dam near his father's 


Bosworth, E. I. 

farm. About 1865 he went to Springfield, 
Clark County, where he was employed by 
James Leffel, the manufacturer of a fa- 
mous water wheel. He became Leffel's 
partner, married his daughter, and upon 
Leffel's death succeeded to his business, 
which had attained world-wide proportions. 
Seeking to increase the sale of his prod- 
uct in foreign lands, in 1870 he became a 
globe-trotter. In 1881 he permitted himself 
to become the Democratic nominee for 
Governor of Ohio. Shocked by the demand 
made on him by the State Executive Com- 
mittee for $25,000, Bookwalter sent his 
check for $5,000 and conducted his cam- 
paign without the Committee. He was de- 
feated by the incumbent, Charles Foster. 
In 1898 he made a trip through Siberia and 
Central Asia, often living with the peas- 
ants. His superb, detailed account of this 
journey, published the following year for 
private circulation among his friends, has 
been accepted as an outstanding source. His 
death occurred in San Remo, Italy. 

Canyon and Crater; Or, Scenes in Califor- 
nia and the Sandwich Islands, Springfield, 

Mill Dams, Springfield, 1874. 

Home and International Trade . . . , New 
York, 1886. 

If Not Silver, What?, Springfield, 1896. 

Siberia and Central Asia, Springfield, 1899. 

Rural versus Urban; Their Conflict and 
Its Causes . . . , New York, 1910. 

BOOKWALTER, LEWIS (Sept. 18, 1846- 
Nov. 30, 1935), clergyman and educator, 
was born in Hallsville, Ross County. After 
graduating from Western College, Toledo, 
Iowa, in 1872, he was licensed to preach by 
the United Brethren Church. He taught at 
several colleges and was a pastor in Day- 
ton, 1886-94. He was president of Western 
College, 1894-1904, and Otterbein College, 
1904-09. After his retirement he lived in 

The Family; Or, the Home and the Train- 
ing of Children, Dayton, 1894. 
Repentance, Dayton, 1902. 

1858-March 13, 1952), temperance advo- 
cate, was born in Van Wert, Van Wert 
County. She graduated from the University 
of Wooster in 1878. Active throughout her 
life in Presbyterian missions work and tem- 
perance causes, she was president of the 
World W.C.T.U., 1931-47. She died in 
New York City at the age of 93. Her writ- 
ings include Give Prohibition Its Chance, 
Evanston, 111., [1929]. WWW 3 

BOONE, RICHARD GAUSE (Sept. 9, 1849- 
April 8, 1923), educator, born in Spiceland, 
Ind., earned a Ph.D. at Ohio University in 
1889 and was superintendent of Cincinnati 
schools, 1899-1903. He published several 
books on education, e.g., A History of Edu- 
cation in Indiana, New York, 1892. 

BOOTH, EMMA SCARR (April 25, 1835- 
July 9, 1927), was born in Hull, England. 
When she was nine years old, her parents 
brought her to a farm outside Cleveland. 
She married a mill-owner of Twinsburg, and 
after his mill burned in 1865 she moved to 
Painesville and did needlework to support 
herself. Her husband deserted her to go to 
the Titusville oil fields, and she moved to 
Cleveland, where she lived with her mother 
and made her living by giving music les- 
sons. She wrote songs and composed in- 
strumental music. The first book below, a 
humorous account of an eccentric spinster, 
was published under the pseudonym Miss 
Karan Kringle of Klodsville, Ohio. 
Karan Kringle's Journal . . . , Philadelphia, 

A Wilful Heiress, Buffalo, 1892. 
The Family of Three, Iesuina, and Other 
Poems, Buffalo, 1893. 

1851-Jan. 5, 1934), osteopath, born in 
Franklin County, Ind., attended National 
Normal University, Lebanon, 1871-74, and 
afterward taught school in Missouri and 
Cincinnati. He graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Wooster in 1896 and the American 
School of Osteopathy, Kirksville, Mo., in 
1900. He afterward practiced osteopathy in 
Cincinnati. He published History of Os- 
teopathy . . . , Cincinnati, [1905]. WWO 

L. B. Bird. 

10, 1861-July 1, 1927), clergyman and 
educator, was born in Dundee, 111. He at- 
tended Oberlin College, 1879-81, and grad- 
uated from Yale University in 1883. After 
graduating from Oberlin Theological Sem- 
inary in 1886, he was ordained a Congrega- 
tional minister, served for one year in Mt. 
Vernon, and in 1887 joined the Oberlin 
Seminary faculty. He was associated with 
the college and seminary as professor, 
dean, and acting president until his death. 
His scholarship, teaching, and administra- 
tive ability did much to strengthen the pro- 
gram of the college and the seminary. 
Studies in the Acts and Epistles . . . , New 
York, 1898. 

Bosworth, F. H. 


Studies in the Teaching of Jesus & His 

Apostles, New York, 1901. 
Studies in the Life of Jesus Christ, New 

York, 1904. 
The Present Crisis in the Kingdom of God 

. . . , New York, [1907]. 
New Studies in Acts ... , New York, 1908. 
Working Together . . . , (with Reno Hutch- 
inson), New York, 1908. 
The Modern Interpretation of the Call to 

the Ministry, New York, 1909. 
The Story of Paul's Life . . . , Philadelphia, 

The Weak Church and the Strong Man 

. . . , New York, 1909. 
Christ in Everyday Life . . . , New York, 

Can Prayer Accomplish Anything apart 

from the Man Who Prays?, New York, 

Thirty Studies about Jesus, New York, 

The Master's Way . . . , (with John L. 

Lobingier), New York, 1918. 
What It Means to Be a Christian . . . , 

Boston, [1922]. 
The Life and Teaching of Jesus . . . , New 

York, 1924. 
The Christian Religion and Human Prog- 
ress . . . , (Ernest Pye, ed.), New York, 



(Jan. 25, 1843-Oct. 17, 1925), physician, 
was born in Marietta, Washington County. 
He attended local schools and Marietta 
College and graduated from Yale Univer- 
sity in 1862. During the Civil War he 
served with West Virginia troops, and after- 
ward he settled in New York City, where 
he became one of the world's outstanding 
laryngologists. He published three text- 
books on the diseases of the nose and 
throat. Art was his hobby, and he was 
widely known in literary circles. 
Taking Cold, Detroit, 1891. 
The Doctor in Old New York, New York, 

BOTELER, MATTIE M. (Aug. 28, 1859- 
Aug. 28, 1929), was born in Jamestown, 
Greene County. After completing her edu- 
cation in Greene County schools, she spent 
the remainder of her life in Cincinnati. She 
was on the editorial staff of the Standard 
Publishing Company for 37 years and for 
sixteen years edited the magazine Lookout. 
Active in the Christian Church, she com- 
piled a book of religious songs and pub- 
lished sermon outlines and Sunday school 
lessons in addition to the titles below. 

Shut-in; A Story of the Cross . . . , Cincin- 
nati, [1895]. 

The Conversion of Brian O'Dillon, Cincin- 
nati, [1896]. 

Side Windows; Or, Lights on Scripture 
Truths, Cincinnati, 1901. 

The Evolution of Juliet, Cincinnati, [1903]. 

Joe Binder's Wild Westing, Cincinnati, 

Like As We Are, Cincinnati, [1903]. 

26, 1859-Nov. 15, 1927), journalist, was 
born in Circleville, Pickaway County. 
Much of his life was spent in Gothenburg, 
Neb., where he published a newspaper, the 
Independent. He published a book of poems 
and prose paragraphs from the newspaper: 
The Sense and Nonsense of One Man, and 
a book of verse: My Ohio, Gothenburg, 
Neb., 1925. 

BOUGHTON, WILLIS (April 17, 1854-June 
16, 1942), educator, born in Victor, N. Y., 
came to Cincinnati in 1889 as an instructor 
in the technical school. He next taught 
at Ohio University, 1889-91; 1892-99. 
From 1900 until his retirement in 1924, he 
taught English at Erasmus Hall High 
School, Brooklyn, N. Y. He wrote words 
for several songs, edited literature text- 
books, and published Mythology in Art, 
Chicago, 1891. 

bara Webb. 

BOURJAILY, VANCE NYE (Sept. 17, 1922- 
), born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, 
spent his early boyhood years in Ohio and 
later lived in Pennsylvania and Virginia. 
He graduated from Bowdoin College and 
served in World War II. He was writer- 
in-residence at the University of Iowa, 1956- 
59. Since the publication of his novel The 
Violated in 1958, he has been widely re- 
garded as one of the most promising of 
America's younger writers. His first novel 
was The End of My Life, New York, 1947. 

BOURNE, ALEXANDER (1786-Aug. 5, 
1849), born in Wareham, Mass., was 
trained as a civil engineer, and came to Ohio 
in 1810. In 1813 he was drafted into the 
Ohio militia, was soon appointed adjutant 
to Colonel Mills Stephenson, and appears 
to have served with some distinction in the 
War of 1812. Upon receiving his discharge 
he returned to the practice of his profes- 
sion in Chillicothe. He will be remembered 
longest for the superb map of Ohio which 
he prepared in collaboration with B. Hough 


Boyd, T. A. 

and which was published in Philadelphia in 
1814. Between 1825 and 1840 he rendered 
valuable services to the Canal Commission. 
An observant scientist he contributed a 
number of valuable articles to Silliman"s 
American Journal of Science. He retired 
sometime after 1845 and returned to Massa- 
chusetts. He died at Wareham. 
The Surveyor's Pocket-book . . . , Chilli- 
cothe, 1834. 

1837-Feb. 8, 1927), educator and journal- 
ist, was born in New Canaan, Conn. Her 
parents came to Sandusky when she was a 
child, and she attended the schools of that 
community. She later taught in high schools 
at Milan, Tiffin, Toledo, and Chicago. From 
1879 to 1907 she was literary and house- 
hold editor of the Toledo Blade. After 
1907 she devoted herself to writing and 
lecturing. She published etiquette and hy- 
giene books in addition to the titles below. 
Pretty Is As Pretty Does . . . , Toledo, 1888. 
Life's Gateways: Or, How to Win Real 

Success, Boston, 1896. 
The Life Joyful, 1910. 

BOUTON, JOHN BELL (March 15, 1830- 
Nov. 18, 1902), born in Concord, N. H., 
was editor of the Cleveland Plain Dealer, 
1851-57. He left Cleveland for New York 
City, where he was a journalist until 1889, 
when he moved to Cambridge, Mass. He 
wrote several books, including a novel pub- 
lished anonymously: Round the Block . . . , 
New York, 1864. 

1901- ), lawyer and congressman, was 
born in Canton, Stark County. He was ad- 
mitted to the Ohio bar in 1923 and has 
since practiced in Canton. He was elected 
to the House of Representatives in the 
82nd-85th Congresses. He has written In- 
dependent Labor Organizations and the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Act, New York, 
1940. WW 30 

BOWEN, DANA THOMAS (March 6, 1896- 
), born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, 
attended Cleveland schools. He was at one 
time a sailor on the Great Lakes, and 
has collected historical material relative to 
Lakes shipping and has published three 
books on this subject, e.g., Lore of the 
Lakes . . . , Daytona Beach, Fla., 1940. 

BOWERSOX, CHARLES A. (Oct. 16, 1846- 
Jan. 4, 1921), lawyer and judge, was born 
in St. Joseph's Township, Williams County. 
After teaching several terms in district 

schools, he entered Otterbein College, 
where he graduated in 1874. He was super- 
intendent of Edgerton schools, read law, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1879. He 
practiced until 1917, when he was elected 
judge of common pleas court. He wrote A 
Standard History of Williams County . . . , 
2 vols., Chicago, 1920. 

BOWMAN, JAMES CLOYD (Jan. 18, 1880- 
Sept. 28, 1961), educator, was born in 
Leipsic, Putnam County. After graduating 
from Ohio Northern University in 1905, he 
taught English in several Midwestern col- 
leges and later lived in Chapel Hill, N. C, 
where he wrote a number of books for boys, 
e.g., Mystery Mountain, Chicago, 1940. 
WW 28 

BOYD, ELLEN B. (July 8, 1855-Oct. 16, 
1922), was born in Marietta, Washington 
County. She wrote under the name Nellie 
Boyd. She died in Marietta. 
Vagabond Rhxmes by an Idler, Boston, 

A Passing Voice, Boston, 1907. 

22, 1827-July 25, 1909), was born in Ur- 
bana, Champaign County. When she was 
four years old, her family moved to Johns- 
town, Pa. In 1865 she married Dr. Samuel 
S. Boyd: they lived in Dublin, Ind., but she 
returned to Ohio some years before her 
death, which occurred in Ada. From the 
middle of the nineteenth century until her 
death, she contributed to the New York 
Tribune, the Cincinnati Gazette, Century 
magazine, and other popular periodicals. 
Twilight Stories for Little People, Philadel- 
phia, 1869. 
Poems, (Esther Griffin White, ed.), Rich- 
mond, Ind., 1911. 

BOYD, ROBERT (April 5, 1792-July 1, 
1880), clergyman, was born in Westmore- 
land County, Pa. A Methodist minister, he 
came to Steubenville in 1832 and about 
1868 went to Barnesville, where he spent 
the remainder of his life. 
Personal Memoirs: Together with a Discus- 
sion upon the Hardships and Sufferings of 
Itinerant Life . . . , Cincinnati, 1867. 

1898-Jan. 27, 1935), was born in Defiance, 
Defiance County. His father having died 
shortly before his birth, his mother became 
a nurse to support the family. He was sent 
to Woodward High School, Cincinnati, and 
Elgin Academy in Illinois. In May, 1917, 
he enlisted in the U. S. Marine Corps; he 



served in France, received the croix de 
guerre, and was discharged in 1919. After 
working on the St. Paul, Minn., News for 
a time, he opened a bookstore in St. Paul, 
which became a meeting place for writers 
of the area, including F. Scott Fitzgerald 
and Sinclair Lewis. At their urging he set 
down his war experiences in Through the 
Wheat, New York, 1923. It was widely 
praised as one of the first realistic novels of 
World War I. Interested from boyhood in 
frontier history, he also wrote a number of 
historical and biographical books, e.g., Simon 
Girty the White Savage, New York, 1928. 
He settled in Vermont in 1929. Attracted 
to the political left during the Depression 
of the early 1930s, he ran for governor of 
Vermont on the Communist Party slate in 
1934. He died of a cerebral hemorrhage at 
the age of 37. DAB 21 

1848-Oct. 4, 1895), born in Frederiksvarn, 
Norway, came to America in 1869. After 
a brief period in Chicago he came to Urbana, 
where from 1870 to 1873 he headed the 
department of Latin and Greek. Homesick 
for his native Norway, he wrote Gunnar; 
A Tale of Norse Life, Boston, 1874. The 
success of the book, first serialized by 
Howells in the Atlantic, encouraged Boye- 
sen to remain in America. 

9, 1887- ), social worker, was born in 
Columbus, Franklin County. She graduated 
from Ohio State University in 1909 and 
Fordham University (Ph.D.) in 1939. She 
has been active in Catholic charities and 
social work organizations. Her writings in- 
clude magazine articles and an account of 
the National Catholic War Council after 
World War I: They Shall Live Again . . . , 
New York, 1945. CWW 11 

1845-Jan. 16, 1919), physician, was born 
in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. After 
graduating from Andover Academy in 1862, 
he attended Yale University but did not 
graduate. He served with the surgical 
corps of the French army during the 
Franco-Prussian War. He graduated in 
medicine from University of Leipzig in 
1874. His experiences with the French army 
are the subject of his only book. 
Six Months under the Red Cross with the 
French Army, Cincinnati, 1875. 

BOYLE, JAMES (Nov. 28, 1853-June 11, 
1939), journalist, was born in Essex, Eng- 
land. He came to America in 1870 and was 

on the staff of the Cincinnati Commercial 
Gazette, 1871-91. He was private secretary 
to Governor William McKinley, 1892-96, 
and American consul at Liverpool, England, 
1897-1905. Some of his writings were pub- 
lished first in the Cincinnati Enquirer. His 
last years were spent in Columbus. 
Life of William McKinley . . . , (with Robert 

P. Porter), Cleveland, 1897. 
The Initiative and Referendum: Its Folly, 

Fallacies, and Failures, Columbus, 

What Is Socialism? An Exposition and a 

Criticism . . . , New York, 1912. 

12, 1806-April 27, 1883), clergyman, was 
born in West Stockbridge, Mass. After a 
career in business and law, he was ordained 
a Presbyterian minister in 1840. He served 
as pastor of the Sixth Presbyterian Church, 
Cincinnati, 1846-56. He became a vigorous 
opponent of slavery and was a member of 
a party sent to Kansas in 1854 to discover 
its possibilities for settlement by Northern- 
ers. Several of his sermons and public ora- 
tions were published. He served twice again 
(1857-65 and 1873-77) in the pulpit of the 
Sixth Presbyterian (later Vine Street) 
Church and died in Cincinnati at the home 
of a daughter. 
A Journey through Kansas . . . , (with T. B. 

Mason), Cincinnati, 1855. 
The Russian Empire . . . , Cincinnati, 1856. 
English and French Neutrality and the 
Anglo-French Alliance in Their Relations 
to the United States & Russia . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1864. 
The History of the Navy during the Rebel- 
lion, 2 vols., New York, 1867-68. 

1835-1905), journalist, was born in West 
Stockbridge, Mass., the son of Charles B. 
Boynton (q.v.). He came to Ohio in 1846, 
when his father became minister of the 
Sixth Presbyterian Church, Cincinnati. He 
graduated from Woodward High School in 
1855 and afterward attended military school 
in Kentucky. In 1861 he was commissioned 
major in the 35th O.V.I. ; he commanded 
the regiment during the Chickamauga and 
Missionary Ridge battles, after which he 
was breveted brigadier general. After the 
war he became Washington correspondent 
of the Cincinnati Gazette. He engaged in 
some of the postwar controversies that de- 
veloped as generals began to publish their 
memoirs. He aroused considerable excite- 
ment by his criticism of Sherman's Mem- 
oirs. Some of his orations and addresses 
were published separately as pamphlets. 


Bradley, G. D. 

Sherman's Historical Raid. The Memoirs 
in the Light of the Record . . . , Cincin- 
nati, 1875. 

The National Military Park, Chickamauga- 
Chattanooga . . . , Cincinnati, 1 895. 

Was General Thomas Slow at Nashville? 
. . . , New York, 1896. 

Errors in School Histories Compared with 
the Official Record, Washington, D. C, 

1, 1818-March 15, 1908), sculptor, was 
born in Vassalboro, Maine. From 1835 to 
1841 he lived in Cincinnati, where he 
worked for a printer and began the study 
of sculpture. He was best known for his 
portrait busts of notable men. He also 
wrote considerable verse and several books 
on spiritualism, e.g., Materialized Appari- 
tions . . . , Boston, 1886. 

BRACKETT, LEIGH. See Edmond M. Ham- 

23, 1863-April 7, 1945), reformer, born in 
Brooklyn, N. Y., lectured widely on women's 
rights and other subjects. She settled in 
Ohio around 1912. 
The New Philosophy of Health, Boston, 

The Light That Is in Thee . . . , New York, 

Voices of Earth and Heaven, New York, 

The Gospel of Beauty, London, 1900. 
Civilization and Womanhood, Boston, 


BRADEN, ALTA TAYLOR. See Alta Taylor. 

BRADEN, CLARK (Aug. 8, 1831-1915), 
clergyman, was born in Gustavus, Trumbull 
County. He taught in district schools, at- 
tended Farmers' College, and served in the 
Civil War with the 127th Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry. As a minister of the Disciples of 
Christ Church, he served 35 different 
churches, most of them in Ohio and Illinois. 
He frequently debated against members of 
other denominations, and some of these de- 
bates were also published. 
The Problem of Problems . . . , Cincinnati, 

BRADEN, JAMES ANDREW (July 10, 1872- 
June 28, 1955), a prolific writer of juvenile 
books, was born in Greensburg, Summit 
County. He attended Warren public 
schools. When he was seventeen, he started 
as a reporter on the Canton Repository; he 

spent three years there and eight years on 
Akron newspapers before entering industry 
and public relations work. He published a 
number of books, including the Auto Boys 
series, between 1902 and 1913. He resumed 
his writing in the late 1920s. In 1936 he 
moved to Michigan, but he returned to 
Ohio in 1940 to marry Alta Taylor (q.v.). 
They lived near West Richfield. He died in 
Grosse Pointe, Mich., while visiting a 
daughter. Under the pen name Hugh Mc- 
Allister, he published Steve Holworth of 
the Oldham Works, New York, 1930. WWW 

4, 1895-Feb. 16, 1960), educator, was born 
in Clyde, Sandusky County. After graduat- 
ing from the College of Wooster in 1921, he 
studied at Western Reserve University, 
taught at Case Institute of Technology, 
1923-26, and did graduate work at the 
University of Wisconsin, 1926-28. He was 
a member of the Wooster Engli h faculty 
from 1928 until his death. He published a 
collection of poems, Wayside Lyrics, Bos- 
ton, 1921. DAS 1 

1, 1881-Feb. 19, 1930), was born in Fre- 
mont, Mich., but spent the greater part of 
her life in Youngstown. She moved to Los 
Angeles in 1924 but returned to Youngs- 
town two months before her death. She 
lectured on psychology and New Thought, 
wrote numerous magazine articles, and pub- 
lished two books, e.g., The Subconscious 
Mind, How to Reach and Arouse, Holyoke, 
Mass., 1924. 

BRADFORD, WARD (1809-?), was born 
in Portage County. He later lived in In- 
diana, Illinois, and Iowa. In 1849, after 
operating a Mormon hotel in Iowa, he went 
to California. In 1852 he moved to Oregon, 
and ten years later he settled in Nevada. 
He seems to have visited or lived in a dozen 
or more mining towns in the West. 
Biographical Sketches of the Life of Major 

Ward Bradford . . . , [Fresno?, Calif., 


1884-Jan. 4, 1930), educator, was born in 
Kinderhook, Mich. He graduated from the 
University of Michigan (A.B., 1907; Ph.D., 
1915). From 1916 until his death he was a 
member of the University of Toledo history 
faculty. His writings, which deal chiefly 
with the Southwest, include The Story of 
the Pony Express . . . , Chicago, 1913. 
WWW 1 

Bradley, R. K. 



1886- ), clergyman, was born in Salem, 
Columbiana County. He graduated from 
Hiram College in 1911 and was ordained 
to the ministry in the Disciples of Christ 
Church the following year. He served sev- 
eral churches and was for brief periods on 
the faculties of Union Theological Semi- 
nary, Hiram College, and Grinnell College. 
He joined the faculty of Bangor Theological 
Seminary in 1925, became a Universalist, 
and preached at several churches in Maine. 
He has published books on Maine and on 
religious themes, e.g., Philosophical Founda- 
tions of Faith . . . , New York, 1941. WW 30 

1861-Jan. 24, 1920), clergyman, was born 
in Allegheny, Pa. He was an Episcopal rector 
in Toledo, 1905-09. He was a prolific writer 
of adventure novels, historical works, biogra- 
phies, sermons, and juvenile books. Books 
published during his Toledo years include 
The Patriots; The Storv of Lee and the Last 
Hope, New York, 1906. DAB 2 

1866-Sept. 17, 1946), artist and author, 
was born in Oberlin, Lorain County. As an 
architect in Rochester, N. Y., he designed 
several important buildings. He also was 
art director for a number of Walter Hamp- 
den's plays. He lectured often on theosophy 
and architecture. At the time of his death, 
he was living in New York City. 
The Golden Person in the Heart, Gouver- 

neur, N. Y., 1898. 
A Brief Life of Annie Besant . . . , Roches- 
ter, N. Y., 1909. 
The Beautiful Necessity . . . , Rochester, 

N. Y., 1910. 
Episodes from an Unwritten History, Ro- 
chester, N. Y., 1910. 
The Small Old Path, Rochester, N. Y., 

A Primer of Higher Space (The Fourth 

Dimension), Rochester, N. Y., 1913. 
Projective Ornament, Rochester, N. Y., 

Four-Dimensional Vistas, New York, 1916. 
Old Lamps for New; The Ancient Wisdom 
in the Modern World, New York, 1925. 
The New Image, New York, 1928. 
Merely Players, New York, 1929. 
The Eternal Poles, New York, 1931. 
The Frozen Fountain, New York, 1932. 
An Introduction to Yoga, New York, 1933. 
More Lives Than One, New York, 1938. 

The Secret Springs; An Autobiography, 

London, [1938]. 
The Arch Lectures, New York, [1942]. 
Yoga for You, New York, 1943. 

BRAIN, BELLE MARVEL (Aug. 4, 1859- 
May 25, 1933), educator, was born in 
Springfield, Clark County. After graduat- 
ing from Springfield High School, she 
served as supervisor of drawing in the 
Springfield public schools, 1878-95. She 
was prominent in various educational and 
religious societies. She later lived in 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Fuel for Missionary Fires, Boston, 1894. 

The Morning Watch, [n.p.], 1897. 

Weapons for Temperance Warfare . . . , 
Boston, [1897]. 

Quaint Thoughts of an Old-time Army 
Chaplain, [n.p.], 1898. 

The Transformation of Hawaii; How 
American Missionaries Gave a Christian 
Nation to the World; Told for Young 
Folks, New York, [1898]. 

Holding the Ropes; Missionary Methods 
for Workers at Home, New York, 1904. 

The Redemption of the Red Man; An Ac- 
count of Presbyterian Missions to the 
North American Indians of the Present 
Day, New York, 1904. 

All about Japan; Stories of Sunrise Land 
Told for Little Folks, New York, [1905]. 

Adventures with Four Footed Folk . . . , 
New York, 1908. 

Love Stories of Great Missionaries, New 
York, 1913. 

From Every Tribe and Nation . . . , Chi- 
cago, 1927. 

BRAINE, ROBERT D. (May 20, 1861-July 

24, 1943), musician, was born in Spring- 
field, Clark County. He operated a music 
conservatory in Springfield, contributed ar- 
ticles on music to various magazines, and 
for 25 years was violin editor of Etude. His 
death occurred in Springfield. 
Messages from Mars by the Aid of the 
Telescope Plant, New York, 1892. 

BRAINERD, THOMAS (June 17, 1804-Aug. 
21, 1866), Presbyterian minister, was born 
in Leyden, N. Y. He was in Cincinnati 
from 1831 to 1837, first as minister of the 
Fourth Church and then as Lyman Beecher's 
associate in Second Church. He remained 
loyal to Beecher during the latter's heresy 
trial. Many of his sermons were published, 
but he is remembered chiefly for his biog- 
raphy of John Brainerd, missionary to the 
Indians: The Life of John Brainerd . . . , 
Philadelphia. [1865]. 



1844-Dec, 1937), was born in Ohio, prob- 
ably in Lake County. He attended Madison 
Seminary and engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness until 1906, when he retired. He after- 
ward lived in Portland, Oreg., and Mel- 
bourne, Fla. He died in Florida. 
Plain People; A Story of the Western Re- 
serve, New York, 1892. 

BRAND, JAMES (Feb. 26, 1834-April 11, 

1899), clergyman, was born in Three 

Rivers, Quebec, Canada. After entering Yale 

University in 1861, he withdrew to serve 

throughout the Civil War with Connecticut 

troops. He graduated from Yale in 1866 

and Andover Theological Seminary in 1869. 

After four years at Danvers, Mass., he was 

called to First Congregational Church, 

Oberlin. Here he preached until his death. 

He was an active advocate of temperance. 

An address outlining the history of First 

Church was published in 1877. 

James Brand, Twenty-Six Years of the First 

Congregational Church, Oberlin; Some 

Chapters from His Life . . . Written by 

Himself for His Family, Shortly before 

His Death, Oberlin, 1899. 

BRANDT, HERBERT W. (1882-March 8, 
1955), born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, 
was a 1907 graduate of Case Institute 
of Technology, where he starred in foot- 
ball; he operated a hotel and restaurant 
supply company in Cleveland. His hobby 
of ornithology took him on 42 expeditions 
and led to his writing three books on bird 
life, e.g., Texas Bird Adventures . . . , 
Cleveland, 1940. 

BRANDT, JOHN LINCOLN (Oct. 26, 1860- 
March 27, 1946), clergyman, was born in 
Somerset, Perry County. A minister in the 
Christian Church, he served as pastor in 
Ohio, Colorado, Indiana, Missouri, Okla- 
homa, Australia, and California. He trav- 
eled widely and wrote numerous articles for 
religious journals. He died in Los Angeles. 
The Lord's Supper, Cincinnati, 1888. 
Turning Points; Or, Great Questions for 

Young Men and Women, Cincinnati, 

Christian Science Examined and Exposed 

. . . , Denver, 1891. 
Marriage and the Home, Chicago, 1892. 
The False and the True, [n.p.], 1893. 
America or Rome, Christ or the Pope, 

Toledo, 1895. 
Anglo-Saxon Supremacy . . . , Boston, 

Finding Christ, New York, 1930. 

The Origin of Churches, Melbourne, Aus- 
tralia, [n.d.]. 

What about the Modern Dance?, Cincin- 
nati, [n.d.]. 

Why Am I a Christian? [n.p., n.d.]. 

1904- ), poet, was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. He has written greeting 
card verses and advertising copy, was an 
advertising manager for several Cincinnati 
firms, and is now an advertising executive 
in Rochester, N. Y. He has published poems 
in various newspapers; his first collection 
was Life's Journey, Indianapolis, 1929. 

1825-Aug. 9, 1866), self-educated poet and 
painter, was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County, and was reared on a farm near the 
city. He operated a portrait studio in Cin- 
cinnati and for a time in Chicago and 
Louisville, Ky. His poems and humorous 
prose sketches, most of them published 
under the pen name VanDyke Brown, ap- 
peared in leading periodicals. His burlesque 
sermon "The Harp of a Thousand Strings" 
was widely popular with amateur and pro- 
fessional elocutionists. He died in Cincin- 
The Hardshell Baptist Strikes He, New 

York, 1865. 
Vagaries of VanDyke Brown; An Auto- 
biography in Verse, Cincinnati, 1865. 

BRAUN, OSCAR C. (April 22, 1859-April 
26, 1945), educator, was born in Germany, 
but came to the United States when he was 
seventeen and lived in Cincinnati until his 
death at the age of 86. Until his retirement 
in 1941, he taught German and served as 
registrar at Ohio Mechanics Institute. He 
was active in the German Literary Society 
of Cincinnati and dedicated to its members 
a book of poems: Wir Deutsch-Amerikaner, 
Cincinnati, 1911. 

mund) (Dec. 20, 1900- ), was born in 
Boston, Mass., and has lived in Cleveland 
since about 1924. She has taught in the 
Cleveland public schools and has served as 
educational director of Euclid Avenue 
Temple. She has written articles on Jewish 
education and with Nathan Brilliant has 
produced several pageants for use in Jewish 
schools. She has also written a book about 
Palestine: Children of the Emek, New York, 

BRAY, FRANK CHAPIN (May 7, 1866- 
March 24, 1949), journalist, was born in 
Salineville, Columbiana County. After 



graduating from Wesleyan University, 
Conn., in 1890, he served on the editorial 
staff of Literary Digest and other periodi- 
cals. His books include Headlines in Ameri- 
can History, [New York, 1937]. WWW 2 

BRAYTON, MATTHEW (April 7, 1818- 
1862), was born in Sandusky County. In 
1821 he was taken by his family to Tymoch- 
tee Township, Wyandot County, where on 
Sept. 20, 1825, the little boy was snatched 
up by a party of Canadian Indians and 
carried off into captivity. Either the fear 
of being discovered with a white captive in 
their possession or their love for whisky 
caused one tribe after another to trade 
their captive. With his origin completely 
forgotten, he finally wound up with the 
Copperheads and married into that tribe 
in 1851. He was positively identified as a 
white man in 1859 and, informed that he 
had been captured in Ohio, he set out for 
that state in an effort to find a trace of his 
family. In Cleveland he was introduced to 
J. H. A. Bone (q.v.), who wrote and pub- 
lished Brayton's story in the Cleveland 
Herald. The narrative aroused wide interest, 
with the result that on Nov. 18, 1859, he 
was identified by the presence of two scars 
incident to childhood mishaps as the miss- 
ing Matthew Brayton. The following year 
the narrative of the captivity was published 
in book form. This important "captivity" 
has been the subject of no little controversy. 
It has been charged that it would not have 
been possible for Brayton to have made 
some of the movements described among 
the tribes named. These critics have over- 
looked the fact that Brayton was taken 
captive at the age of seven, had lived with 
the Indians for 34 years, could not read or 
write, and spoke English with great diffi- 
culty. Though Bone sought to preserve the 
simplicity of Brayton's account, in padding 
out the story he introduced the inaccura- 
cies which have aroused doubt as to the 
authenticity of the entire narrative. There 
exists ample evidence to prove that the 
"captive" was indeed Matthew Brayton. The 
best sources are the files of Upper Sandusky 
Union and the Seneca Advertiser (Tiffin) 
for the year 1859. At the outbreak of the 
Civil War, Brayton enlisted in an Indiana 
regiment. While in the service he was taken 
dangerously ill, and after a short sickness 
he died at Pittsburgh Landing. 

Ernest J. Wessen 
The Indian Captive. A Narrative of the 
Adventures and Sufferings of Matthew 
Brayton, in his Thirty-Four Years of 
Captivity among the Indians of North- 
western America, Cleveland, 1860. 

BREAKSPEAR. Pseud. See William L. 

1900- ), was born in Stillman Valley, 111., 
and has lived in Cleveland since 1925. She 
graduated from Rockford College and has 
taught English in Cleveland high schools. 
She has published several novels since her 
first: Dream without End, Philadelphia, 

1866-Oct. 30, 1932), clergyman, was born 
in Napoleon, Henry County. Becoming a 
telegrapher when he was fifteen, he worked 
for three years before determining to be- 
come a Roman Catholic priest. He studied 
at Canisius College, Buffalo, N. Y., and 
Xavier College, Cincinnati. He completed 
his studies for the priesthood at St. Mary's 
Seminary, Cleveland, and after being or- 
dained in 1894 served churches in Youngs- 
town and Cleveland. He published stories 
in Catholic periodicals, a book of prayers, 
and the play listed below. 

Esther, the Persian Queen, Youngstown, 

BRENNEMAN, HENRY B. (Aug. 12, 1831- 
Sept. 28, 1887), who was born in Fairfield 
County, was a deacon in the Mennonite 
Church for 23 years and conducted a 
column in the Herald of Truth for several 
years. He died in Elkhart, Ind., where he 
spent the greater part of his adult life. 
Gems of Truth for Children . . . , Elkhart, 
Ind., 1873. 

1904-July 17, 1959), engineer, was born 
in Maineville, Warren County. He was em- 
ployed as a draftsman at the American 
Laundry Machine Company, was active in 
the Methodist Church, and was a member 
of the Lebanon Symphony Orchestra. He 
wrote numerous historical articles for vari- 
ous area newspapers and also published a 
local history: Maineville, Ohio, History 
. . . , Cincinnati, 1950. 

BRENT, LORING. Pseud. See George F. 

BRENTFORD, BURKE. Pseud. See Nathan 
D. Urner. 

BREUER, ELIZABETH (Bessie) (Oct. 18, 
1892- ), was born in Cleveland. Cuya- 
hoga County. She was educated in the pub- 
lic schools of St. Louis and attended the 



school of journalism, Missouri State Uni- 
versity. After serving as a reporter on the 
St. Louis Times and the New York Tribune, 
she began publishing magazine articles. Her 
serious writing began during the 1920s 
while she was living in France. Her fiction 
is notable for its intense awareness of fem- 
inine psychology and for its experimental 
technique. Her short stories, which have 
appeared in Story, The New Yorker, 
Harper's Bazaar, and other magazines, have 
been awarded several prizes. Her most suc- 
cessful novel was Memory of Love, New 
York, 1934. TCA 

18, 1869- ), clergyman, was born in 
State Line, Pa. Ordained to the ministry of 
the United Brethren Church in 1893, he 
served churches in various states and in 
Canton, 1898-1904. He was general secre- 
tary of Sunday School and Brotherhood 
Work, 1913-29; director of the Bureau of 
Evangelism, 1929-33; and pastor of Fair- 
view Church, Dayton, 1933-39. He now 
lives in Dayton. He has written Evangelism 
and the Present World-Order, New York, 
1932. WW 26 

1841-April 17, 1933), lawyer, was born in 
Monroe County. After serving in the Civil 
War with the 61st Pennsylvania Volunteers, 
he studied law and was admitted to the 
Ohio bar in 1869. He lived and practiced 
in Cleveland. With G. A. Laubscher, he 
wrote a legal treatise on Ohio corporations 
which attained five editions. 
How to Make the Sunday School Go, Cin- 
cinnati, [1897]. 
True War Stories, 1907. 
History of Sixty-First Regiment, Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteers, [Pittsburgh, Pa., 1911]. 

1870-Oct. 29, 1960), was born in Ashta- 
bula, Ashtabula County, a descendant of 
one of the pioneer county families. After 
graduating from Lake Erie Seminary in 
1890, she was active in the movement for 
women's suffrage. She married Isaac C. 
Brewer in 1893 and lived in the state of 
Washington for some time. After returning 
to Ohio, she married a Mr. Nelson and 
lived in Jefferson, where she published 
numerous historical feature stories in the 
Jefferson Gazette. She also broadcast his- 
torical programs over the Ashtabula radio 
station in the late 1930s. Her only book was 
published under the name Annette Fitch- 
Brewer: The Storv of a Mother Love, 
[Akron, 1913]. OBB 

BREWSTER, GEORGE (1800-1865), edu- 
cator, arrived in Cleveland in 1831. He was 
a school principal there in 1837 and later 
taught in Columbus. He published the 
Western Literary Magazine at Detroit, 
Columbus, and Lawrence, Kan. 
Lectures on Education, Columbus, 1833. 
A New Philosophy of Matter . . . , Boston, 

Lectures on the Origin of the Globe . . . , 
Columbus, 1850. 

1831-1906), was born in Ravenna, Portage 
County, but soon after his birth his parents 
moved to Rochester, N. Y., where he spent 
most of his life. After a period of study and 
travel abroad, he was an importer in Eng- 
land, 1851-58. Returning to Rochester, he 
was in the banking business until 1870, when 
he retired to devote himself to writing. 
The Coffee Houses and Tea Gardens of 

Old London, Rochester, 1888. 
The Story of a Welsh Girl, [Rochester?]. 1888. 
England and Its Rulers . . . , Chicago, 1892. 
The Cross in Iconography, Archaeology, 

Architecture . . . , Rochester, [1894]. 
Saints and Festivals of the Christian 

Church, New York, [1904]. 

1889- ), lawyer, was born in Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton County. He graduated from 
University of Cincinnati in 1910 and Harv- 
ard Law School in 1913. He practiced in 
New York City, 1922-29, and was on the 
faculty of Washington College of Law. His 
books include legal texts and Twelve Men 
in a Box, Chicago, 1934. WW 30 

1862-Nov. 22, 1916), missionary, was born 
in Highland County. He graduated from 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1883 and Bos- 
ton University School of Theology in 1886. 
He served for many years as a Methodist 
missionary in India and China. His books 
include The Methodist Man's Burden, New 
York, 1913. WWW 1 

1881- ), educator, was born in Etna, 
Licking County. He attended Lima College 
and graduated from Ohio University in 
1918. He taught in Ohio public schools, the 
agriculture department of Ohio State Uni- 
versity, and other universities. In 1937 he 
became manager of the Youngstown Book 
Store, and he is now president of Pennsyl- 
vania-Ohio University, Youngstown. Be- 
sides a number of agriculture textbooks, he 
has written The Church in Rural America, 
Cincinnati, [1919]. WW 21 

Brinkerhoff, H. R. 


BRINKERHOFF, HENRY R. (Oct. 9, 1836- 
? ), soldier, was born in Medina County. He 
enlisted in the U. S. Army Aug. 19, 1861, 
and served until his retirement as a lieu- 
tenant colonel in 1900. During his service 
he had many experiences among the In- 
dian tribes, which he used in the novel 
listed below. 

Nah-Nee-Ta, a Tale of the Navctjos, Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1886. 

4, 1880-Feb. 17, 1958), cartoonist and il- 
lustrator, was born in Toledo, Lucas 
County. He worked as a cartoonist on the 
Toledo Bee, the Toledo Blade, the Cleve- 
land Leader, and later for United Features 
Syndicate. His death occurred in Minne- 
apolis, Minn. He illustrated stories for many 
magazines. His cartoon character, Little 
Mary Mixup, is the subject of his book, 
Little Mary Mixup in Fairyland, New York, 
1926. WWW 3 

June 4, 1911), lawyer and journalist, was 
born in Owasco, N. Y. He was educated in 
local schools and neighboring academies. 
After teaching two years in district schools, 
he drifted to Tennessee, where he served as 
tutor in the family of Andrew Jackson, Jr., 
at the Hermitage. Inheriting a substantial 
fortune on the death of his father, he came 
to Mansfield, studied law under his kinsman 
Jacob Brinkerhoff, and was admitted to the 
bar in 1851. He soon switched from the 
practice of law to journalism, and in 1855 
he bought from J. R. Locke (q.v.) and as- 
sociates the Mansfield Herald, which he 
edited until 1861, when he entered the 
army as quartermaster. After the war he 
returned to Mansfield and became a con- 
spicuous figure in state politics. His wealth 
left him leisure to devote to philanthropy, 
genealogical research, and penology. In 
1893 he became president of the National 
Prison Association, and he was vice-presi- 
dent of the International Prison Congress 
which met in Paris in 1895. He was a 
founder and the first president of the Ohio 
Archaeological Society and for fifteen years 
was president of its successor, the Ohio 
State Archaeological and Historical So- 
ciety. Though highly personal his Recollec- 
tions is an entertaining and valuable com- 
mentary on men and events of the last 
three quarters of the nineteenth century. He 
also wrote two family histories. His death 
occurred in Mansfield. 

The Volunteer Quartermaster, New York, 

Recollections of a Lifetime, Cincinnati, 

BRITTON, ROLLIN JOHN (Dec. 9, 1864- 
March 28, 1931), lawyer, was born in 
Akron, Summit County. In 1877 his parents 
moved to Constantine, Mich., and a few 
years later to Gallatin, Mo. He attended 
Normal School at Stanberry, Mo., and 
taught school and read law in Gallatin. He 
participated in the land rush to the Chero- 
kee Strip in 1889, but returned to Missouri 
because of ill health. He practiced law in 
Gallatin until 1910 and afterward in Kan- 
sas City, Mo. Especially interested in the 
history of the Mormons in Missouri, he 
wrote many historical and biographical 
articles. He also published fiction, and 
under the pen name Guy Blue he wrote 
considerable poetry for newspapers. At 
least two collections of his poetry were pub- 
lished, e.g., Stuff, Effused by Guy Blue, Gal- 
latin, Mo., 1912. 

W. Gazlay. 

BROBECK, FLORENCE (July 19, 1895- 
), journalist, born in Ashville, Picka- 
way County, graduated from Ohio State 
University in 1917 and has lived in New 
York City since 1921. She was women's 
editor of the New York Herald Tribune for 
seven years and for a number of years was 
associate editor of McCall's. As a free-lance 
writer she has published articles in various 
magazines and newspapers. She has also 
written several popular cookbooks and a 
book about cats: The Cat on the Mat, New 
York, 1935. WWNAA 7 

1879-Jan. 3, 1949), clergyman and jour- 
nalist, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. After 
graduating from the University of Maine 
and Bangor Theological Seminary, he 
served pastorates in New England and New 
York, 1905-28. He was editor of the Mt. 
Sterling Tribune, 1929-49. He published 
several books of prose and verse, e.g., 
What's It All About?, [Mt. Sterling, 1933]. 


TON (April 29, 1863-Jan. 7, 1947), mother 
of Louis Bromfield (q.v.), was born in 
Monroe Township, Richland County. She 
died in Springfield Township in the same 
county. She wrote a book about a dog be- 
longing to her son: Laddie Boy; The Auto- 
biography of a Dog, New York, 1936. 


Bromfield, L. 

BROMFIELD, LOUIS (Dec. 27, 1896-March 
19, 1956), was born in Mansfield, Richland 
County. In the nineteenth century Mans- 
field was one of those sleepy little Middle 
Western towns described by Sherwood An- 
derson as "devoted to the practice of the 
old trades, to agriculture and merchandis- 
ing." It was the seat of Richland County, 
where early settlers had found the land 
productive and stayed on it to produce 
large and established families like the Brom- 
field clan. The town's personality began to 
change in the 1870s and 1880s when the 
smoke of factories and foundries claimed 
the rural skies. With it came wealth and 
poverty, company owners and common 
laborers, dreadful architecture and ugly 
slums, and a sense of urgency and hurry. 
In the midst of these lived the heirs of the 
old families who had been reared in the 
quiet and simplicity of the rural community. 
To two of them, Charles and Annette Brom- 
field, a son Louis was born two days after 
Christmas in 1896. Throughout his sixty 
years he retained a nostalgia for the pleas- 
ant life of his ancestors, a trait that marked 
his philosophy and his writings. The large 
and lovable Bromfield family also provided 
him with many of the best characters of his 
novels and short stories. Near-poverty 
dogged the Bromfields while Louis was 
growing up. In the place of money, how- 
ever, his parents and his grandfather Coul- 
ter gave him a romantic spirit, a love of 
life, an appreciation of beauty and of just 
plain fun, and an affection for the land and 
for nature. His mother, a persevering 
woman, guided his education and provided 
him with a library of the great English au- 
thors. He remained a voracious reader 
throughout his life, though he reacted to 
her domination with a desire for personal 
freedom. Hard times drove the Bromfields 
to the Coulter farm when Louis was about 
sixteen, and he decided to go to Cornell 
University to study agriculture. After a 
semester he returned when his grandfather 
became ill; he worked on the farm for a 
year and a half before he decided upon a 
different life. In Sept., 1916, he left for 
Columbia University to enter journalism. 
This time the war intervened, and in 1917 
he joined the ambulance service and served 
two years in France. New York City be- 
came his home after the war. There he 
married Mary Appleton Wood, an aspir- 
ing young writer, in 1921. Between 1919 
and 1925 he worked as a reporter, became 
foreign editor of Musical America, served 
as dramatic and book critic of the Book- 
man, wrote a monthly column called "The 
New Yorker" for Bookman, was music 

critic on the original staff of Time, and was 
advertising manager of G. P. Putnam's 
Sons. Meanwhile he spent his spare time 
writing four novels which were never to see 
print and in 1924 The Green Bay Tree, 
which launched him as a successful novelist. 
The following year Possession also hit the 
best-seller lists. After it appeared in the 
fall, the Bromfields sailed for a visit to 
Paris. They found France attractive and 
less expensive than the United States, and 
made their home near Paris for fourteen 
years. With his first two novels Bromfield 
began a panel of four books on the "un- 
gainly, swarming, glittering spectacle of 
American life," the next two being Early 
Autumn (1926), which won him the Pulit- 
zer Prize, and A Good Woman (1927). 
The setting for Early Autumn was a New 
England town, and for each of the other 
three, in which the characters were mem- 
bers of his own family, it was "the town," 
presumably Mansfield, and New York and 
Paris. In each the story unfolds in the 
changing American scene of the last dec- 
ade of the nineteenth century and the 
first two decades of the twentieth century. 
In these novels Bromfield displayed a genu- 
ine talent for telling stories and creating 
memorable characters. He suggested that 
they might be brought together under the 
title "Escape." The first two deal with the 
rebellion of the "new woman," the third 
with a struggle for release from an old and 
decaying New England family, and the 
fourth with a son's reaction to his mother's 
domination. Novels continued to come from 
his pen at a rapid rate: The Strange Case 
of Annie Spragg (1928), Twenty-Four 
Hours (1930), and A Modern Hero (1932), 
weaker stories in which he experimented 
with new forms and new ideas. In 1929 he 
published Awake and Rehearse, his first 
volume of short stories. In A Modern Hero 
he moved from his concern for escape from 
social restrictions and personal inhibitions 
to a recognition that the individual must 
control his drives if he is to have happiness. 
In The Farm (1933) he celebrated the con- 
science and integrity of the individual in 
rural America. For this book he returned 
to the Richland County scene and his fam- 
ily to produce a significant study of the 
"good way of life" which industrialism had 
displaced. It remained one of his favorites 
among his own writings. It also restored 
him to the literary position he had won 
with his first four novels. In Here Today 
and Gone Tomorrow (1934), four short 
novels reprinted from Cosmopolitan, Brom- 
field slipped into mediocrity. The Man Who 
Had Everything (1935) was significant only 

Bromfield, L. 


for his analysis of his own restlessness in 
the 1930s, when success began to pall on 
him and he began talking of returning to 
a farm in Ohio. Several trips to India, be- 
ginning in 1932, resulted in The Rains 
Came (1937), a very popular story in 
which he compared the faith of a rising 
people with that of the West, where he saw 
life "drooping and dying." In 1938 the 
threat of war drove the Bromfields home, 
where they bought three adjoining farms 
near Mansfield and settled down to farm. 
In 1939 he issued a sharp attack on Neville 
Chamberlain and the men in power in Eng- 
land in a pamphlet entitled England, a Dy- 
ing Oligarchy. In the same year // Takes 
All Kinds appeared, containing four short 
novels and five short stories from Cosmo- 
politan. J. P. Marquand called the volume 
"a case book of literary craftsmanship 
which anyone in the profession will be the 
better for studying." For several years he 
wrote stories without much substance, in- 
cluding Night in Bombay (1940); Wild Is 
the River (1941), a romantic historical 
novel of New Orleans under Yankee occu- 
pation; and Until the Day Break (1942), 
a tale about Paris during the German occu- 
pation in World War II. Mrs. Parkington 
(1943) was a model in construction, but it 
lacked strong characters. What Became of 
Anna Bolton (1944) proved exciting but 
lacked depth and integrity and represented 
a considerable drop in quality from Mrs. 
Parkington. The World We Live In (1944), 
a collection of fascinating short stories from 
Cosmopolitan, dealt with Americans and 
Europeans in the prewar and war years. 
After his return from France, the farm 
called "Malabar" and agriculture dominated 
Bromfield's interest. He turned Malabar 
into a pilot farm of experimentation which 
soon attracted thousands of visitors a year 
from all over the world. His success in re- 
viving worn-out land and his other experi- 
ments led a group of citizens of Wichita 
Falls, Texas, to invite him to start a second 
Malabar near that town, and some years 
later, at the request of Brazilian officials, 
he set up a third Malabar in Brazil. His 
most effective writings now concerned the 
farm and farming. Pleasant Valley (1945), 
the story of an amateur farmer trying to 
operate a large farm, opened a series of 
four books on the subject. It also restored 
Bromfield to a high rank in American 
letters. It was followed by Malabar Farm 
(1948), aimed particularly at people who 
desired practical information on reclama- 
tion and general farming; Out of the Earth 
(1950), concerned primarily with new tech- 
niques in agriculture; and From My Experi- 

ence (1955), which dealt with later opera- 
tions at Malabar and at Malabar-do-Brazil. 
Bromfield interspersed his farm books with 
A Few Brass Tacks (1946), a disapproving 
analysis of American materialism and a 
criticism of the New Deal; Kenny (1947), 
a weak collection of short stories; Colorado 
(1947), a satirical novel on Westerns and 
Westerners; and The Wild Country' (1948), 
a piece of psychological fiction about a 
growing boy. With Mr. Smith (1951), a 
story in which a small American business- 
man analyzes the purposelessness and hypoc- 
risy of his own life in terms of the empti- 
ness of our society, Bromfield once more 
won the plaudits of the critics. His concern 
with the problems of this nation and of 
civilization in general led to A New Pat- 
tern for a Tired World ( 1 954 ) , a nonfiction 
criticism of American policy and a plan for 
more effective leadership in the world. His 
writing career concluded with Animals and 
Other People (1955), a volume of stories 
about people who were "teched" that they 
were loved by animals. Bromfield's books 
had tremendous sales. His first novel, The 
Green Bay Tree, is said to have earned him 
about $1,500,000. Several books, including 
The Rains Came, were translated into six- 
teen languages. Before his death over 
400,000 copies of The Rains Came had 
been printed in the German translation 
alone. A dozen of his books were translated 
into ten or more languages each, and all 
but the last three were translated into 
at least one language. Virtually all of 
his books have been frequently reprinted in 
English. Before his death his five farm 
books had sold over 300,000 copies, and 
they have continued to sell. His popularity 
was achieved without the help of book 
clubs, with which he refused to have any- 
thing to do. To Bromfield the primary pur- 
pose of literature was to entertain. Writing 
on a sweeping canvas, he built his stories 
around exciting adventure and plenty of 
sex. His exceptional ability to tell a story 
was his forte: his second strength probably 
lay in his talent for character portrayal, 
but in this area he served his female figures 
better than his male ones. Finally, he was 
a literary craftsman whose technique was 
sometimes better than his stories. He did 
his most effective writing on the problems 
of personal escape from inhibitions and 
family and social restrictions in his first 
four books, and on the hollowness of mod- 
ern life and the virtues of rural America 
in later works. It is apparent that he was a 
prodigious writer. Besides fiction, the vol- 
umes on the farm, and the books on the 
state of the prewar and postwar world, he 


Brooks, J. 

produced numerous articles, many parts of 
books, several plays and movie scripts, and 
a syndicated newspaper column. He was 
constantly in demand as a speaker on liter- 
ary subjects, farming and conservation, and 
international affairs, and for a time con- 
ducted a Saturday afternoon broadcast on 
a national radio hook-up. At the same time, 
he brought up three daughters and main- 
tained a large home that was always filled 
with visitors. He had great personal charm, a 
deep understanding of people, and a warm 
sympathy for the unfortunate. He has been 
characterized as one of the most independ- 
ent of Americans, and he gave his bless- 
ing to those characters in his books who 
fought for their personal rights. Until his 
return to the farm, Bromfield actually was 
not sure of himself or of his purpose in 
life. At Malabar he finally achieved a 
"sense of belonging, of being a small and 
relatively unimportant part of something 
vast but infinitely friendly." 

James H. Rodabaugh 

1807-May 7, 1890), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Waterbury, Conn. In the 
same year his family moved to Lorain 
County. He graduated from Kenyon Col- 
lege in 1833 and was ordained an Episco- 
pal priest in 1835. He served churches in 
Granville, 1837-45, Sandusky, 1850-66, 
and Mansfield, 1872-89. He was president 
of Kenyon College, 1845-50, and served 
on the seminary faculty there, 1866-72. The 
first title below is an important financial 
history of Kenyon College. His death oc- 
curred in Mansfield. 

A Memento of the Donors and Founders 
of the Theological Seminary of the Prot- 
estant Episcopal Church in the Diocese 
of Ohio, and Kenyon College, Cincinnati, 

John Sherman; What He Has Said and 
Done . . . , Columbus, 1880. 

1800-Aug. 19, 1861), clergyman, was born 
in Frederick, Md. After reading law with 
Roger B. Taney, he was admitted to the bar 
and practiced for two or three years. He 
then studied at a theological seminary in 
Alexandria, Va., and was ordained an Epis- 
copal priest in 1826. He served three years 
in Martinsburg, Va., and nine years in 
Georgetown, Washington. D. C, before 
coming to Christ Church, Cincinnati, where 
he was rector, 1835-47. He was later a 
professor at Kenyon College and rector of 
Christ Church, Springfield, 1854-60. Be- 

sides the titles below, several of his sermons 

and addresses were published. 

Union: How Far Consistent or Justifiable 
in View of the Present Differences be- 
tween Churchmen, Cincinnati, 1859. 

Short Notes on the Died Scott Case, Cin- 
cinnati, 1861. 

BROOKE, MARY GOULD (May 22, 1858- 
Jan. 22, 1946), was born in Eaton, Preble 
County. She married an Eaton banker and 
spent her life in that community. She was 
actively interested in local history. She 
wrote Historic Eaton and Fort St. Clair, 
Eaton, 1930. 

20, 1955), educator, taught in Cleveland 
elementary schools, 1902-38. She published 
a collection of verse for children, Half-past 
Five . . . , New York, [1938]. 

BROOKS, ALDEN (Feb. 8, 1883- ), was 
born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. After 
attending schools in France and England, 
he graduated from Harvard University in 
1905. He was a teacher in the United States 
and a newspaperman in France; during 
World War I he served in the French For- 
eign Legion. In 1935 he settled in Mary- 
land as a tobacco farmer and writer; he 
now lives in Topango, Calif. He has pub- 
lished several books, e.g., a novel, Escape, 
New York, 1924. 

1878-June 29, 1934), was born in Cleve- 
land, Cuyahoga County. After graduating 
from Yale University in 1900, he conducted 
a printing and stationery business in Cleve- 
land until 1915, when he moved to New 
York. He returned to Cleveland to live a 
few years before his death. He published 
plays, fiction, several collections of essays, 
e.g., Chimney-Pot Papers, New Haven, 
[Conn.], 1919, and a book of boyhood 
memories: Prologue, New York, [1931]. 
WWW 1 

BROOKS, CHATTY. Pseud. See Rosella Rice. 

BROOKS, ELIPHALET (?-?), was born in 
Ohio, probably in Wakeman, Huron County. 
He was probably the son of John Brooks, 
a pioneer settler of that community. His 
book "advocating the personal coming of 
Christ" was privately printed. 
The Harmony of Prophecy, Wakeman, 1863. 

BROOKS, JENNIE (April 23, 1853-Feb. 15, 
1934), was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. She graduated from Oxford Col- 
lege for Women in 1871. She published 

Brooks, L. 


many articles and stories on nature in na- 
tional magazines. She also published two 
books on nature study, e.g., Quests of a 
Bird Lover, Boston, [1922]. OBB 

BROOKS, LAKE. Pseud. See Arthur R. 

poet, born in Dayton. Montgomery County, 
of New England parents who returned to 
Connecticut to reside after her birth, grad- 
uated from Oberlin College and returned to 
take up permanent residence in Dayton in 
1894 after her marriage to Virgil L. Brooks, 
a Dayton plumbing contractor. She wrote 
Maple Mansion Melodies, Dayton, 1930. 

1874-Feb. 2, 1941), educator, was born 
in Piqua, Miami County. He graduated from 
Indiana University in 1896 and Cornell 
University (Ph.D.) in 1903. He served on 
the faculties of several universities, includ- 
ing the University of Cincinnati (1908-12); 
at the time of his death he was teaching 
at Swarthmore College. His writings include 
Corruption in American Politics and Life, 
New York, 1910. WWW 1 

1848-Nov. 12, 1908), zoologist, was born 
in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, the son of 
a prosperous merchant. His interest in sci- 
ence developed early. In 1866 he entered 
Hobart College, where he spent two years, 
and in 1870 he graduated from Williams 
College. His graduate work was done at 
Harvard University. From 1876 until his 
death he was a member of the biological de- 
partment of Johns Hopkins University. In 
addition to the books listed below, he wrote 
numerous scientific papers and technical 

The Law of Heredity . . . , Baltimore, 1883. 
The Oyster, a Popular Summery of a Sci- 
entific Study, Baltimore, 1891. 

BROSANUS, MATTHEW. Pseud. See Harry 
M. Brown. 

4, 1848-Feb. 9, 1930), was born in Cam- 
bridge City, Ind. In her girlhood she ac- 
companied her parents to Cincinnati, where. 
except for short periods of residence in her 
native state and in St. Louis, Mo., she spent 
the rest of her life. Her education was re- 
ceived mainly in Cincinnati, where she grad- 
uated from Woodward High School in 1870. 
As early as 1872 she began to write for the 
press, and she contributed to various lead- 

ing periodicals, including Century, Scribner's, 
Atlantic Monthly, St. Nicholas, and the 
New York Independent. She died in Cin- 

Beyond the Veil, Chicago, 1886. 
The Sailing of King Olaf and Other Poems, 

Chicago, 1887. 
What the Wind Told the Treetops, New 

York, 1888. 
The Orchard Path and Other Poems, 1917. 


Alice W. Brotherton (q.v.), was born in 
Cincinnati, Hamilton County, and still lives 
in that city. He graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati in 1939. He has pub- 
lished poems in Cincinnati newspapers and 
in a collection: Airs and Graces, Cincinnati, 

1907), clergyman, was born in Jamestown, 
Greene County. A minister of the Disciples 
of Christ Church, he served as an evangelist 
and pastor in Illinois and Ohio. He died in 
The Ministry of Reconciliation . . . , St. 

Louis, Mo., 1879. 
The Process of Regeneration, Litchfield, 111., 

Browder's Pulpit . . . , St. Louis, Mo., 1887. 

BROWN, ALBERT M. (Aug. 28, 1901- 
), social worker, was born in Cleve- 
land, Cuyahoga County. He attended the 
University of Pittsburgh and Western Re- 
serve University. Since 1924 he has been 
in social work in New York, Cleveland, 
and Toledo. He has published several vol- 
umes of plays for boys, e.g., A Collection 
of Boys' Plays, Boston, [1933]. 

BROWN, DAVID LESLIE (Sept. 9, 1885- 
), was born in Buffalo, N. Y. After 
graduating from Ohio Wesleyan University, 
he was a Methodist minister, a lecturer at 
the St. Louis World's Fair, and a teacher. 
He was an executive of Goodyear Tire and 
Rubber Company, Akron. 1916-29. After 
retiring he lived in Florida and in Europe; 
he now lives in New York City. He has 
written poems and articles for various maga- 
zines and two books on business, e.g., On 
Setbacks . . . , New York, 1919. 

BROWN, EDWARD (Nov. 1. 1814-?). 
clergyman, was born in Colebrook, Ashta- 
bula County. No details concerning his life 
have been found except that he became 
pastor of the Wadsworth Congregational 
Church in 1874. His pamphlet is valuable 
for its history of Medina County. 


Brown, K. I. 

W adsworth Memorial 

. , Wadsworth, 

BROWN, FREDERIC (Oct. 29, 1906- ), 
writer of mystery stories, was born in Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton County, and lived there 
until he was 23 years old. His home at 
present is Tucson, Ariz. His numerous mys- 
tery novels include The Dead Ringer, New 
York, 1948. WW 30 

BROWN, GEORGE (Jan. 29, 1792-Oct. 25, 
1871), clergyman and educator, was born 
in Washington County, Pa. He was brought 
to Steubenville in 1800 and grew up in that 
town. In 1814 he became an itinerant 
Methodist preacher and traveled throughout 
Ohio, Virginia, and western Pennsylvania. He 
served for a time as president of Madison 
College, Uniontown, Pa., and also lived 
in Xenia and Cincinnati. On becoming edi- 
tor of the Western Methodist Protestant in 
1860, he moved to Springfield, where he 
wrote his recollections. His book provides 
an important account of pioneer life in 
Steubenville and of his service during the 
War of 1812. He describes an otherwise 
unrecorded march across Ohio and a de- 
scription of the harrowing experience of 
"short-term" men, discharged at Lower San- 
dusky and turned loose to find their way 
to their homes through trackless swamps 
and forests. His death occurred in Spring- 
Recollections of Itinerant Life; Including 

Early Reminiscences, Cincinnati, 1866. 
The Lady Preacher: Or, the Life and Labors 

of Mrs. Hanna Reeves . . . , Springfield, 


1860-Sept. 16, 1949), educator, was born 
in Pittsburgh, Pa. Her parents moved to 
Ohio in the year of her birth. After gradu- 
ating from Wilberforce University in 1873, 
she was a school principal in Dayton for 
two years; dean of Allen University, Co- 
lumbia, S. C, 1885-87; and dean of Tuske- 
gee Institute, 1892-93. In 1902 she joined 
the English faculty of Wilberforce Univer- 
sity. She lectured and gave readings and 
published several books, e.g., Pen Pictures 
of Pioneers of Wilberforce . . . , [Xenia, 

1921- ), educator, was born in Newark, 
Licking County. He graduated from Bald- 
win-Wallace College in 1946 and Western 
Reserve University (Ph.D.) in 1955. He 
taught English at Baldwin-Wallace, 1946- 
50, and since 1950 has been on the faculty 

of West Virginia University. Under the 
pen name Matthew Brosanus, he has pub- 
lished a volume of poetry: Sea-Rock and 
Coral, Prairie City, 111., [1950]. DAS 3 

B. Pounds. 

BROWN, JOE EVAN (July 28, 1892- ), 
comedian, was born in Holgate, Henry 
County. Beginning as a circus acrobat in 
1902, he became one of America's best- 
loved comedians in musical comedies and 
motion pictures. His tours of the war zone 
during World War II resulted in his writ- 
ing Your Kids and Mine, New York, 1944. 
WW 30 

Feb. 15, 1940), educator and editor, was 
born in Springboro, Warren County. He 
graduated from Earlham College in 1889 
and Cornell University (Ph.D.) in 1896. 
After about twenty years in educational 
work, he joined Macmillan Company as 
an editor in the secondary school depart- 
ment. He wrote several books on education, 
e.g., The American High School, New York, 

BROWN, JOHN PORTER (Aug. 17, 1814- 
April 28, 1872), diplomat and Oriental 
scholar, was born in Chillicothe, Ross 
County, the son of a tanner. In 1832 he 
joined his uncle, David D. Porter, Ameri- 
can minister in Constantinople. Brown held 
various posts in the American legation. Dur- 
ing his forty years of diplomatic service, 
the actions that brought him to public no- 
tice were his trip to America in 1850 with 
Amin Bey, the first Turkish mission to visit 
this country, and his implusive demand in 
1853 that an Austrian ship surrender Martin 
Koszta, a Hungarian patriot who had an- 
nounced his intention of becoming an Ameri- 
can citizen. Brown translated several Turkish 
works into English, including a collection 
of fairy tales, Turkish Evening Entertain- 
ments (1850). He died in Constantinople. 
History of the Dervishes; Or, Oriental Spirit- 
ualism, Philadelphia, 1868. 

1896- ), educator, was born in Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. After serving as president of 
Hiram College (1930^10) and Denison Uni- 
versity (1940-50). he became director of 
the Danforth Foundation. His writings in- 
clude A Campus Decade; The Hiram Study 
Plan of Intensive Courses, Chicago, [1940]. 
WW 30 

Brown. M. M. 


16, 1915), was born in Batavia, 111. He 
practiced law in Chicago before coming to 
Cleveland in 1896, where he successfully 
engaged in home-building and real estate. 
Under the sponsorship of Euclid Avenue 
Baptist Church, he published a eulogistic 
biography of John D. Rockefeller and an 
attack on Ida M. Tarbell's account of Stand- 
ard Oil and its founder: A Study of John 
D. Rockefeller . . . , Cleveland, 1905. 


(March 13, 1844-Aug. 17, 1917), was 

born in Champaign County. She lived in 

Cincinnati for much of her life. She was a 

genealogist and also wrote a study of book 


Ellice Larrabee, a Tale of the Olden Time, 

Cincinnati, 1889 
The Story of John Adams, a New England 

Schoolmaster, New York, 1900. 

BROWN, MOSES TRUE (March 4, 1827- 
Sept. 11, 1900), educator, was born in 
Deerfield, N. H. He graduated from Tufts 
College in 1866. He was superintendent of 
schools in Toledo for six years and an edi- 
tor with Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co., Cin- 
cinnati, for two years. He joined the Tufts 
faculty and taught there until his retire- 
ment in 1890. In 1894 he moved to San- 
dusky, where he spent the remainder of his 
life. He was widely known as a lecturer and 
as an interpreter of Dickens. 
The Synthetic Philosophy of Expression, as 
Applied to the Arts of Reading, Oratory, 
and Personation, Boston, 1886. 

BROWN, ORIL (Sept. 16, 1908- ), psy- 
chologist, was born in Maumee, Lucas 
County. He graduated from Northwestern 
University in 1930 and is at present a re- 
search psychologist at George Washington 
University. He has written magazine articles 
and one book: Youth under Dictators, 
Evanston, 111., 1940. 

1887- ), investment broker, was born 
in Concord, Mass. He graduated from Har- 
vard University in 1908 and has been a 
resident of Cleveland since 1923. He has 
published privately a collection of papers: 
Middlesex Monographs, Cleveland, 1941. 
WW 30 

1880-Oct. 13, 1956). writer and lecturer, 
was born near Crooksville, Perry County. 
He read law for a time in Zanesville, but 
gave it up to attend Ohio Northern Uni- 
versity (1899-1903) and Harvard Univer- 

sity (1903-05). In 1924, after a career in 
college teaching, he devoted himself to 
lecturing and writing. He stayed often at 
the MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, 
N. H., where he knew Edward Arlington 
Robinson, subject of his book Next Door 
to a Poet, New York, 1937. He wrote sev- 
eral novels and books about writing, but he 
was most successful with short interpreta- 
tive biographical sketches, as in Lonely 
Americans, New York, 1929. His auto- 
biography, The Hills Are Strong, appeared 
in 1953. TCA 

BROWN, SARA LOWE (Nov. 10, 1870- 
Jan. 28, 1957), was born in Groveport, 
Franklin County. She was reared in the 
locally famous Rarey Mansion, which had 
been the home of her great-uncle, John 
Solomon Rarey (q.v.), the world-famous 
horse-tamer, who was immortalized by Rob- 
ert Browning in "A Likeness." Mrs. Brown's 
earliest recollections were of her uncle's 
horse Cruiser. The horse, whose comfort 
had been amply provided for in his master's 
will, survived Rarey by nine years, dying 
July 6, 1875, at the age of 23. Keeping 
green the memory of her illustrious uncle 
and the horse who shared his fame was a 
lifetime labor of love with Mrs. Brown. 
Those interested in the vast literature on 
the horse have long since accepted Mrs. 
Brown's book as the basic source on the 
subject: The Horse Cruiser and the Rarey 
Method of Training Horses, Columbus, 

BROWN, VANDYKE. Pseud. See William P. 

1834-Oct., 1915), clergyman and educator, 
was born in Fayette County, Pa. After en- 
tering the Methodist ministry in 1856, he 
served in the Pittsburgh Conference and 
later in the Cincinnati Conference. He 
published the Monitor in Alliance, 1 869— 
76. He was president of Cincinnati Wesleyan 
Woman's College, 1882-92. His death oc- 
curred in Cincinnati. 

Guenethics; Or, the Ethical Status of 
Woman, New York, 1887. 

4, 1855-Oct. 31, 1937), clergyman, was 
born near Orrville, Wayne County. Left an 
orphan after the Civil War, he was bound 
out to a farmer near Cleveland. A wealthy 
woman, Mrs. Mary S. Bradford, became 
interested in him and financed his educa- 
tion at Kenyon. In 1885 he married her 
daughter, Ellen Bradford. He became a 


Browne, C. F. 

deacon in the Episcopal Church in 1883 
and was ordained to the priesthood the 
following year. He was rector of the Galion 
Church, 1883-91, and later a missionary 
and archdeacon for the Diocese of Ohio. 
He was consecrated bishop of Arkansas in 
1898, but resigned because of ill health in 
1912. In 1925 he was tried for heresy, 
largely on the basis of his book, Com- 
munism and Christianity, and he was de- 
posed from the office of bishop. He spent 
his last years in Galion. He left a half mil- 
lion dollars to foster communism in Amer- 
The Church for Americans, New York, 

The Crucial Race Question . . . , Little 

Rock, Ark., 1907. 
The Level Plan for Church Union . . . , 

New York, 1910. 
Communism and Christianity . . . , Galion, 

My Heresy: The Autobiography of an Idea, 

New York, 1926. 
The Human Meaning of Christian Doc- 
trines, New York, [1928]. 
Heresy; "Bad Bishop Brown's" Quarterly 

Lectures . . . , [Galion, 1930]. 
Teachings of Marx for Girls and Boys, 

Galion, 1935. 

1834-March 6, 1867), humorist, was born 
in Waterford, Maine, of pioneer stock and 
of parents well placed in the community. 
He was born Charles F. Brown, but added 
the final "e" in later life. Leaving home at 
thirteen with a minimum of schooling, he 
became a roving printer, drifted from one 
town to another, setting type and occasionally 
trying his hand at writing short pieces for 
his own amusement. Although only six 
years of his short life were spent in Ohio, 
it was here that he developed his distinctive 
style of humor. At twenty, tiring of his 
employment in Boston, he accepted Greeley's 
suggestion and turned his restless steps 
toward the West. He seems to have had no 
particular destination in mind, but in the 
course of a few weeks turned up in Cin- 
cinnati, where he worked for a time. He 
soon moved on to Dayton and then to 
Springfield for brief stays; then to Tiffin, 
where he remained nearly a year; and fi- 
nally to Toledo. In Oct., 1857, he took a 
job on the news desk of the Cleveland 
Plain Dealer. The Plain Dealer was a four- 
page evening daily in its sixteenth year of 
publication, a pugnacious Democratic organ 
in a stoutly Republican community. It 
habitually carried a chip on its shoulder, 
and the defender of the chip was peppery 

little J. W. Gray, founder and proprietor 
of the paper. Always alert for fresh talent 
to brighten his columns, Gray observed 
Browne's work on the Toledo Commercial 
and invited him down the lake to the 
Cuyahoga metropolis. Browne went to the 
Plain Dealer as commercial and local news 
editor. The duties of the job were dully 
routine to a mind as effervescent as his, 
and, as he had sometimes done at Toledo, 
he found relief by presenting his news of 
the city in whimsical terms to the delight 
of his readers. A bon vivant and a born 
raconteur, he became popular in the night 
life of the city, and his pranks were part 
of contemporary history. Artemus Ward 
emerged from the chrysalis of Browne in 
Jan., 1858, when under this curious pseu- 
donym he began writing of his wholly 
imaginary "show bizniss." The stunt was 
popular from the first. The name Browne 
dropped into disuse; that of Artemus Ward 
was on many tongues. His friends and ad- 
mirers were myriad. Ward left Cleveland 
in mid-November, 1860, in response to a 
'"louder call." as Gray wrote in farewell 
to his distinguished employee. He joined 
the staff of Vanity Fair in New York City 
and soon afterward became editor of this 
periodical, in whose columns originally ap- 
peared much of his work, later gathered 
in book form. During the six years that 
remained to him, he wrote industriously, 
lectured widely, and achieved recognition 
as one of the foremost of American hu- 
morists. The Lincoln cabinet found the 
President chuckling over Ward's "High 
Handed Outrage in Utica" when it as- 
sembled on special call in Sept., 1862, to 
hear for the first time the Emancipation 
Proclamation. Artemus Ward went to Lon- 
don in June, 1866, for an extended lecture 
tour. He was invited to write for Punch and 
was well received among men of letters. 
His popularity was marked from the first, 
but his days were to be few and he never 
saw America again. A frail physique, long 
overtaxed, finally gave way. He died of 
tuberculosis at Southampton, less than 33 
years of age. It has been said that he 
founded a new school of American humor. 
His friend Bret Harte called it "the humor 
of audacious exaggeration — of perfect law- 
lessness — a humor that belongs to the 
country of boundless prairies and stupendous 
cataracts." Thus defined, Harte declared, 
Artemus Ward was "the American humor- 
ist par excellence." His works appeared in 
various editions after his death, and sev- 
eral spurious pieces were published under 
his name. 

Archer H. Shaw 

Browne, J. H. 


Art emus Ward, His Book . . . , New York, 

Artemus Ward; His Travels . . . , New York, 

Artemus Ward in London, and Other Pa- 
pers, New York, 1867. 

Artemus Ward's Panorama . . . , New York, 

BROWNE, JUNIUS HENRI (Oct. 14, 1833- 
April 2, 1902), journalist, was born in 
Seneca Falls, N. Y., but was reared in Cin- 
cinnati, where his father was a banker. 
When he was eighteen, he became a re- 
porter and worked on several Cincinnati 
newspapers. During the Civil War he served 
as correspondent for the New York Tribune. 
In May, 1863, he was captured by Con- 
federate troops and imprisoned. For a year 
and a half he was held in various Southern 
prisons, until he escaped in 1864. This ex- 
perience is the subject matter of his Four 
Years in Secessia. After the war he was 
associated with the New York Tribune and 
the Times; he also wrote numerous maga- 
zine articles. His death occurred in New 
York City. 
Four Years in Secessia . . . , Hartford, 

Conn., 1865. 
The Great Metropolis; A Mirror of New 

York . . . , Hartford, Conn., 1869. 
Sights and Sensations in Europe . . . , Hart- 
ford, Conn., 1871. 

1846-June, 1926), genealogist, was born 
in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. After op- 
erating a coal mining and shipping company 
in Covington, Ky., he moved to Philadel- 
phia in 1873. He was Philadelphia corre- 
spondent for the New York Herald for 45 
years. He published elaborate genealogical 
works, notably Americans of Royal Descent 
. . . , which was first published in 1883 and 
subsequently appeared in numerous new edi- 
tions. He also published Welsh Settlement 
in Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1912. WWW 

BROWNLEE, JANE A. (1851-Dec. 27, 
1941), educator, was born in Toledo, Lucas 
County. She served as principal of Lagrange 
School in Toledo for many years before 
retiring in 1906. While she served in this 
capacity, some of her ideas on character 
building in public schools won wide rec- 
ognition. Her death occurred in San Diego, 
Calif. Her books on educational topics in- 
clude Character Building in School, New 
York, [1912]. 


(Aug. 29, 1805-April 29, 1877), journalist, 

politician, and clergyman of Tennessee, 
spent a short time in Ohio. Arrested and 
expelled from the Confederacy in the spring 
of 1862 for his Unionist activities, he came 
to Ohio to recover his health. While re- 
cuperating, he wrote Sketches of the Rise, 
Progress, and Decline of Secession; With a 
Narrative of Personal Adventures among 
the Rebels, Philadelphia, 1862. 


in Dungannon, Va., and has lived in Cin- 
cinnati since 1925. A graduate of George 
Washington University, she has published 
articles and poems in various periodicals 
and has been active in the Cincinnati Wom- 
an's Press Club and other literary organiza- 
tions. She has also published a collection 
of verse: This High Hour, Cincinnati, 1950. 

1883-Nov. 11, 1958), was born in Saginaw, 
Mich., and was brought to Shelby when she 
was six months old. She later spent her 
summers in Harbor Springs, Mich., and 
her winters in Shelby and Akron. She died 
at the age of 74. She wrote a number of 
popular novels, both juveniles and mys- 
teries, e.g., Sue Ellen, New York, [1941]; 
Poison Party, New York, [1938]. 

BRUDNO, EZRA SELIG (June 5, 1878- 
Dec. 12, 1954), lawyer, was born in Lithu- 
ania. He attended Western Reserve Uni- 
versity, 1896-97, and Yale University, 
1898-1900. He practiced law in Cleveland, 
1900-49. He wrote a number of books, e.g., 
The Tether, Philadelphia, 1908. WW 21 

BRUHL, GUSTAVUS (May 31, 1829-Feb. 
16, 1903), physician and archaeologist, was 
born in Herdorf, Prussia. He studied medi- 
cine, philosophy, and history in European 
universities and in 1848 came to America, 
intending to join an uncle in Missouri. Low 
water in the Ohio River compelled him to 
stop over in Cincinnati, where he decided 
to remain permanently and practice medi- 
cine. A successful doctor, he was also ac- 
tive in the cultural and civic life of the 
community. He published numerous sci- 
entific articles in medical journals. His 
study of American archaeology led him 
to travel in the western United States, Cen- 
tral America, South America, and Mexico 
and resulted in lectures, articles, and books. 
Under the pen name Kara Giorg (Serbian 
for Black George), he contributed consider- 
able poetry to the monthly magazine pub- 
lished in Cincinnati, Der Deutsche Pionier. 
The subjects were usually nature, Indians, 
or German pioneers in the American col- 


Buchanan, J. J. 

Poesien des Urwalds, New York, 1871. 

Die Culturvolker Alt-Amerika's, 4 vols., 
New York, 1875-87. 

Aztlan-Chicomoztoc . . . , New York, 1879. 

Charlotte: Eine Episode aus dc Colo- 
nialgeschichte Louisianas, Cincinnati, 1883. 

Zwischen Alaska and Feuerland . . . , Ber- 
lin, 1896. 

Abendblocken, Chicago, [1897]. 

Standerbeg, Cincinnati, 1903. 

BRUNSON, ALFRED (Feb. 9, 1793-Aug. 3, 
1882), clergyman, was born in Danbury, 
Conn. Converted to Methodism at an early 
age, he moved to a farm in Trumbull 
County in 1812. He preached in the West- 
ern Reserve and in northwestern Pennsyl- 
vania before moving farther west. He died 
in Prairie du Chien, Wis. 
Prairie du Chien . . . , Milwaukee, 1857. 
A Western Pioneer . . . , Cincinnati, 1872. 

1897-Dec. 16, 1954), was born in Zanes- 
ville, Muskingum County, the son of Ed- 
mund Cone Brush (q.v.). He attended 
Zanesville schools, Cincinnati Dramatic 
School, and Muskingum College. An antique 
dealer specializing in Japanese and French 
prints, he lived in New York, Paris, and 
Los Angeles. He published a volume of 
poems: The Waxen Leaf, Mill Valley, Calif., 

14, 1894- ), was born in Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga County. After attending Hatha- 
way-Brown School, Cleveland, she gradu- 
ated from Smith College in 1917. A founder 
of the Cleveland Maternal Health Associa- 
tion, she has been active in working for 
eugenics and birth control and is at pres- 
ent field advisor for the International 
Planned Parenthood Federation. She is also 
president of the Brush Foundation, Cleve- 
land. She has written numerous articles and 
book reviews and several plays, e.g., a play 
about Pueblo Indians: The Poor Little 
Turkey Girl . . . , New York, [1928]. 

BRUSH, EDMUND CONE (Oct. 22, 1852- 
? ), physician, was born in Zanesville, Mus- 
kingum County. He graduated from Star- 
ling Medical College, in 1875. He practiced 
in Perry County and after 1884 in Zanes- 
ville. He contributed many articles to pro- 
fessional publications and wrote a useful 
pamphlet on first aid. 

How to Care for the Injured, Zanesville, 

1902-June 10, 1952), was born in Middle- 

town, Conn. From 1920 to 1927, while mar- 
ried to Thomas Stewart Brush, she lived in 
East Liverpool. During her Ohio years, she 
began selling short stories, most of them to 
College Humor, and published her first 
book: Glitter, New York, 1926. TCA 

BRYAN, JENNIE MOORE (July 10, 1854- 
June 7, 1931), educator, was born in Bata- 
via, Clermont County. After attending the 
Batavia schools, she studied at Columbia 
University and the Sorbonne. She taught in 
the schools of Batavia, Madisonville, and 
Mount Washington until her retirement in 
1914. She died in Cincinnati at the age of 
77. She published a volume of poems: High 
Tower, Cincinnati, [1929]. 

BRYAN, JOHN (Aug. 18, 1853-Dec. 9, 
1918), was born in Auglaize County. Ac- 
cording to legend, while traveling in Europe 
as a young man he fell in love with a 
young Swiss girl, and when his suit proved 
unsuccessful, he declared himself an un- 
believer. He entered business in Cincinnati, 
owned a physician's supply house which 
produced a highly popular brand of soap, 
and patented a number of inventions. In 
1893 he purchased a 500-acre estate in 
Greene County, where he erected a huge 
barn that he proclaimed to be larger than 
Solomon's temple. Calling himself "the sage 
of Riverside," he expressed his opinions, 
most of them iconoclastic, very freely. He 
opposed American participation in World 
War I and was a determined opponent of 
organized religion. After his death it was 
found that his will left Riverside Farm to 
Greene County or to the State of Ohio, pro- 
vided no religious worship be permitted 
there. The county promptly refused the be- 
quest; the legislature followed suit but later 
reversed its decision and accepted the tract, 
now John Bryan Park, as a game preserve 
and park. 
Fables and Essays, New York, 1895. 

1855-Dec. 13, 1931), was born in Gran- 
ville, Licking County. She studied at Gran- 
ville Female College, Chicago College of 
Pharmacy, Denison University, and Cornell 
University. In 1877 she became the first 
woman registered pharmacist in Ohio. In 
1905, after fifteen years of teaching school 
in New Jersey, she devoted her time to 
writing and turned out a great many books 
for children, e.g., American Painters and 
Their Pictures, New York, 1917. WWW 1 

24, 1937), physician, was born in Wells- 
ville, Columbiana County. He graduated 

Buchanan, J. R. 


from Western University of Pennsylvania 
in 1877 and the University of Pennsylvania 
Medical School in 1881. He afterward 
practiced in Pittsburgh and taught at the 
University of Pittsburgh Medical School. He 
wrote a travel book, Take Your Own Car 
Abroad and Find Your Own Europe . . . , 
Pittsburgh, [1930]. WWW 1 

1814-Dec. 26, 1899), was born in Frank- 
fort, Ky. He was the son of that versatile 
genius Joseph Buchanan, who has been re- 
ferred to as the earliest native physiological 
psychologist and who founded Cincinnati's 
first purely literary periodical, The Literary 
Cadet, in 1819. He was the earliest expo- 
nent of the Pestalozzian system of educa- 
tion in the Ohio Valley. With such a father 
it is hardly surprising that the boy was an 
infant prodigy. Before he was twelve years 
old, he had "mastered the outlines of gram- 
mar, geography, history, mathematics, as- 
tronomy, chemistry, natural philosophy, 
mental philosophy, political economy," and 
was dipping into Blackstone's Commen- 
taries. After his father died in 1829, he 
earned his living as a printer and later as a 
teacher. Believing that "every individual 
aspiring to a liberal education should at- 
tend a course of lectures in a medical col- 
lege," he entered Transylvania University 
in 1834. Here he acquired a deep-seated in- 
terest in phrenology and cerebral physiol- 
ogy. His studies were interrupted by lecture 
tours in the South, where he conducted ex- 
periments in phrenology. He received his 
M.D. degree at Louisville Medical Institute 
in 1841. A year later he issued his basic 
work, Sketches of Buchanan's Discoveries 
in Neurology. He claimed to have devel- 
oped two sciences — psychometry and sar- 
cognomy — to a point where the trained 
psychometer could diagnose any disease at 
sight, while the sarcognomist could heal all 
diseases by making passes over the body. 
A brilliant speaker, he made several lecture 
tours which attracted large crowds. Trucu- 
lent and opinionated, he joined the faculty 
of the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincin- 
nati in 1846 and became a dominant figure 
in the turbulent history of that institution. 
He was forced out in 1856 and opened a 
rival institution, the Eclectic College of 
Medicine. From 1849 to 1856 he published 
and edited The Journal of Man. a well 
printed and ably edited monthly in which 
he promulgated his extraordinary views. At 
loggerheads with his colleagues at the Ec- 
lectic College of Medicine, he resigned and 
moved to Louisville, Ky., where in 1863 he 
was an unsuccessful candidate for Congress 

on the Copperhead ticket. There followed 
an interlude during which he was engaged 
in the manufacture of salt at Syracuse, 
N. Y., and then in 1867 he became profes- 
sor of physiology at the Eclectic Medical 
College in New York City. He resigned in 
1881 and went to Boston, where he es- 
tablished his own school of therapeutics and 
published a new series of The Journal of 
Man, 1887-90. In failing health he moved 
to San Jose, Calif., to spend the remainder 
of his life. Besides the titles below, some of 
his separate lectures were published in 
pamphlet form. 

Ernest J. Wessen 
Sketches of Buchanan's Discoveries in Neu- 
rology, Louisville, Ky., 1842. 
Report of Three Lectures in Defense of 

Neurology .... Cincinnati, 1848. 
Eclecticism and Exclusivism, Cincinnati, 

Outlines of Lectures on the Neurological 
System of Anthropology . . . , Cincin- 
nati, 1854. 
Manual of Psychometry: The Dawn of a 

New Civilization, Cincinnati, 1855. 
Moral Education: Its Laws and Methods 

. . . , New York, [1882]. 
Periodicity: The Absolute Law of the En- 
tire Universe, San Jose, Calif., 1897. 
Primitive Christianity . . . , 2 vols., San 
Jose, Calif., 1898. 

BUCHANAN, ROBERT (Jan. 15, 1797- 
April 23, 1879), born in western Pennsyl- 
vania, was educated at Meadville Academy, 
and taught there for a time. In 1820 he 
came to Cincinnati, where he established 
himself as a grocer and pork packer. He 
also opened a cotton factory and invested 
in river steamboats. He was a director of 
several insurance companies and was an 
official in Cincinnati banks. As a hobby he 
experimented with grape culture and wrote 
newspaper articles on horticulture. The sec- 
ond edition of the book below contains an 
appendix by Nicholas Longworth (q.v.) on 
the cultivation of the strawberry. 
A Treatise on the Cultivation of the Grape 
in Vineyards, Cincinnati, 1850. 

BUCK, JIRAH DEWEY (Nov. 4, 1838-Dec. 
13, 1916), physician, was born in Fredonia, 
N. Y. In 1864 he graduated from Cleveland 
Homeopathic College, and from 1866 to 
1871 he served on the faculty. He then 
moved to Cincinnati, where he called a 
meeting of doctors that led to the organiza- 
tion of Pulte Medical College. He taught 
there, 1872-80, and in 1880 he became 
dean. He lectured widely on Masonry, psy- 
chology, hypnotism, Christian Science, and 



New Thought. His death occurred in Cin- 

The Perfect Man Is the Anthropomorphic 
God . . . , [Chicago, 1888]. 

The Nature and Aim of Theosophy, Cin- 
cinnati, 1889. 

A Study of Man and the Way to Health, 
Cincinnati, 1889. 

Mystic Masonry . . . , Cincinnati, 1896. 

Browning's Paracelsus and Other Essays, 
Cincinnati, 1897. 

The Crusade of Freemasonry . . . , Chicago, 

Constructive Psychology; Or, the Building 
of Character by Personal Effort, Chicago, 

The Lost Word Found in the Great Work 
(Magnum Opus), Chicago, 1908. 

The New Avatar and the Destiny of the 
Soul . . . , Cincinnati, 1911. 

The Soul and Sex in Education, Morals, 
Religion, and Adolescence . . . , Cincin- 
nati, 1912. 

Modern World Movements; Theosophy and 
the School of Natural Science . . . , Chi- 
cago, 1913. 

BUCK, PAUL HERMAN (Aug. 25, 1899- 
), educator, was born in Columbus, 
Franklin County. He graduated from Ohio 
State University in 1921 and Harvard Uni- 
versity (Ph.D.) in 1935. He joined the his- 
tory faculty at Harvard in 1926, became 
dean in 1942, provost in 1945, and since 
1955 has been director of libraries. He re- 
ceived the Pulitzer Prize in history in 1938 
for The Road to Reunion, 1865-1900, Bos- 
ton, 1937. WW 30 

faculty, 1919-46. He died in Columbus. 
He wrote The Spirit of the American Lu- 
theran Church, Columbus, 1940. WWW 3 

1874-Feb. 22, 1948), clergyman, was born 
in Glendale, Hamilton County. He grad- 
uated from Boston University (A.B., 1897; 
S.T.B., 1899). After his ordination he 
served pastorates in several states and 
served on editorial boards of the Methodist 
Church. His writings include Living Lead- 
ers, Judged by Christian Standards, New 
York, [1923]. WWW 2 

1856-Feb. 20, 1949), was born in West 
Groton, N. Y. He became a book agent in 
Cincinnati in 1880, and in 1888 he moved 
to Columbus. He was a salesman for Amer- 
ican Art Works, Coshocton, for 35 years. 
Known as the "salesman poet," he lectured 
widely and published several books, e.g., In 
Tune with Time, New York, [1945]. 

13, 1866-Aug. 3, 1952), journalist, was 
born in Wauseon, Fulton County. He grad- 
uated from the University of Wooster in 
1891 and Yale Divinity School in 1903. 
After ten years in the Presbyterian and Con- 
gregational ministry, he entered journalism. 
From 1907 to 1943 he was with the Bos- 
ton Herald. He won the Pulitzer Prize for 
editorials in 1926. In addition to numerous 
articles and pamphlets on Abraham Lin- 
coln, he wrote Famous War Correspond- 
ents, Boston, 1914. WWW 3 

Henrietta Henkle. 


(c.l873-Feb. 5, 1928), was born in New 
Philadelphia, Tuscarawas County. She was 
educated in private schools and at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan. She lived in Japan, Eu- 
rope, and various parts of the United States. 
She published short stories and novelettes 
in various magazines and also published 
several books under the pen name of Eliza- 
beth DeJeans, e.g., The Winning Chance, 
Philadelphia, 1909. 

BUEHRING, PAUL HENRY (July 5, 1880- 
Aug. 16, 1958), clergyman and educator, 
was born in Elkhorn, Wis. He graduated 
from Wartburg College, Iowa, in 1898 and 
Lutheran Seminary, Columbus, in 1905. 
He served as a pastor in St. Mary's, 1905- 
11, was a teacher in Nebraska, 1911-19, 
and was a member of the Capital Seminary 

BUNDY, ROY DALTON (May 12, 1887- 
), educator, born in Carthage, 111., has 
lived in Cleveland since 1924. He was as- 
sociated with the Cleveland public schools 
until his retirement in 1957. After 1946 he 
was supervisor of vocational education. He 
has written a number of books and pam- 
phlets, most of them related to industrial 
and educational questions, e.g., Collective 
Bargaining, New York, 1937. RC 27 

1884- ), was born in Cincinnati, Ham- 
ilton County. After graduating from Xavier 
University in 1905, he was engaged in the 
real-estate business and advertising in Cin- 
cinnati. He conducted his own advertising 
agency, 1925-48. He has published verse 
and prose in many national periodicals and 
has compiled several anthologies of Cath- 
olic literature. He has also published a col- 
lection of poems: Shining Fields and Dark 
Towers, New York, 1919. CWW 9 



BUNTLINE, NED. Pseud. See Edward Z. C. 

BUNTS, FRANK EMORY (June 3, 1861- 
Nov. 28, 1928), surgeon, was born in 
Youngstown, Mahoning County. He grad- 
uated from U. S. Naval Academy in 1881, 
after which he served two years in the 
navy. He then undertook the study of med- 
icine and graduated from Western Reserve 
Medical College in 1886; seven years later 
he became professor of surgery in the same 
institution. He published a collection, The 
Soul of Henry Harrington, and Other 
Stories, Cleveland, 1916. WWW 1 

Aug. 6, 1920), editor, was born in Hodgen- 
ville, Ky. Though educated as a lawyer, he 
never practiced. From 1901 until his death, 
which occurred in Columbus, he edited 
newspapers in Springfield, Dayton, and Co- 
lumbus. He wrote Our Bird Friends . . . , 
New York, 1908. WWW 1 

1844-Nov. 19, 1914), journalist, humorous 
lecturer, and clergyman, was born in 
Greensboro, Pa., but spent a part of his 
boyhood in Ohio. His parents later took 
him to Peoria, 111., where he grew up. 
Known as the "Hawkeye Man," he was pop- 
ular as a lecturer and journalist. In 1888 
he became a Baptist preacher. He pub- 
lished several books, e.g., Hawk-eyes, New 
York, 1879. 

BURGESS, PERRY (Oct. 12, 1886- ), 
born in Joplin, Mo., has lived for a num- 
ber of years at Geneva-on-the-Lake. His 
work in the medical campaign against lep- 
rosy furnished material for a novel, Who 
Walk Alone, New York, [1940]. WW 30 

BURGHEIM, MAX (Aug. 23, 1848-April 8, 
1918), was born at Minden on the Weser, 
Germany. In 1863 he came to Cincinnati, 
where he opened a bookstore. He served in 
the army during the Civil War. In 1890 he 
acquired the Cincinnati Freie Press and the 
Abend Presse. He became police commis- 
sioner of Cincinnati in 1899 and later served 
as president of the Board of Public Service. 
Der Fiihrer von Cincinnati. Fin Vollstan- 
diger und Zuverlassiger Wegweiser durch 
die Stadt und Ihre Umgebung . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, [1875]. 
Reiseskizzen aus Europa, Cincinnati, [1883]. 
Cincinnati in Wort und Bild . . . , Cincin- 
nati, [1888]. 
Die Katholischen Kirchen, Kloster, Insti- 
tute und Wohlthdtigkeits . . . , Cincinnati, 

1873- ), agriculturist, was born in 
Thornville, Perry County. After graduating 
from Ohio University in 1895, he taught 
agriculture in several universities, edited 
The American Agriculturist, 1908-22, and 
was on the editorial staff of the McFadden 
Book Company, 1923-32. He lectured often 
to farmers' institutes and published a num- 
ber of agriculture textbooks. He now lives 
in Miami Beach, Fla. 
History of Ohio Agriculture . . . , Concord, 

N. H., 1900. 
Between Two Lives; A Drama of the Pass- 
ing of the Old and the Coming of the 
New in Rural Life, New York, 1914. 

29, 1872-Dec. 5, 1945), was born near 
Lima, Allen County. His writings, which 
consist mainly of genealogical works, in- 
clude a biography: Pioneer Days of George 
H. A. Burkhardt, [Los Angeles], 1935. 

1895- ), clergyman, was born in New- 
ville, Pa. He graduated from Otterbein Col- 
lege and the University of Chicago (MA., 
Ph.D.). He was director of youth work for 
the United Brethren and Evangelical 
churches of Dayton, 1923-27, was ordained 
to the ministry of the Congregational Chris- 
tian Church in 1929, and was minister of 
the First Community Church, Columbus, 
1935-58. As a minister he devoted much 
of his attention to pastoral counseling, and 
he has written articles and books related 
to various phases of this subject, e.g., 
Thinking about Marriage, New York, 1934. 
WW 30 

1857- ? ), clergyman, was born in Bridgton, 
Maine. After attending St. Lawrence Col- 
lege, he was ordained a Universalist min- 
ister in Cleveland in 1874. He preached in 
Cleveland, Clyde, and Margaretta in Ohio 
and also served churches in other states. He 
spent two years as a canvasser for Buchtel 
College, an experience that was the sub- 
ject of his book, which was published 

Recollections of a College Beggar, Cleve- 
land, 1882. 

BURNET, FRANK DANA (July 3, 1888- 
), great-grandson of Judge Jacob Bur- 
net (q.v.), was born in Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton County. He attended public schools in 
Cincinnati and graduated from Cornell 
University in 1911. He afterward was on 
the staff of the New York Evening Sun and 


Burnett, A. 

Life. He wrote for various magazines and 
also wrote some movie scenarios. He now 
lives in Stonington, Conn. His numerous 
books include a volume of verse, Poems, 
New York, [1915], and several plays, e.g., 
// Is a Strange House, Boston, 1925. WW 19 

BURNET, JACOB (Feb. 22, 1770-May 10, 
1853), born in Newark, N. J., was the son 
of William Burnet, member of the Continen- 
tal Congress. After graduating from Prince- 
ton College in 1791, he studied law and was 
admitted to the bar. He arrived at the 
frontier settlement of Cincinnati in 1796. 
He was one of the three judges appointed 
to hold court in Cincinnati, Vincennes, and 
Detroit, and was a member of the terri- 
torial councils, 1799-1802. After the or- 
ganization of the state government in 1803 
he was called upon to play a leading role 
in shaping the basic laws in the Ohio code. 
He was a member of the state legislature, 
1812-16, and he was a judge of the Su- 
preme Court of Ohio from 1821 to 1828, 
when he resigned in order to fill the vacancy 
in the U. S. Senate caused by the resigna- 
tion of William Henry Harrison. He was 
not a candidate for renomination upon the 
expiration of his term in 1831. In this year 
the legislature of Kentucky elected him one 
of the commissioners to settle its territorial 
disputes with Virginia. The last notable act 
of his political career was his speech at the 
Harrisburg Convention in 1839 which nom- 
inated William Henry Harrison for the 
Presidency. The speech was published in 
pamphlet form. He was one of the found- 
ers of the Cincinnati College, served as its 
first president, and in many other ways took 
a leading part in the intellectual and social 
movements of Cincinnati. In 1837 at the 
insistence of his niece's husband, John Dela- 
field (q.v.), he wrote a series of letters 
relating to the early settlement of the 
Northwestern Territory, which appeared in 
the Transactions of the Historical and Phil- 
osophical Society of Ohio in 1839. These 
he enlarged and published as Notes on the 
Early Settlement of the North-western Ter- 
ritory in 1847 — an autobiographical sketch 
upon which the aged judge draped his in- 
formative reminiscences of incidents relat- 
ing to the early settlement of the Territory. 
It remains one of the most important 
sources for the period covered. His death 
occurred in Cincinnati. 

Ernest J. Wessen 
Notes on the Early Settlement of the North- 
western Territory, Cincinnati, 1847. 

BURNET, WHITTIER (Jan. 27, 1876-Jan. 
30, 1945), educator, was born on a farm 

near Lytle, Warren County. After gradu- 
ating from Waynesville High School, he at- 
tended Ohio State University and the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati. He taught in county 
schools, at Ohio State, and at Oklahoma 
A. and M. College. He died in Seymour, 
Mo., where he spent his last years. His short 
stories appeared in various periodicals, and 
he also published a collection of verse: 
Trail of Song, [n.p.], 1937. 

BURNETT, ALFRED (Nov. 2, 1824-April 
4, 1884), confectioner, poet, monologist, 
tragedian, journalist, was born in Bungay, 
Suffolk, England. The versatile "Alf" Bur- 
nett was one of the most colorful and pop- 
ular characters of ante-bellum Cincinnati. 
When he was but four years old, he was 
sent to New York to live with an aunt, the 
mother of General Ward B. Burnett. In 
1832 he was put in an academy at Utica, 
N. Y., where he remained until 1836, when 
he was taken from school and sent to Cin- 
cinnati. Within a very few years he was 
proprietor of a confectionery business so 
successful that it allowed him leisure to 
dabble in amateur theatricals and to take 
a somewhat militant part in the antislavery 
movement. He seems to have been the only 
victim of the "Scanlon Mob" of 1843. It 
was Burnett who supplied the arms to 
householders who stood off the mob trying 
to catch a ten-year-old slave girl, with the 
result that his own house was stoned. He 
collected the stones in barrels and passed 
them out in later years as "proslavery" ar- 
guments. He was already contributing comic 
verse to local newspapers under the pen 
name "Squibs" and touring in nearby states 
giving his popular monologues. He made 
his debut as Hamlet in the American 
Theatre in Cincinnati in 1849. In 1850 he 
became editor of the Warning Bell, a liter- 
ary magazine which he founded in partner- 
ship with Enos B. Reed, but which was 
soon suspended because of a European tour. 
According to Reed, who later served as his 
manager, this tour was undertaken at the 
suggestion of Edwin Forrest. The two men 
later started the Cincinnati Home Journal. 
Burnett was the author of several songs 
which became popular. Although he seems 
to have given more and more of his time to 
the stage, his Cincinnati business was not 
neglected, and by 1860 he was operating 
three confectionery establishments in that 
city. At the commencement of the Civil 
War he joined the 6th O.V.I, and served as 
a sergeant throughout the campaign in West 
Virginia. He was subsequently engaged as 
a war correspondent by several Cincinnati 
papers. His letters from the front enjoyed 

Burnett, C. C. 


considerable popularity, and a number of 
them were published in Incidents of the 
War. Coggeshall credits Burnett with hav- 
ing published "a little volume of poems and 
recitations" in 1859, but no record of it can 
be found. He made a number of profes- 
sional tours in the Middle West after the 
war, and for a time he was employed by a 
press association. 

Ernest J. Wessen 
Magnetism Made Easy; Or, Instructions in 
Magnetism for the Many, Cincinnati, 
Incidents of the War; Humorous, Pathetic 

and Descriptive, Cincinnati, 1863. 
Alf. Burnett's Comic Faces, Facially Il- 
lustrated, Intermingled with Poetic Gems, 
Cincinnati, [1867]. 

BURNETT, CHARLES C. (April 21, 1843- 
Sept. 1, 1898), was born on a farm near 
Chagrin Falls, Cuyahoga County. While he 
was a boy, his parents moved to Vincennes, 
Ind. He enlisted in an Indiana regiment in 
1861 and was discharged for disability two 
years later after recovering from typhoid 
fever. He returned to Ohio in 1869, manu- 
factured cane chairs in Toledo for a short 
time, and in 1870 became a lumber dealer 
in Cleveland. The book below was pub- 
lished under the pen name Ash Slivers. He 
is said to have written a book about the 
Hawaiian Islands, but no copy has been 

The Land of the O O. Facts, Figures, 

Fables and Fancies, Cleveland, 1892. 

July 8, 1867), clergyman, was born in Day- 
ton, Montgomery County. He became the 
first pastor of the Baptist Church in Dayton 
in 1827. He was converted to the teachings 
of Alexander Campbell in 1829; his church 
became a Campbellite organization, only a 
few of the old members refusing to stay. 
He wrote a number of articles for various 
church publications. His death occurred in 
Baltimore, Md. 

The Pastorate, Cincinnati, [n.d.]. 
The Poverty of Jesus, the Wealth of the 
Saints, Cincinnati, [n.d.]. 

1838-Jan. 4, 1916), lawyer, was born in 
Youngstown, Mahoning County. He grad- 
uated from Ohio State National Law School 
in 1859. At the outbreak of the Civil War 
he joined the 2nd Ohio Cavalry, saw active 
service, and in 1863 was appointed major 
in the judge advocate department and as- 
signed to the Department of Ohio. At the 

request of Governor Morton of Indiana he 
was sent to that state in 1864 to prosecute 
the members of the subversive Knights of 
the Golden Circle. He took part in other 
treason trials and was associated with John 
A. Bingham in the prosecution of the as- 
sassins of Lincoln. Some of his legal argu- 
ments were published. After the war he 
practiced law in Cincinnati until 1872, when 
he moved to New York, where he acquired 
an outstanding reputation as an advocate. 
McKinley appointed him federal district at- 
torney for the southern district of New 
York in 1898, and on the completion of his 
four-year term he was reappointed by 
Some Incidents in the Trial of President 

Lincoln's Assassins . . . , New York, 


1899- ), was born in Springfield, Clark 
County, the son of a veterinary. He also 
lived in Dayton and Columbus. He attended 
public schools in Springfield, Dayton, and 
Columbus and Miami Military Institute, 
Germantown. He attended Ohio State Uni- 
versity in 1919, was an insurance salesman, 
and worked for six years in the Depart- 
ment of Industrial Relations. During this 
period he wrote constantly, but sold none 
of his writings for the first eight years. He 
has never surpassed the success of his first 
novel: Little Caesar, New York, 1929, the 
first realistic gangster novel and the basis 
of a notable motion picture. Several of his 
subsequent novels have been made into mo- 
tion pictures, and he has written numerous 
movie scripts. His home is in southern Cali- 
fornia. Of his many books, some with an 
Ohio setting are Goodbye to the Past . . . , 
New York, 1934, The Goodhues of Sinking 
Creek, New York, 1934, King Cole, New 
York, 1936. ANT 

BURNS, JAMES JESSE (Oct. 26, 1838- 
1911). educator, was born in Brownsville, 
Licking County. He began teaching in 
Titusville on the Ohio River in 1857. The 
next year he was principal of an academy 
in Natchez, Miss., and also read law. After 
returning to Ohio he served as a principal 
and superintendent in a number of cities 
and also was state commissioner of com- 
mon schools, 1877-80. He wrote several 
textbooks. His death occurred in Defiance. 
Our Schools and School Systems, [n.p.], 

The Story of English Kings, According to 

Shakespeare, New York, 1899. 
Educational History of Ohio . . . , Colum- 
bus, 1905. 


Burt, P. H. 

BURNS, WILLIAM JOHN (Oct. 19, 1861- 
April 14, 1932), detective, was born in 
Baltimore, Md. When he was a child, his 
parents moved to Zanesville and soon after- 
ward to Columbus. His father, a tailor, was 
named Columbus police commissioner; Wil- 
liam assisted him in his investigations. He 
won considerable attention by clearing up 
an election fraud case in 1885 and four 
years later joined the U. S. Secret Service. 
In 1909 he founded the William J. Burns 
Detective Agency in New York City. He 
resigned as president of the agency in 1921 
to become head of the F.B.I. , a position he 
held until 1924. He died in Sarasota, Fla. 
The best-known detective of his generation, 
he wrote a novel in collaboration with 
Isabel Ostrander: The Crevice, New York, 
[1915], and several books on his detective 
work, e.g., Stories of Check Raisers . . . , 
Chicago, [1923]. DAB 21 

BURR, ARIL BOND (Oct. 23, 1880-Dec. 
29, 1955), was born in Shelby City, Ky., 
but lived most of his life in Cincinnati. He 
was for many years postmaster in East End 
station, Cincinnati. He wrote a novel based 
on his memories of early life in Kentucky: 
Panther Rock, Cincinnati, [1931]. 

1882-Aug. 16, 1957), engineer, was born 
in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. A gradu- 
ate of Ohio State University, he was a 
chemist with the U. S. Geological Survey, 
1904-08, and did research for the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines, 1908-16. After World 
War I, in which he served as a colonel, he 
was an executive of several refining com- 
panies. He wrote a number of technical 
articles and books. He spent a year in 
Russia, when he was engaged by the Rus- 
sian government to modernize the natural 
gas industry, and wrote An American En- 
gineer Looks at Russia, Boston, [1932]. 
WWW 3 

1872-May 26, 1934), educator, was born 
on a farm near Catlettsburg, Ky. He grad- 
uated from Hiram College in 1896 and 
afterward lived in Ohio from 1911 until 
his death. He was for many years a teacher 
at South High School, Youngstown. His 
poems were published in various periodi- 
cals, and he also published a collection: 
The Run of the Mine, New York, [1931]. 

BURROWS, MILLAR (Oct. 26, 1889- ), 
educator and clergyman, was born in Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton County. He graduated 
from Cornell University in 1912, Union 

Theological Seminary in 1915, and Yale 
University (Ph.D.) in 1925. He served on 
the faculties of Tusculum College, 1920- 
23, and Brown University, 1925-29, and 
began teaching at Yale in 1934. He has 
published numerous magazine articles and 
books on religious subjects, e.g., Palestine 
Is Our Business, Philadelphia, [1949]. WW 

BURSON, WILLIAM (Nov. 24, 1833-Jan. 
16, 1880), was born in Salineville, Colum- 
biana County. A farmer and a carpenter, 
he was residing in Wellsburgh at the be- 
ginning of the Civil War. He was a mem- 
ber of Company A, 32nd O.V.I., at the 
time of his capture in the movements near 
Atlanta. Among narratives of personal ad- 
venture in the Civil War his little book as- 
sumes highest rank. Ryan refers to it as an 
account of adventures which would make 
fiction pale, while Coulter rates it as a val- 
uable account of travel in the Confederacy. 
A Race for Liberty; Or, My Capture, Im- 
prisonment, and Escape, Wellsville, 1867. 

BURSTEIN, ABRAHAM (Oct. 25, 1893- 
), rabbi, was born in Cleveland, Cuya- 
hoga County. He graduated from Columbia 
University in 1913 and became a rabbi in 
1923. Since 1923 he has served in New 
York City, where he has also edited a 
number of Jewish magazines. He has pub- 
lished many plays, stories, and biographies, 
e.g., The Boy Called Rashi, New York, 
1940. BDCP 

BURT, JOHN STRUTHERS June 25, 1880- 
), educator, was born in Struthers, 
Mahoning County. He attended Westmin- 
ster College and Princeton University, 
served in World War I, and taught at 
Rayen High School, Youngstown, 1924^44. 
In 1944 he moved to Phoenix, Ariz., where 
he now lives. He wrote History of North- 
eastern Ohio, 3 vols., Indianapolis, 1935. 

1825-March 4, 1874), clergyman, was born 
in Fairton, N. J. He served as a Presby- 
terian clergyman in Cincinnati and else- 
where in Ohio. 

Hours among the Gospels . . . , Philadel- 
phia, 1865. 
The Far East . . . , Cincinnati, 1869. 
The Land and Its Story . . . , New York, 

Aug. 16, 1906), broker, was born in Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton County. After graduating 

Burt, R. W. 


from Yale University in 1859, he became a 
broker in Cincinnati. He was one of the 
organizers of the Cincinnati Stock Ex- 
change. Active in the cultural life of the 
city, he was one of the first subscribers to 
the May Music Festivals and was a direc- 
tor of the Rookwood Pottery. His only 
book was the novel listed below. He died 
in Cincinnati. 

Regret of Spring; A Love Episode, New 
York, 1898. 

1823-July 7, 1911), was born in Warwick, 
N. Y. When he was a child, his family 
moved to a farm in Coshocton County. He 
served in the Mexican War; taught school; 
published a newspaper, the Progressive Age, 
in Coshocton, 1853—56; and operated a coal 
business in Newark. He enlisted as a pri- 
vate in the 76th O.V.I, in Nov., 1861, and 
was discharged as a captain in July, 1865. 
He was wounded at the battle of Resaca. 
After the war he settled in Peoria, 111. He 
operated a grocery business, was internal 
revenue storekeeper, 1875-85, and manu- 
factured soap. From his youth he composed 
poems and songs for political or patriotic 
Historical Centennial Poem, Peoria, 111., 

War Songs, Poems and Odes . . . , Peoria, 
111., 1906. 

March 27, 1929), was born in Harrison 
County. Frank Judkins, whom she married 
in 1869, died in 1893, and in 1912 she 
married Thomas Burtoft. Her death oc- 
curred in St. Clairsville. She published 
travel sketches in newspapers and at least 
two books of poems, and with her son, 
Clyde H. Judkins, she wrote a memoir of 
her brother, a Civil War general and po- 
litical figure: Biographical Sketch of Hon. 
David A. Hollingsworth . . . , [Cleveland, 

19, 1869-Aug. 27, 1940), clergyman, was 
born in Poweshiek County, Iowa. Ordained 
a Congregational minister in 1898, he be- 
came associate pastor with Washington 
Gladden (q.v.) in 1909; from 1911 to 
1914 he was pastor of Euclid Avenue 
Church in Cleveland. His writings include 
Finding a Religion to Live By, Boston, 
[1936]. WWW 1 

1856-May 26, 1925), theologian, was born 

in Granville, Licking County. He graduated 
from Denison University in 1876 and 
Rochester Theological Seminary in 1882 
and also studied in Germany. In 1892 he 
was appointed professor of New Testament 
literature at the University of Chicago. He 
published a number of textbooks. A bibliog- 
raphy of his writings can be found in Chris- 
tianity in the Modern World . . . , Chicago, 
[1927]. WWW 1 

BURTON, GIDEON (Aug. 11, 1811-May 1, 
1903), merchant, was born in Sussex 
County, Del. As an agent for a Philadelphia 
merchant, he made his first trip to Ohio at 
the age of twenty, and in 1848 he settled 
in Cincinnati, where he established a silk 
store. During the next half-century he had 
broad experience in business affairs and was 
active in the cultural life of Cincinnati. His 
privately printed book is a valuable collec- 
tion of anecdotes and reminiscences. He 
died in Cupalo, Pa., at the age of 92. 

Reminiscences of Gideon Burton. Written 
by Himself in His Eighty-fifth Year, Cin- 
cinnati, 1895. 

BURTON, HAROLD HITZ (June 22, 1888- 
), Supreme Court justice, was born in 
Jamaica Plain, Mass. He graduated from 
Bowdoin College in 1909. In 1912 he be- 
gan to practice law in Cleveland. He was 
mayor of Cleveland, 1935-40; U. S. Sena- 
tor, 1940—45; and an associate justice of 
the U. S. Supreme Court, 1945-58. He 
compiled the history of the 361st Infantry 
Regiment in World War I: 600 Davs Serv- 
ice . . . , [Portland, Oreg., 1921]. WW 30 

BURTON, KATHERINE (March 12, 1887- 
), was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. A graduate of Western Reserve 
University, she has served on the editorial 
staff of McCall's, Redbook, and other 
magazines, and now lives in Bronxville, 
N. Y. She was converted to Roman Ca- 
tholicism in 1930 and has written articles 
for the Sign and other religious magazines. 
She has published several books, most of 
them biographies, e.g., a life of Mrs. Rose 
Hawthorne Lathrop: Sorrow Built a Bridge 
. . . , New York, 1937. CWW 11 

1851-Oct. 28, 1929), lawyer and legislator, 
was born in Jefferson, Ashtabula County. 
After graduating from Oberlin in 1872, 
he taught there for two years while read- 
ing law. He was admitted to the Ohio bar 
in 1875 and practiced in Cleveland. He 
served both in the House of Representatives 
(1886-88, 1894-1909, and 1920-28) and 


Butler, J. M. 

in the Senate (1909-14 and 1928-29). His 
writings on historical and economic sub- 
jects include a biography: John Sherman, 
Boston, 1906. DAB 21 

1860-March 23, 1939), physician, was born 
of slave parents in Madison County, Ky. A 
graduate of Indiana Medical College, he 
practiced in Zanesville, Xenia, and Spring- 
field. He wrote an autobiographical book, 
What Experience Has Taught Me, Cincin- 
nati, 1910. 

BUSBEY, HAMILTON (April 1, 1840-Aug. 
1, 1924), journalist, was born in Clark 
County and lived for many years in South 
Vienna. He was editor of Turf, Field and 
Farm for nearly forty years. He published 
several books on horses and horse racing, 
e.g., The Trotting and Pacing Horse in 
America, [New York, 1904]. WWW 1 

BUSBEY, L. WHITE (Nov. 22, 1852-Oct. 
31, 1925), journalist, younger brother of 
Hamilton Busbey (q.v.), was born in 
Vienna, Trumbull County. He was Wash- 
ington correspondent of the Chicago Inter- 
ocean, 1879-1905, and secretary to Joseph 
G. Cannon, Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives, 1904-11. His death occurred 
in Washington, D. C. He wrote a biography, 
Uncle Joe Cannon; The Story of a Pioneer 
American . . . , New York, [1927]. WWW 1 

BUSH, MRS. EDWARD G. W. See Rose- 
mary Sprague. 

1871-Aug. 7, 1945), mechanical engineer, 
was born in Dansville, N. Y. He moved to 
Columbus in 1893 and thereafter was as- 
sociated with various Columbus industries 
and railroads. He published articles on mil- 
itary subjects in addition to recollections of 
his service in the Spanish-American War: 
The Diary of an Enlisted Man, Columbus, 
1908. WWO 

BUSHNELL, EDWARD (May 18, 1865- 
Nov. 17, 1944), lawyer, was born in Fre- 
mont, Sandusky County. He graduated from 
Western Reserve University in 1887 and 
was admitted to the bar in 1891. He prac- 
ticed in Cleveland. He wrote an account of 
a trip to England: The Truthful Traveller 
. . . , Cleveland, 1936. WWW 2 

BUSHNELL, HENRY (Jan. 31, 1824-Nov. 
19, 1905), clergyman, was born in Gran- 
ville, Licking County. Educated at Marietta 
College, Lane Seminary, and Andover Sem- 
inary, he entered the ministry. He served 

churches in Ohio, and for a time was prin- 
cipal of Central College Academy. His 
death occurred in Westerville. 
The History of Granville, Licking County 

. . . , Columbus, 1889. 
Following the Star . . . , Philadelphia, 1894. 

1872- ), was born in Caldwell, Noble 
County, but spent only the first seven years 
of her life in that community. She is a sister 
of Wilbertine T. Worden (q.v.). A gradu- 
ate of the University of Colorado, she has 
served on the editorial staff of the De- 
lineator and other fashion magazines. She 
now lives in Chicago. Besides stories in 
numerous periodicals, she has written a 
novel, The Honorable Miss Cherry Blossom 
. . . , New York, 1924. 

BUTLER, HENRY A. (Oct. 8, 1872-April 
26, 1934), industrialist, was born in 
Youngstown, Mahoning County. He grad- 
uated from Harvard University in 1897. 
He wrote a book which is based on a 
journal of his experiences in service with 
the American Red Cross in France during 
World War I: Overseas Sketches . . . , 
[Cleveland, 1921]. 

BUTLER, JAY CALDWELL (Sept. 3, 1844- 
July 13, 1885), was born in Venice, Erie 
County. He served in the Civil War from 
June, 1862, to June, 1865, as a captain in 
the 101st O.V.I. After the war he was a 
manufacturer of doors and window blinds 
in Sandusky. His son, Watson H. Butler, 
published Letters Home by Jay Caldwell 
Butler . . . , [Binghamton, N. Y.], 1930. 

1840-Dec. 19, 1927), was born in Tem- 
perance Furnace, Pa. He became a success- 
ful ironmaster while in his early twenties 
and moved to Youngstown in 1863, where 
he played a prominent role in almost every 
enterprise of note in the Mahoning Valley. 
He erected and presented to the city of 
Youngstown the Butler Art Institute. He 
wrote a number of books, e.g., First Trip 
across the Continent, Cleveland, 1904, and 
Recollections of Men and Events . . . , 
[Youngstown, 1925]. 

1858-March 23, 1913), was born in New 
Rochester, Wood County. He was later en- 
gaged in business in Youngstown, where 
he was an active worker in the Protestant 
Episcopal Church. 

History of St. John's Parish, [Youngstown, 

Butler, M. M. 


Clyde H.) (March 1, 1898- ), was born 
in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, but lived 
most of her life in Lakewood. She is a 
graduate of Smith College. She was an or- 
ganizer of the Lakewood Historical So- 
ciety and now is curator of the museum. 
She has written numerous articles on local 
history and one book, The Lakewood Story, 
New York, 1949. 

12, 1870-July 22, 1933), was born in 
Warkworth, Ontario, Canada. She attended 
Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, Uni- 
versity of Leipzig, and University of Heidel- 
berg, earning a doctorate from the latter 
institution. Wife of Moses Buttenweiser 
(q.v.), she lived in Cincinnati from 1897 
until her death, was active in club work, 
and contributed to various literary maga- 
zines. She also wrote The Obstinate Child, 
Philadelphia, [1912?]. OBB 

BUTTENWEISER, MOSES (April 5, 1862- 
March 11, 1939), theologian, was born in 
Beerfelden, Germany. He was educated in 
Germany and after coming to America was 
appointed to the faculty of Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, in 1897. He served 
there for more than forty years. His death 
occurred in Palo Alto, Calif. Besides trans- 
lations and texts, his books include The 
Prophets of Israel . . . , New York, 1914. 
WWW 1 


(July 28, 1824-Sept. 25, 1899), historian, 
was born in Oswego County, N. Y. His 
family moved to Melmore, Seneca County, 
in 1834. Educated at Normal School, Al- 
bany, N. Y., he became a teacher. He was 
superintendent of Seneca County schools, 
1848-49. He was admitted to the bar in 
1855 and practiced law at Bucyrus until 
1875. His Historical Account of the Ex- 
pedition against Sandusky (1873) served to 
distinguish him as a historian of importance. 
An outstanding contribution to Revolution- 
ary history, the work was a readable, at- 
tractive story and enjoyed a good sale. 
Spurred on by the success of this book 
Butterfield abandoned the practice of law 
in 1875 and moved to Madison, Wis., 
where he would enjoy ready access to the 
great Lyman C. Draper collection of source 
materials. An attempt to collaborate with 
Draper met with failure, and their book was 
never printed. In 1877 he became a staff 
historian with a Chicago concern engaged 
in publishing county histories. From 1886 
to 1889 he served in an editorial capacity 

on the Magazine of Western History, a pe- 
riodical in which some of his best work 

appears. He moved to South Omaha, Neb., 

in 1888, where he was again engaged in 

editing local histories. 

History of Seneca County . . . , Sandusky, 

A Comprehensive System of Grammatical 
and Rhetorical Punctuation, 1854. 

An Historical Account of the Expedition 
against Sandusky under Col. William 
Crawford in 1872 . . . , Cincinnati, 1873. 

The Washington-Crawford Letters, Cincin- 
nati, 1877. 

History of the University of Wisconsin 
. . . , Madison, 1879. 

Washington-Irvine Correspondence, Madi- 
son, 1882. 

A Short Biography of John Leith . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1883. 

Journal of Capt. Jonathan Heart on the 
March of His Company from Connec- 
ticut to Fort Pitt . . . , Albany, N. Y., 

The History of the Girtvs . . . , Cincinnati, 

History of Brule's Discoveries and Explo- 
rations . . . , Cleveland, 1898. 

History of Lieutenant-Colonel George Rog- 
ers Clark's Conquest of the Illinois and 
of the Wabash Towns . . . , Columbus, 

BUTTLES, JOEL (Feb., 1787-Aug., 1850), 
was born in Grandby, Conn. His father 
was one of the original proprietors of 
Worthington, where he settled with his 
family in 1804. Joel Buttles taught school 
at Worthington until Aug. 21. 1811, when, 
in partnership with one George Smith, he 
bought the weekly newspaper Western In- 
telligencer. Because of a disagreement be- 
tween the two men, the partnership was 
dissolved in Dec, 1812, and Buttles moved 
to Franklinton. In 1814 he was appointed 
postmaster in Columbus, a position which 
he held until 1829. In 1814 the Western 
Intelligencer was moved to Columbus and 
Buttles again acquired an interest in it, 
which he retained until June 27, 1817. He 
became a successful businessman in Co- 
lumbus, held many offices of trust, and was 
president of the City Bank for several years. 
The extracts from his diary, which were 
privately published by his descendants, pro- 
vide a superb account of pioneer life in 
central Ohio. His death occurred in Urbana. 
Extracts from the Diary of Joel Buttles, 
[Newport. R. I., 1889]. 

BYER, HERBERT (Oct. 31. 1899- ), was 
born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. He 



graduated from Ohio State University. He 
was associated with the Columbus Citizen, 
1921-24. He is chairman of the board of 
Byer and Bowman advertising agency in 
Columbus. He has published articles in 
trade papers and business journals and a 
novel about an imaginary American uni- 
versity: To the Victor, New York, 1936. 

BYERS, JOSEPH PERKINS (Sept. 23. 1868- 
Aug. 11, 1950), social worker, was born in 
Columbus, Franklin County. His father 
was secretary of the Ohio Board of State 
Charities; and Joseph served as his assistant, 
1888-90, and as his successor, 1890-92. He 
afterward was superintendent of various in- 
stitutions and social agencies in Indiana, 
New York, New Jersey, and Kentucky. 
After his retirement in 1938 he returned to 
live in Delaware County. He wrote The Vil- 
lage of Happiness, the Story of the Train- 
ing School, [Vineland, N. J.,' 1934]. WW 21 

1831-March 25, 1903), was born in Madi- 
son County. Self-educated, he became a 
surveyor, and in 1852 he crossed the con- 
tinent in the employ of the Federal govern- 
ment. He married and lived for a time in 
Omaha, Neb. In 1859 he moved to Denver, 
Colo., where he spent the remainder of his 
life. He published Colorado's first news- 
paper, Rocky Mountain News, at Cherry 
Creek, April 23, 1859. Printing his paper 
for a time in the attic of Uncle Dick 
Wootton's cabin and later in a printing of- 
fice located on stilts in Cherry Creek itself, 
he guided his newspaper through great 
obstacles and finally retired from publishing 
in 1878. On his arrival in the Territory he 
plunged into public affairs. He was a lead- 
ing advocate of statehood for Colorado, 
served as postmaster of Denver, and was 
president of the Chamber of Commerce. 

A Handbook to the Gold Fields of Ne- 
braska and Kansas, (with John H. Kel- 
lom), Chicago, 1859. 

Encyclopedia of Biography of Colorado; 
History of Colorado, Chicago, 1901. 

1817-May 21, 1890), physician and edu- 
cator, was born in Eaton, Preble County. 
His family left Ohio when he was four 
years old, and he grew up in Indiana and 
Illinois. He returned to Ohio to study at 
Ohio Medical College, where he graduated 
in 1845. He later taught at Evansville Med- 
ical College, Rush Medical College, and 
Woman's Medical College, Chicago. Besides 
the title below, he published a number of 
medical works on gynecology and obstetrics. 
The Philosophy of Domestic Life, Boston, 

BYINGTON, CYRUS (March 11, 1793-Dec. 
31, 1868), missionary, was born in Massa- 
chusetts. Trained as a lawyer, he became a 
missionary and spent his life among the 
Choctaws, except for the two years follow- 
ing his retirement to Belpre, Ohio, in 1866. 
Byington's lifework was the preparation of 
a dictionary and grammar of the Choctaw 
language. He also translated parts of the 
Bible into Choctaw. 

1841-Sept. 4, 1924), clergyman, was born 
in Hamilton, Butler County. He graduated 
from St. Mary's of the West in 1868 and 
afterward spent three years at the Ameri- 
can College in Rome. He was ordained a 
Roman Catholic priest in 1869. From 1887 
to 1S94 he was president of St. Mary's of 
the West. He was appointed bishop of 
Nashville, Tenn., in 1894. Besides the title 
below, he wrote religious pamphlets. 
Man from a Christian Point of View, Cin- 
cinnati, 1893. 

CABLE, JOHN LEVI (April 15, 1884- ), 
lawyer and former congressman, was born 
in Lima, Allen County. He graduated from 
Kenyon College in 1906 and the law school 
of George Washington University in 1909. 
Since being admitted to the bar, he has 
practiced in Lima. He served in the U. S. 
House of Representatives, 1921-25 and 
1929-33. His writings, chiefly of a legal 

nature, include Loss of Citizenship, Denat- 
uralization, the Alien in Wartime, Wash- 
ington, D. C, 1943. WW 30 

CACKLER, CHRISTIAN (June 27, 1791- 
July 5, 1878), was born in Washington 
County, Pa. He came to Portage County 
with his parents May 10, 1804. Throughout 
his long life in this area he bore a splendid 



reputation for probity. His rambling Recol- 
lections, which contains a first-hand account 
of John Brown, is one of the most valuable 
accounts extant of pioneer life in northern 

Recollections of an Old Settler . . . , [Kent, 

CADMUS. Pseud. See John C. Zachos. 

was born in Jefferson, Ashtabula County, 
where her family were close friends of the 
Howells family. Except that she later lived 
in Cleveland, nothing else is known of her 

De Barr's Friends; Or, Number Seventeen 
. . . , Cleveland, 1881. 

CADY, JOHN HENRY (1846-1927), was 
born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. He 
saw some intermittent service during the 
early days of the Civil War and in 1864 
joined the 11th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. 
He was in a detachment which went up the 
Platte River to the Pike's Peak gold fields 
in 1865. After being discharged he went to 
Arizona. At Tucson he built the largest 
dance hall and saloon in the Territory, pre- 
sided over his own gambling layouts, oper- 
ated what he was pleased to call a "hotel" 
at Patagonia, "figured in many lynchings," 
and lived to tell his story in an auto- 
biographical volume: Arizona's Yesterdays 
. . . , [Patagonia, Ariz.], 1915. 

CALDWELL, DAVID S. (Dec. 22, 1820-Sept. 
6, 1889), was born in Hagerstown, Md., but 
grew up in western Crawford County, 
where his parents moved when he was a 
child. At the time of the organization of the 
123rd O.V.I., he was made first lieutenant 
of Company H, which was organized by 
Captain John Newman of Crestline. He was 
promoted to captain Feb. 3, 1863. He was 
captured at Winchester, Va., on June 15, 
1863, when his regiment was surrendered by 
Colonel Ely of the 18th Connecticut, who 
was temporarily in command. He wrote one 
of the most thrilling accounts of escape 
from a Confederate prison. 
Incidents of War, and Southern Prison 
Life, Dayton, 1864. 

26, 1853-March 2, 1927), educator, was 
born in Bryan, Williams County. In 1883 
he was appointed to the history department 
of the University of Nebraska, his alma 
mater. He wrote a number of articles and 
textbooks. His home was Lincoln, Neb., 
and his death occurred in that city. 

Henry Clay, the Great Compromiser . . . , 

Milwaukee, Wis., [1899]. 

23, 1865-Jan. 7, 1946), rabbi, was born in 
Toledo, Lucas County. He attended Hughes 
High School in Cincinnati, the University 
of Cincinnati, and Hebrew Union College. 
He was a rabbi in Peoria, 111., 1887-91, 
and in Richmond, Va., 1891-1945. He 
published religious textbooks for children 
and teachers, a collection of his addresses, 
and The Jew in English Literature . . . , 
Richmond, Va., [1909]. WWW 2 

CALLAGHAN, J. DORSEY (Jan. 3, 1895- 
), was born in Dennison, Tuscarawas 
County, and attended the schools of that 
community. After serving in World War I, 
he was a merchant in Columbus and Cin- 
cinnati, and in Mt. Clemens, Mich. While 
recovering from an illness, he wrote poems 
for the Detroit Free Press and later joined 
the staff as music critic. He is still with that 
paper and lives in Highland Park, Mich. 
He has published a volume of poems: 
Music Off Stage, [Detroit, 1945]. 

CALLAGHAN, JAMES F. (March 28, 1839- 
Dec. 12, 1899), priest, born in Trenton, 
N. J., was brought to Cincinnati by his 
parents in 1845. He graduated from Mount 
St. Mary's of the West in 1859, was or- 
dained to the Roman Catholic priesthood 
in 1863, and afterward served at All Saints 
University and St. Peter's Cathedral. A se- 
lection of his writings was published post- 
humously by his sister, Emily A. Callaghan: 
Memoirs and Writings . . . , Cincinnati, 


1854-May 11, 1927), was born in Dela- 
ware, Delaware County, and spent her life 
in that community. She attended Ohio Wes- 
leyan University. She wrote articles, stories, 
and books for children, e.g., The Violin 
Lady, Boston, 1916. WW 12 

CAMPBELL, EDWIN R. (1787-1857), was 
born in Butler County. He worked on the 
Cincinnati Daily Times and Daily Dispatch 
before emigrating to California. 
The Heroine of Scutari, and Other Poems, 
New York, 1857. 

22, 1887- ), was born in Miami Town- 
ship, Greene County. She attended a busi- 
ness college and Columbia University, was 
employed as a public stenographer, and is 
now a resident of Dayton. Her poems have 


Campbell, M. E. 

appeared in various periodicals and anthol- 
ogies, and she has published a collection: 
The Book of Thrills, Dayton, 1934. BDCP 

1867-Jan. 30, 1896), was born in Pomeroy, 
Meigs County. He attended public schools 
and Miami University. He worked on sev- 
eral Chicago newspapers and also taught 
school in Rutland. Ohio, Charleston, W. 
Va., and Oberlin, Ohio. He was one of the 
first Negroes to write dialect poetry. His 
death occurred in Pomeroy. 
Echoes from the Cabin and Elsewhere, 
Chicago, [1895]. 

"vitapathic" physician, was born at Little 
Pine Creek, Pa. He opened a school in 
Fairmount, the American Health College, 
to teach vitapathy, which Otto Juettner 
(q.v. ) described as "a mongrel mixture of 
half-digested science, brazen assurance and 
medical and religious quackery." Juettner 
acknowledged that many of Campbell's stu- 
dents went on to study medicine elsewhere 
and became effective physicians. His books 
were not sold, and his students were sworn 
not to reveal their contents. 
Encyclopedia of Nature, Containing the 
Full and Complete Vitapathic System of 
Medical Practice . . . , Cincinnati, 1878. 
Spirit Vitapathy; A Religious Scientific Sys- 
tem of Health and Life for Body and 
Soul . . . , [Cincinnati. 1891]. 
Life! Physical and Spiritual . . . , Cincinnati, 

1814), clergyman, was born in Augusta 
County, Va. He preached in various towns 
in southern Ohio. His death occurred in 

The Doctrine of Justification by Imputed 
Righteousness Considered . . . , Danville, 
[Ky.], 1805. 
Strictures on the Letters Published by Bar- 
ton W. Stone . . . , Lexington, Ky., 1805. 
Vindex . . . , Lexington, Ky., 1806. 
The Pelagian Detected . . . , Lexington, 
Ky., 1811. 

1782-Sept. 24, 1833), lawyer and judge, 
was born in Augusta County, Va., of Irish 
parents. His family moved to Kentucky in 
1791 and shortly afterward to Ohio, where 
he earned money for his education by clear- 
ing timberlands and by teaching school. In 
1808 he was admitted to the bar and began 
to practice in West Union, Adams County. 

He served in Congress, 1817-27. After the 
election of Andrew Jackson, whom he had 
supported, he was appointed U. S. district 
judge. In 1826 he settled on a Brown 
County farm, and in 1831 he moved to 
Columbus. He died at Delaware Sept. 24, 
1833, in the cholera epidemic that struck 
Ohio that year. His writings and a sketch 
of his life were compiled by his widow, 
Eleanor W. Campbell. 
Biographical Sketches; With Other Literary 

Remains of the Late John W. Campbell 

. . . , Columbus, 1838. 

CAMPBELL, LILY BESS (June 20, 1883- 
), educator, was born in Ada, Hardin 
County. She graduated from the University 
of Texas in 1905 and the University of 
Chicago (Ph.D.) in 1921. She served on 
the faculty of the University of Wisconsin, 
1911-18, and the University of California 
at Los Angeles, 1922-50. Besides scholarly 
articles and monographs, her writings in- 
clude several books on Shakespeare and 
the English theater, e.g., Shakespeare's Tragic 
Heroes, Slaves of Passion, Cambridge, Eng- 
land, 1930. WW 30 

1899- ), ornithologist, was born in 
Toledo, Lucas County. He has been a 
columnist for the Toledo Times and is ac- 
tive in various nature study and conserva- 
tion organizations. Besides articles and 
pamphlets on nature, he has published a 
book. Birds of Lucas County, Toledo, 

CAMPBELL, MARION (d.1944), was born 
in Bellefontaine, Logan County. In 1927 
she married Alexander Winton, Cleveland 
automobile manufacturer, from whom she 
was divorced a few years later. She lived in 
Los Angeles for a number of years. Her 
death occurred in Florida. Interested in 
American Indians, she wrote an opera, The 
Seminole, which was produced in Cleve- 
land, and also organized the Women's Na- 
tional League for Justice to the Indians. 
She wrote another opera, poems, and a 
book: The Box hood of Tecumseh . . . , 
Philadelphia, [1940]. 

1903- ), educator, was born in Cambridge, 
Guernsey County. She graduated from Rad- 
cliffe College in 1925 and Yale University 
(Ph.D.) in 1937. She has been a member 
of the English Department, Indiana Univer- 
sity, since 1927 except for service with the 
American Red Cross during World War II. 

Campbell, M. R. 


A specialist in eighteenth century British 
literature, she has written a number of ar- 
ticles on Daniel Defoe and has also pub- 
lished popular novels, e.g., The White 
Hand Murder Mystery, New York, 1936. 
DAS 3 

1881-Oct. 11, 1939), was born in Youngs- 
town, Mahoning County. She died in New 
York City. She wrote a biography of her 
father, Walter L. Campbell (q.v. ): The Life 
of Walter Campbell, New York, 1917. 

1879- ), educator, was born in Cleve- 
land, Cuyahoga County. He graduated from 
Harvard University (A.B., 1903; Ph.D., 
1910) and afterward taught English at the 
University of Wisconsin, 1911-21, the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, 1921-35, and Colum- 
bia University, 1936-50. In addition to a 
number of widely used textbooks, his writ- 
ings include Shakespeare's Satire, New 
York, 1943. WW 30 

CAMPBELL, WALTER L. (Nov. 13, 1842- 
Jan. 25, 1905), lawyer and journalist, was 
born in Salem, Columbiana County. When 
he was five years old, an accident left him 
blind for life. From nine to sixteen, he at- 
tended the School for the Blind at Colum- 
bus. He became a skilled organist. After 
attending Salem High School, he entered 
Western Reserve College in 1863 and gradu- 
ated with honors in 1867. He read law in 
Salem and spent a year at Harvard Law 
School. In 1869 he went to the Wyoming 
Territory, of which his brother had just been 
appointed governor. On returning to Ohio, 
he was admitted to the bar in 1873. He 
owned and edited the Mahoning Register 
in Youngstown. From 1884 to 1886 he 
served as mayor of the city. Though totally 
blind, he moved freely about the city with 
no assistance, and he followed successfully 
his professions of law and journalism. 
Our Sovereign's Characteristics, Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1876. 
Civitas: The Romance of Our Nation's 
Life, New York, 1886. 

CANFIELD, DWIGHT R. (March 29, 1872- 
April 20, 1956), physician, was born in 
Scotch Ridge. Wood County. He attended 
district schools and later taught school to 
finance his medical education. After gradu- 
ation from Toledo Medical College in 1907, 
he practiced at Perrysburg, and his death 
occurred in that community. Local history 
was his hobby, and he published a number 

of articles on that subject, and Poems of 
the Maumee Valley, [Fostoria, 1943]. 

1930), mother of Dorothy Canfield Fisher 
(q.v.), was born in Michigan. In 1873 she 
married James H. Canfield (q.v.) and lived 
in Ohio while he was president of Ohio 
State University. She died in Arlington, Vt. 
She wrote several books, e.g., Around the 
World at Eighty, Rutland, Vt., 1925. 

1847-March 29, 1909), librarian and uni- 
versity president, was born in Delaware, 
Delaware County, the son of an Episcopal 
clergyman, but much of his boyhood was 
spent in Brooklyn, N. Y., where his father 
was rector of Christ Church. After graduat- 
ing from Williams College in 1868, he spent 
two years in railroad-building in Iowa and 
Minnesota. He then read law and was ad- 
mitted to the Michigan bar in 1872. While 
practicing in St. Joseph, Mich., he married 
Flavia A. Camp (see above). Canfield en- 
tered educational work in 1877, when he 
accepted a professorship at the University 
of Kansas. From 1891 to 1895 he was 
chancellor of the University of Nebraska 
and from 1895 to 1899 was president of 
Ohio State University. He resigned to be- 
come librarian of Columbia University, a 
a post he held until his death. He was ex- 
tremely popular as a speaker and was a 
prolific writer of articles for magazines. 
Taxation; A Plain Talk for Plain People, 

New York, 1883. 
Local Government in Kansas, Philadelphia, 

History and Government of Kansas, Phila- 
delphia, [1894]. 
The Ohio State University as a School of 
Post-Graduate Instruction Only . . . , 
Columbus, 1898. 
The College Student and his Problems, New 

York, 1902. 
The Spirit of '76 ... , [New York?, 1907]. 
Report on Certain Educational Character- 
istics in England and France, [New York, 

12, 1864-July 26, 1946), was born in 
Springfield, Clark County. A graduate of 
Buchtel College, Akron, she was active in 
the women's suffrage movement and the 
Universalist Church. In 1891 she married 
Rev. Harry L. Canfield, a Universalist min- 
ister. Her last years were spent in Brattle- 
boro and Woodstock, Vt. She published 
articles in various periodicals, edited a three- 


Carpenter, Flora L. 

volume collection of hymns, and wrote 
The Valley of the Kedron . . . , South 
Woodstock, Vt., 1940. 

1824-June 30, 1902), was born in Ham- 
burg, N. Y. He taught school and operated 
a sawmill in New York State before coming 
to Milan in 1852. In 1857 he settled in 
Wood County. He was mustered into the 
service, Sept. 19, 1861, as captain of Com- 
pany K, 21st O.V.I. He was captured Sept. 
20, 1863, at Chickamauga, and was ex- 
changed March 20, 1865. Though lacking 
in personal narrative, his history of his regi- 
ment is a valuable and well-documented ac- 
count of its otherwise unrecorded partici- 
pation in the Chickamauga battle. After his 
discharge from the army he operated a 
sawmill and a farm, and taught school near 
Scotch Ridge. 

History of the 21st Regiment Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, in the War of the Rebellion, 
Toledo, 1893. 

1907- ), cartoonist, was born in Hills- 
boro, Highland County. He graduated from 
Ohio State University in 1930 and worked 
as a cartoonist on the Dayton Journal- 
Herald and the Columbus Dispatch before 
achieving syndication with his comic strip 
"Terry and the Pirates." A story based on 
the comic strip has been published: April 
Kane and the Dragon Lady . . . , Racine, 
Wis., [1942]. WW 30 

CANTWELL, JOHN SIMON (1837-1907), 
clergyman, was pastor of Universal ist 
churches in Columbus, Camden, Fairfield, 
and Cincinnati. He moved to Massachusetts 
in 1881. 

Thirty Days over the Sea . . . , Cincinnati, 

CAREY, CHARLES. Pseud. See Charles C. 

CAREY, CHARLES HENRY (Oct. 27, 1857- 
Aug. 26, 1941), lawyer, was born in Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton County. After graduating 
from Denison University in 1881, he stu- 
died law in Cincinnati and afterward prac- 
ticed in Portland, Oreg., 1883-1932. He 
published a volume of legal digests in 1888, 
edited The Journals of Theodore Talbot 
. . . (1931) and Lansford W. Hastings' 
Emigrants' Guide to Oregon and California 
(1932), and wrote a state history: History 
of Oregon, Chicago, 1922. WWW 1 

Oct. 5, 1956), journalist, was born in Hills- 

boro, Highland County. He was on the 
staff of the Ohio State Journal, 1909-55, 
working as a proofreader and also conduct- 
ing a column, "Poetry and Rhyme." He 
died in Columbus. Besides poems and ar- 
ticles in various periodicals, he published a 
collection of verse: Lights and Shadows, 
Columbus, [1941]. 

1873- ), educator, was born in Mantua, 
Portage County. He graduated from Case 
Institute of Technology in 1895 and the 
University of Wisconsin (Ph.D.) in 1906. 
After teaching at Albion College, 1906-19, 
and at DePauw University, 1919-27, he 
joined the Case faculty as professor of eco- 
nomics. He retired in 1944 and since that 
time has continued to live in Cleveland. Be- 
sides articles in professional journals and 
textbooks, his writings include several books 
on organized labor, e.g., Organized Labor 
in American History, New York, 1920. 
WW 26 

CARNES, SIDNEY CECIL (Sept. 11, 1909- 
Feb. 14, 1953), journalist, was born in Fair- 
view, Guernsey County, but his parents 
moved to Barnesville in 1910. After at- 
tending Muskingum College for a time, he 
transferred to Ohio State University and 
graduated in journalism in 1932. He worked 
on the Columbus Star and the New York 
World-Telegram, wrote many radio shows, 
and was a correspondent for the Saturday 
Evening Post. After World War II he lived 
in Laredo, Texas. One of the original Citi- 
zens for Eisenhower, he was en route to 
Washington to take a post in the State 
Department when he died near Lawrence- 
ville, Ind. He wrote a life of John L. Lewis, 
several books on World War II, some travel 
books, and a biography: Jimmy Hare: News 
Photographer, New York, 1940. WWW 3 


1921- ), was born in Dayton, Mont- 
gomery County, and was educated in Day- 
ton schools. After graduating from Smith 
College, she worked for a year on the Day- 
ton Daily News. Since her marriage to 
Fletcher B. Carney she has lived in Birm- 
ingham, Ala. She has written considerable 
fiction. Her first novel was No Certain An- 
swer, New York, 1947. 

1877- ), educator, was born in Marys- 
ville, Union County. She attended high 
school in Wichita, Kan., graduated from 
City Normal School, Toledo, in 1901, stud- 
ied art in New York and Chicago, and 

Carpenter, Frank G. 


taught in the Toledo schools, 1901-07 and 
1911-42. She is now living in Toledo. She 
has published a work in eight volumes for 
children: Stories Pictures Tell . . . , Chicago, 

1855-June 18, 1924), traveler and journal- 
ist, was born in Mansfield, Richland 
County. He graduated from University of 
Wooster in 1877. In 1879 he became Col- 
umbus correspondent of the Cleveland 
Leader. Representing newspaper syndicates, 
he traveled to all parts of the world. A by- 
product of his travels was a series of geo- 
graphical readers, the first of which (Asia) 
appeared in 1897. His textbooks were widely 
popular and appeared in many editions. Be- 
sides his geographical readers, the chief 
series are Carpenter's world travels and 
readers on commerce and industry. His 
death occurred in Nanking, China. 
South America, Social, Industrial, and Poli- 
tical . . . , Akron, 1900. 

12, 1831-March 23, 1923), was born in 
Philadelphia, Pa. She lived in Fayette 
County, 1867-84. She was the acknowledged 
leader of a group of Washington Court 
House women who, on Christmas Eve, 
1873, fired by a lecture by Dio Lewis On 
"Our Girls," vowed to close every saloon 
in the community within a week's time. On 
Christmas morning, the movement was or- 
ganized, and it is claimed locally that this 
was the beginning of the "Woman's Cru- 
sade" from which emerged the Woman's 
Christian Temperance Union. The fact is 
that the basic idea was Dr. Lewis', and 
that he had presented it on December 23 
to the good ladies of Hillsboro, who had 
lost not a moment in organizing. According 
to Francis E. C. Willard (q.v.), "The whirl- 
wind of the Lord began in the little town of 
Hillsboro on the 23rd of December. 1873." 
Mrs. Carpenter's death occurred in Colum- 

The Crusade; Its Origin and Development 
at Washington Court House and its Re- 
sults . . . , Columbus, 1893. 

CARR, MICHAEL W. (1851-April 30, 1922), 
journalist, born in Ireland, was brought to 
Toledo in 1861. He attended Toledo schools 
and University of Notre Dame. He edited 
the Toledo Review, 1873-79, and from 1881 
until his death he lived in Indianapolis, Ind., 
where he wrote for various newspapers and 
magazines. He published several volumes on 
the Catholic Church in Indiana, e.g., A 

History of the Catholicity in Richmond and 
Wayne Co. Ind. . . . , Indianapolis, 1889. 

1909- ), was born in Washington, D. C, 
but was brought to Columbus when he was 
one year old and lived there until 1925. 
When he was fifteen, he received national 
publicity when a reporter discovered that 
he wrote horror and adventure stories for 
pulp magazines. He attended East High 
School in Columbus except for his senior 
year, which was completed at Ashley. While 
living in Ashley, he wrote The Rampant 
Age, New York, 1928. This frank portrayal 
of high school youth created a sensation, 
especially among his former Columbus 
classmates. At the age of eighteen he was 
writing for a Hollywood studio. He aban- 
doned motion pictures and wandered about 
the United States for three years. In 1932 
he arrived in Russia, where he lived for 
five years. He married a Russian girl, gradu- 
ated from a Moscow university, and worked 
for Russian movie studios. In 1938 he re- 
turned to the United States, where he has 
occasionally worked in Hollywood and has 
written several mystery novels and fanta- 

CARREL, CORA GAINES (May 7, 1860- 
Oct. 23, 1927), was born in Lake County. 
She was active in the Eastern Star and in 
civic activities. A few years before her 
death she moved to Los Angeles. 
Buckeye Ballads, Cincinnati, 1900. 

1862-Sept. 14, 1938), was born in Lake 
County. She married Fred Carrel around 
1882 and lived in Willoughby. Besides 
poems in periodicals and anthologies, she 
published a collection: Fireside Poems, 
[Madison, Wis.], 1923. 

), was born in Cheviot, Hamilton County. 
Educated at Wabash College, Miami Uni- 
versity, and Harvard University, he has 
taught English at the University of Iowa 
and Bard College. He now lives in Sweet 
Briar, Va. His publications include a book 
of poems: Desire for Death, [Chapel Hill, 
N. C, 1942]. 

CARRIGAN, M. J. See James Emmitt. 

CARRIGHAR, SALLY, was born in Cleve- 
land, Cuyahoga County. She has written for 
various motion-picture companies, 1923-28, 
and for radio, 1928-38. Since 1938 she has 


Carter, A. G. W. 

been a free-lance writer, specializing in na- 
tural history. Her home now is in Lyme, 
N. H. She has written several books, e.g., 
One Day at Teton Marsh, New York, 1947. 

2, 1824-Oct. 26, 1912), soldier, was born 
in Wallingford, Conn. He graduated from 
Yale in 1845, and for a year and a half he 
taught in Irving Institute, Tarrytown, N. Y., 
where he was encouraged by Washington 
Irving to write his Battles of the American 
Revolution. After a course of study in the 
Yale Law School, he moved to Columbus 
in 1848. There he practiced law for twelve 
years, nine of which were spent in partner- 
ship with William Dennison, subsequently 
governor of Ohio. He was one of the found- 
ers of the Republican Party in Ohio and 
a warm friend of Salmon P. Chase, who, as 
governor, appointed him to a position on 
his staff in 1857. Carrington's specific task 
was the reorganization of the Ohio militia, 
the successful accomplishment of which led 
to his appointment as adjutant general. He 
was reappointed by Chase's successor, 
Governor Dennison. Following President 
Lincoln's first call for troops, Carrington 
demonstrated his ability by organizing and 
mustering in nine regiments of Ohio mili- 
tia. He was appointed colonel in the 18th 
U. S. Infantry, and, at the request of Gov- 
ernor Oliver P. Morton, he was detached 
from his command and sent to Indiana, 
where he superintended the recruiting of 
more than 100,000 volunteers. He was pro- 
moted to brigadier general, and under his 
direction the disloyal Knights of the Golden 
Circle and other subversive organizations 
were uncovered. When mustered out of the 
volunteers he rejoined the 18th Regiment, 
then serving in the Army of the Cumber- 
land. Late in 1865 he was ordered to the 
Indian service in Nebraska, where he built 
Fort Kearny, and participated in the Red 
Cloud War and several independent engage- 
ments. Suffering from a severe wound, he 
was granted a year's leave of absence in 
1869, and retired from the army in 1870. 
He was professor of military science and 
tactics at Wabash College, Ind., 1870-73. 
He contributed many articles to leading 
periodicals, and many of his addresses were 
published separately. 

Ernest J. Wessen 

Ocean to Ocean. Pacific Railroad and Ad- 
joining Territories . . . , Philadelphia, 

Military Education in American Colleges, 
[Indianapolis, 1870]. 

Battles of the American Revolution, 1775- 
1781 ... , New York, 1876. 

Crisis Thoughts, Philadelphia, 1878. 

Ohio Militia and the West Virginia Cam- 
paign, 1861, [Marietta?], 1879. 

Battle Maps and Charts of the American 
Revolution . . . , New York, [1881]. 

The Strategic Relations of New Jersey to 
the War for American Independence, 
Newark, N. L, 1885. 

The Obelisk and Its Voices. The Inner Fac- 
ings of Washington Monument with Their 
Lessons, Boston, 1887. 

Patriotic Reader . . . , Philadelphia, [1888]. 

Kristopherus, the Christbearer, Boston, 

Beacon Lights of Patriotism . . . , New 
York, 1894. 

Military Movements in Indiana, [Boston?, 
18- ? ]. 

Theodore D. Weld and a Famous Quartette 
. . . , [Hyde Park?, Mass., 1904]. 

The New Center of Gravity, the World- 
Reapers of the Grand Army Harvest . . . , 
[Boston?, 1905]. 

Dream and Story, Boston, [1908]. 

Washington the Soldier, Boston, 1908. 

Winfteld Scott . . . , [Boston?, 1910]. 

LIVANT (1831-1870), was born in Colum- 
bus, Franklin County, the granddaughter of 
the founder of that city. She married Gen- 
eral Henry Beebee Carrington (q.v.), whom 
she accompanied to the West when he was 
assigned to the command of Fort Kearny, 
Neb., in 1866. Ab-sa-ra-ka, Home of the 
Crows, is an account of her experiences. 
Thomas W. Field was of the opinion that 
Mrs. Carrington had had little personal ex- 
perience among the Indians; however, there 
is in existence a letter from General Car- 
rington in which he states that over half of 
the Indian demonstrations described by her 
"were under her own eye." 
Ab-sa-ra-ka Home of the Crows: Being the 
Experience of an Officer's Wife on the 
Plains . . . , Philadelphia, 1868. 

William J.), born in Columbus, Franklin 
County, was graduated from Ohio State 
University in 1921 and from the School of 
Law, Yale University, in 1926. She has 
directed research for the League of Women 
Voters in several cities and now lives in 
Philadelphia, Pa. She has written a history 
of the U.S.O. and several biographies, e.g., 
Son of Thunder, Patrick Henry, New York, 
1942. WW AW 1 

TON (March 4, 1819-Feb. 21, 1885), lawyer 
and judge, was born in Cincinnati, Hamil- 

Carter, J. H. 


ton County. After attending Alexander Kin- 
mont's school and Miami University, he 
read law with Judge Timothy Walker and 
was admitted to the bar. He was elected 
prosecuting attorney of Hamilton County 
and later served two terms as judge of the 
common pleas court. Besides the volume of 
reminiscences listed below, he wrote articles 
on drama for the press and also wrote sev- 
eral plays, including a dramatization of Les 
Miserables which was presented at Pike's 
Opera House. 

The Old Court House . . . , Cincinnati, 

CARTER, JOHN HENTON (May 3, 1832- 
March 2, 1910), journalist, was born in 
Marietta, Washington County. After his fa- 
ther died, his mother took the family to her 
former home in Liverpool, England, but 
after two years they returned to Marietta. 
From 1846 to 1870 he worked on steam- 
boats in various capacities, usually super- 
vising the galleys. One of the many legends 
concerning him is that on the first day of 
a voyage he would serve such rich, tempt- 
ing food that many passengers became ill 
and ate little for the rest of the trip. During 
the Civil War he lived in Columbus, Ky., 
and other river towns. In 1866 he moved to 
Cairo, 111., and in 1870 to St. Louis, where 
he was river editor of the Globe-Democrat. 
Around 1871 he began publishing annual 
almanacs, Commodore Rollingpin's Al- 
manac. In Chapter XVI of Life on the Mis- 
sissippi, his friend Mark Twain quoted 
speed records from one of the almanacs. In 
1883 he went to New York with Joseph 
Pulitzer to write for the World. He returned 
to St. Louis about six years later as a free- 
lance writer and lecturer. He spent the last 
five years of his life at the home of a 
daughter in Marietta, and he died in that 
community. He is still remembered there 
for his colorful personality and flamboyant 
costumes. Thomas Rutherton, which is 
based on his early life, Ozark Postoffice, 
and Mississippi Argonauts were published 
under his own name; the others appeared 
under the pen name Commodore Rolling- 
The Log of Commodore Rollingpin . . . , 

New York, 1874. 
Thomas Rutherton. A Novel, New York, 

Duck Creek Ballads, New York, [1894]. 
Log Cabin Poems, St. Louis, 1897. 
The Impression Club; A Novel, New York, 

The Man at the Wheel . . . , St. Louis, 

Ozark Postoffice . . . , St. Louis, 1899. 

Out Here in 01' Missoury, St. Louis, 1900. 
Mississippi Argonauts; A Tale of the South, 
New York, 1903. 

CARTWRIGHT, PETER (Sept. 1, 1785- 
Sept. 25, 1872), frontier Methodist preacher, 
preached in Ohio in 1805-06 on the Scioto 
and Hohocking circuits and the following 
year on the Marietta circuit. A vivid ac- 
count of the frontier is found in his auto- 
biography (1857). 

CARVER, GEORGE (Dec. 19, 1888-Oct. 29. 
1949), educator, was born in Cincinnati. 
Hamilton County. He graduated from 
Miami University in 1916. From 1923 until 
his death, he was on the English faculty of 
the University of Pittsburgh. Besides a 
number of textbooks and articles, he wrote 
a book of biographical sketches: Alms for 
Oblivion . . . , Milwaukee, [1946]. WWW 3 

CARY, ALICE (April 26, 1820-Feb. 12, 
1871), poet, was born near Mount 
Healthy, Hamilton County. Her introduc- 
tion to poetry came largely from her school 
readers and the "Poet's Corner" in a Uni- 
versalist paper to which her parents sub- 
scribed. Her mother died in 1835, and two 
years later Robert Cary married again. The 
stepmother considered the reading and writ- 
ing of poetry a waste of time, and Alice 
and her younger sister, Phoebe (q.v. ). 
found the home atmosphere uncongenial 
until their father built a separate house for 
himself and his wife. Alice's first poem ap- 
peared in the Cincinnati Sentinel in 1838, 
and soon her verse was appearing in Cin- 
cinnati periodicals, the National Era, 
Graham's Magazine, and others. Her poem 
"Pictures of Memory" was praised highly 
by Poe. The two sisters came to the atten- 
tion of Rufus P. Griswold, who supervised 
the publication of Poems of Alice and 
Phoebe Cary, New York, 1849. In 1850 the 
sisters visited New York and New England. 
The highlight of the trip was a visit to 
Whittier. In November, Alice moved to 
New York, and in April of the following 
year, Phoebe joined her. They established 
themselves in a small cottage, where they 
held open house each Sunday evening. 
Horace Greeley was perhaps their most 
regular visitor, but others included George 
Ripley, P. T. Barnum. Thomas Bailey Al- 
drich, and Whitelaw Reid. Although both 
sisters sympathized with the women's rights 
movement, they were not militant reform- 
ers. Alice was named first president of the 
Woman's Club (later the Sorosis), the first 
women's club in the United States. An in- 
valid in her last years, Alice continued to 


Case, L. 

receive friends and admirers until her death. 
Her novels are melodramatic and reflect 
her somewhat restricted experience. Clover- 
nook, based on memories of her childhood 
on a farm, contains some elements of real- 
ism, but the general tone is sentimental. Her 
poetry, highly esteemed during her life- 
time, suffers also from an excess of senti- 
Poems of Alice and Phoebe Cary, New 

York, 1849. 
Clovernook; Or, Recollections of Our Neigh- 
borhood in the West, 2 vols., New York, 

Hagar; A Story of Today, New York, 1852. 
Lyra, and Other Poems, New York, 1852. 
Clovernook Children, Boston, 1855. 
Poems, Boston, 1855. 

Married, Not Mated . . . , New York, 1856. 
Ballads, Lyrics, and Hymns, New York, 

The Bishop's Son, New York, 1867. 
Snow-Berries. A Book for Young Folks, 

Boston, 1867. 
A Lover's Diary, Boston, 1868. 
The Last Poems of Alice and Phoebe Cary, 

(Mary Clemmer Ames, ed.), New York, 

Ballads for Little Folks, New York, 1874. 
The Poetical Works of Alice and Phoebe 

Cary . . . , New York, 1877. 
Early and Late Poems of Alice and Phoebe 

Cary, Boston, 1887. 

CARY, PHOEBE (Sept. 4, 1824-July 31, 
1871), younger sister of Alice Cary (q.v.), 
was born on the family farm at Mount 
Healthy, Hamilton County. She shared 
Alice's interest in reading and writing poetry 
and published her first poem in a Boston 
newspaper at the age of fourteen. In April, 
1851, she and her younger sister, Elmina, 
who died in 1862, joined Alice in New 
York City. More robust than Alice, she 
assumed most of the domestic duties in the 
New York home. Visitors who left written 
records of the social evenings with the 
Cary sisters invariably commended her 
flashing wit. She was a firm believer in spiri- 
tualism during her last years. Overshadowed 
by her older sister during her lifetime, she 
was chiefly admired for the hymn "'Nearer 
Home." She was also, however, a skillful 
parodist and a clever writer of light verse. 
She died at Newport, R. I., five months after 
the death of her older sister. For collections 
of the verse of both sisters, see the sketch of 
Alice Cary. 

Poems and Parodies, Boston, 1854. 
Poems of Faith, Hope and Love, New York, 

CARY, SAMUEL FENTON (Feb. 18, 1814- 
Sept. 29, 1900), was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. He was a first cousin of 
Alice and Phoebe Cary (qq.v.). After gradu- 
ating from Miami University in 1835 and 
Cincinnati Law School in 1837, he prac- 
ticed law until 1845, when he abandoned 
his practice to devote himself to the cause 
of temperance. He edited various temper- 
ance papers. He served in the 40th Con- 
gress and in 1876 was the candidate for 
vice-president on the Greenback ticket. 

Cary Memorials . . . , Cincinnati, 1874. 
General Samuel F. Cary on the Aims of 

the Independent Greenback Party . . . , 

[New York, 1876]. 

CASE, ALDEN BUELL (July 25, 1851-Oct. 
27, 1932), clergyman, was born in Gusta- 
vus, Trumbull County. He graduated from 
Tabor College in 1878 and Yale Divinity 
School in 1881. Ordained a Congregational 
minister in 1881, he filled various mission- 
ary posts in South Dakota, California, and 
Mexico until his retirement in 1925. He 
died in Pomona, Calif. He wrote Thirty 
Years with the Mexicans . . . , New York, 

CASE, LEONARD (June 27, 1820-Jan. 6, 
1880), philanthropist and occasional writer, 
was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, 
the second son of Leonard Case, a promin- 
ent lawyer and land agent. After graduat- 
ing from Yale University in 1842 and study- 
ing law for two years at Cincinnati Law 
School, he opened a law office in Cleveland. 
His practice was highly selective, being 
largely limited to his father's land business. 
He and his brother William organized a 
group of young men who called themselves 
"Arkites," an organization that later became 
the Rowfant Club. Following an illness con- 
tracted while touring Europe, Case was a 
partial invalid. He never married. After his 
father's death in 1864, he devoted himself 
to travel, writing, and philanthropy. He en- 
dowed the Cleveland Library Association 
and assisted in the founding of the Western 
Reserve Historical Society. His major bene- 
faction, however, was the establishment of 
the Case School of Applied Science (Case 
Institute of Technology), which opened its 
doors in 1881. Case wrote long descriptive 
letters to his friends while traveling and 
published numerous poems. In 1860 the 
Atlantic Monthly printed his "Treasure 
Trove," a mock-heroic narrative poem, 
which was published in book form late in 
1872, dated 1873. 
Treasure Trove, Boston, 1873. 



CASS, LEWIS (Oct. 9, 1772-June 17, 1866), 
soldier and statesman, was an Ohio resi- 
dent from 1800, when he came to Marietta 
to study law, until 1813, when he was ap- 
pointed governor of Michigan. He pub- 
lished numerous political and historical 
speeches. While minister to France ( 1836— 
42), he wrote a series of essays: France; Its 
King, Court, and Government, New York, 

1874-May 1, 1957), clergyman, was born 
in Minerva, Stark County. He graduated 
from Heidelberg College in 1895 and from 
Heidelberg Seminary in 1898. Ordained in 
the Reformed Church, he served a pastorate 
in Columbiana, 1898-1902, another in 
Reading, Pa., 1906-21, and held various 
executive positions associated with the mis- 
sionary work of his church. His writings in- 
clude The End of the Beginning; A Nar- 
rative of the Missionary Enterprise of the 
Reformed Church, Philadelphia, 1936. 
WWW 3 

1865-Sept. 6, 1942), was born in Elyria, 
Lorain County. He graduated from Denison 
University in 1890 and served as librarian 
during his attendance there. He was secre- 
tary of the Taylor Austin Co., 1890-97, and 
general manager of Burrows Brothers, 
1897-1914. His writings include a bibliog- 
raphy of Hawthorne and The Association in 
Baptist History, [Cleveland?, 1911?]. WW 

16, 1847-Dec. 26, 1902), was born in 
Luray, Licking County. Out of her many 
writings and activities comes the necessity 
to mention her in several small ways when- 
ever the story of American fiction between 
1875 and 1900 is recounted. Fred Lewis 
Pattee has pointed out, for example, that 
she was the first American woman novelist 
of any significance born west of the Ap- 
palachians; furthermore, she was the first 
woman writer of any prominence to acquire 
a college education and to be graduated 
not from a school in the East but from a 
new college sprung up in Ohio. Such 
"firsts," of course, are scarcely more than 
the curiosities of time and geography and 
would not alone warrant much special men- 
tion of Mrs. Catherwood. Another peri- 
pheral reason for recalling her is that dur- 
ing the hot debate raging in the 1880s and 
1890s over the "new realism," Mrs. Cather- 
wood was chief spokesman for Middle 
Western conservatism when the controversy 

reached the clashing point at the Chicago 
World's Fair in the summer of 1893. Young 
Hamlin Garland, who appeared at the liter- 
ary conference there as the chief apostle 
for the new faith, has recorded his flurry 
with Mrs. Catherwood as one of the minor 
episodes in the history of American criti- 
cism. Somewhat more directly important 
in the literary story is the negative fact that 
Mrs. Catherwood's greatest fame in her own 
lifetime came from her numerous historical 
romances, beginning with The Romance 
of Dollard (1889), which led in the revival 
of this reactionary and decadent phenom- 
enon in the 1890s. Though these artifi- 
cially romantic novels gave her national ac- 
claim, they are very nearly dead now and 
hold little respect in later critical evalua- 
tions of her work. More positive is the fact 
that, a decade earlier, Mrs. Catherwood 
had been experimenting with little excur- 
sions into the critically realistic reporting of 
life as she knew it in the Corn Belt farm 
and village communities where she had 
lived in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois. Her 
chronicling of the sordidness and bitterness 
she recognized there had appeared first in 
local sketches and stories in local Indiana 
papers, such as the novelette, "A Little 
God," printed in the Kokomo Weekly Dis- 
patch (1878-79). These culminated in 
the novel Craque-O'-Doom, based upon the 
provincial barrenness of the Ohio town of 
Hebron, where she had spent her girlhood, 
at the intersection of the Ohio Canal and 
the Old National Road. This critical vein 
in American fiction, which fifty years later 
was to be commonly rated as important, is 
usually dated from E. W. Howe's The Story 
of a Country Town (1883) and Joseph 
Kirkland's Zury: The Meanest Man in 
Spring County (1887). Mrs. Catherwood's 
Craque-O'-Doom, though not so well writ- 
ten as either of these, antedated both and 
was the forerunner of all the later Wines- 
burgs. Although Mrs. Catherwood did not 
elect to develop this line of frank reportage, 
out of it grew her two groups of best writ- 
ings. Had she stuck to it, Professor Pattee 
has said, she might have become the Mary 
E. Wilkins of the West. As it was, she was 
the pioneer and only exploiter during the 
1880s of old Corn Belt regional material 
in the established local-color tradition. The 
June, 1882, issue of William Dean Howells' 
Atlantic Monthly, for example, included 
her short story "Serena," a thinly plotted 
but well-integrated little tale packed full of 
the manners, customs, folk beliefs, and 
people that Mrs. Catherwood remembered 
from the Buckeye Lake farm communities 
of central Ohio in the 1850s and 1860s. 



Other stories descriptive of the same sort 
of life in Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois were 
appearing in Lippincott's, Ladies' Reposi- 
tory, Harper's Bazaar, and elsewhere. They 
continued to appear throughout Mrs. 
Catherwood's life. Through sheer vitality 
of realistic color combined with a pleasant 
romanticism, such stories as "The Stirring- 
Off" and "The Queen of the Swamp" (both 
from the Hebron-Buckeye I.ake-Kirkers- 
ville swamp country of the 1850s) continue 
to appear in anthologies and are the best 
reporting that the "local-color" era saw 
from this oldest part of the Cornlands cul- 
ture belt. During the 1890s, Mrs. Cather- 
wood produced a second notable group of 
regional tales, which are now her best- 
known works. These dealt with French life, 
particularly that which was to be found 
along the Canadian border. Although nearly 
all of these French tales contain some 
period material reflecting the historical in- 
terpretations of Francis Parkman and the 
long romances that were now Mrs. Cather- 
wood's major literary effort, they are es- 
sentially regional in quality, taking their 
central interest from the vivid minutiae of 
speech, manners, personalities, and action 
that the author delighted in. These stories, 
which follow the St. Lawrence and the 
Great Lakes all the way from Acadia (as 
in "The Chase of Saint-Castin") to primi- 
tive Sault Sainte Marie (as in "The Wind- 
igo"), or to nineteenth century Mackinac 
Island (as in "The Mothers of Honore"), 
represent the best integration of Mrs. 
Catherwood's particular narrative powers. 
They are the portions of her writing most 
frequently reprinted today. Their greatest 
strength lies in an ability to combine more 
or less idealistic, but simple and often 
hauntingly charming, plots with a wealth of 
memorable local-color detail. Throughout 
her long writing career Mrs. Catherwood 
also wrote many juvenile works, one of 
which, Rocky Fork, is still in print and is 
probably the best firsthand fictional reflec- 
tion of a central Ohio rural school district 
in the 1860s. With this resume of her liter- 
ary importance as a background, her life 
story takes on considerable interest. The 
daughter of Dr. Marcus and Phoebe Thomp- 
son Hartwell, Mrs. Catherwood was born 
Dec. 16, 1847. in Luray, on the Old 
National Road, in Licking County. When 
she was about nine, the Hartwells, in a 
group of Ohio families, migrated to Mil- 
ford, Iroquois County. 111. In 1857. a 
year after moving to Milford, the father 
died, and the mother one year later, leaving 
eleven-year-old Mary with a younger sister 
and brother. The three orphans were re- 

turned to Ohio and reared by maternal 
grandparents in Hebron. The Hebron years 
that ensued Mrs. Catherwood reported in 
later years as very unhappv. She often re- 
turned to this neighborhood in her stories, 
usually reporting Hebron unpleasantly, as 
in Craque-O'-Doom. On the other hand, 
she often used the neighboring farm region 
of Luray. George's Chapel, the pigeon 
swamps, and Buckeye Lake, where many of 
her relatives lived, as a land of idyllic es- 
cape, as in "The Stirring-Off" and "The 
Queen of the Swamp." At the age of 
fourteen, she began teaching in various 
country schools of Licking County. Then 
two years later she was publishing her first 
poems and sketches in the Newark, Ohio. 
North American, and in 1865 at the age of 
eighteen, with the aid of M. L. Wilson 
(q.v. ), editor of the North American, was 
admitted to Granville Female College, 
where in 1868 she finished a four-year 
course at the end of three years. She later 
used the Granville setting for various short 
stories, the novel A Woman in Armor, and 
the juveniles Rocky Fork and Bony and 
Ban. While teaching in Granville and in 
Danville, 111., 1868-74, she developed her 
free-lance writing skills and in April, 
1871, won a $100 prize for a short story 
published in Wood's Household Magazine. 
She immediately became a regular contrib- 
utor to Wood's and to other periodicals and 
was encouraged by these successes to leave 
teaching in the autumn of 1874 and go to 
Newburgh, N. Y., the home of Wood's, to 
support herself by free-lance writing. It 
was a rather daring venture for a young 
Middle Western woman in the 1870s, but 
Mary Hartwell seems to have succeeded 
fairly well for a time. In May, 1875, she 
moved to Cincinnati along with Helen Os- 
borne (later Mrs. Henry Edward Krehbiel) 
to write for Golden Hours, Ladies' Reposi- 
tory, and other publications. Her first novel, 
A Woman in Armor, appeared in 1875. 
In 1876, she was forced by the economic 
depression to return to the help of friends 
and relatives in Illinois. The Cincinnati 
years are reflected in a juvenile, The Dog- 
berry Bunch, which is said to have inspired 
the writing of Five Li, tie Peppers. In 1877, 
she married lames Steele Catherwood of 
Hoopeston, III., and resided for a time in 
Oakford (Fairfield), Ind. Here she became 
a regular contributor to local papers, estab- 
lished an important friendship with lames 
Whitcomb Riley, and was soon seeking the 
national field again through a voluminous 
output of stories, articles, and juveniles. 
From 1879 to 1882, the Catherwoods re- 
sided in Indianapolis, where she was dra- 



matic reviewer for the Saturday Review, 
published her second novel, Craque-O'- 
Doom, and was at the center of the liter- 
ary group that included Riley, Benjamin 
Parker, and other young Hoosiers. Oakford 
and other Indiana rural scenes appear in 
numerous sketches, stories, and serials dur- 
ing these years in Lippincott's, Harper's 
Bazaar, and elsewhere. In 1882, the Cather- 
woods moved to Hoopeston, 111., which 
was to be their home the rest of her life 
except for summers on Mackinac Island, 
and a Chicago residence from 1897 to 1902. 
A son was born and died in 1883. Her 
daughter Hazel (Mrs. Donald P. Cameron) 
was born in 1884. In 1886. Mrs. Cather- 
wood with Riley, Maurice Thompson, and 
other authors from the Middle West or- 
ganized, at Indianapolis, the Western As- 
sociation of Writers, which continued for 
two decades to be an important though con- 
servative literary force in the middle states. 
Mrs. Catherwood, now under the influence 
of Parkman, became absorbed in the ancien 
regime of French-America. Many stories 
and novels resulted in rapid succession, 
most of which appeared first in the Century, 
Harper's or the Atlantic. Books dealing 
with the Western Corn Belt during the 
same period were The Spirit of an Illinois 
Town, and The Queen of the Swamp, and 
Other Plain Americans. There was a flood 
also of juveniles and miscellaneous material. 
Lazarre, her last novel, was based upon the 
popular tradition of the "Lost Dauphin." 
In addition to enjoying a best-seller run, it 
was given a successful dramatization by 
Otis Skinner. It has some small continuing 
value today in the fact that a fictional epi- 
sode between the Dauphin and Johnny 
Appleseed soon broke away from the novel 
and has become firmly established in the 
Appleseed folk canon of the Middle West. 
Out of the tremendous bulk of her rapid 
output, a few Corn Belt and French border 
local-color short stories have shown the 
vitality of true art and deserve now to be 
collected into a standard volume. Some of 
the best of the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois tales 
are to be found scattered through various 
periodicals of the 1880's and in the little 
collection The Queen of the Swamp. 

Robert Price 

A Woman in Armor . . . , New York, 

Craque-0 '-Doom. A Story, Philadelphia, 

Rocky Fork, Boston, [1882]. 
Old Caravan Days, Boston, [1884]. 
The Romance of Dollard, New York, 

The Story of Tonty, Chicago, 1890. 

The Lady of Fort St. John, Boston, 1891. 
Old Kaskaskia, Boston, 1893. 
The White Islander, New York, 1893. 
The Chase of Saint-Castin and Other Stories 

of the French in the New World, Boston, 

The Days of Jeanne d'Arc, New York, 1897. 
The Spirit of an Illinois Town, and the 

Little Renault . . . , Boston, 1897. 
Bony and Ban, The Story of a Printing Ven- 
ture, Boston, [1898]. 
Heroes of the Middle West; The French, 

Boston, 1898. 
Mackinac and Lake Stories, New York, 

The Queen of the Swamp, and Other Plain 

Americans, Boston, 1899. 
Spanish Peggv: A Story of Young Illinois, 

Chicago, 1899. 
Lazarre, Indianapolis, [1901]. 

CAULKINS, DANIEL (July 24, 1824-1902), 
physician, was born in Sullivan County, 
Vt. After attending Bancroft Academy and 
the Troy Conference Seminary, he served 
in the Mexican War. He studied medicine 
and afterward practiced and taught school 
in Farmer and Williams Center. In 1896 he 
moved to Toledo, where he spent his last 
years. His book describes a flying machine 
to be driven by "electric-magnetic power." 
The principle, he said, he discovered through 
study of the nervous system. Although he 
threatened to turn his invention over to a 
foreign power unless it was promptly ac- 
cepted by the United States, it seems to 
have made no greater impact than his earlier 
discovery of the "circulation of the nerves." 
Aerial Navigation; The Best Method, Toledo, 

1870-March 22, 1935), Roman Catholic 
priest and president of the University of 
Notre Dame, 1905-19, was born in Lee- 
tonia, Columbiana County. He graduated 
from Notre Dame in 1890 and was ordained 
to the priesthood in 1894. 
St. Paul, the Apostle of the World, New 

York, 1895. 
The Priests of Holy Cross, Notre Dame, 

Conquest of Life, Notre Dame, [n.d.]. 
The Modesty of Culture, Notre Dame. 


CHAFER, LEWIS SPERRY (Feb. 27, 1871- 
Aug. 22, 1952), clergyman, was born in 
Rock Creek, Ashtabula County. He gradu- 
ated from Oberlin College in 1892 and was 
ordained as a Presbyterian minister in 1900. 


Chamberlin, W. H. 

After a career as a traveling evangelist, 
1900-24, he founded Dallas Theological 
Seminary. His death occurred in Seattle, 
Wash. His writings were religious in nature, 
e.g., Grace, [Philadelphia, 1922]. WWW 3 

CHALLEN, JAMES (Jan. 29, 1802-Dec. 9, 
1878), clergyman, was born in Hackensack, 
N. J. After attending Transylvania College, 
he came to Cincinnati in 1825, and that 
city remained his home for the rest of his 
life. As pastor of Enon Baptist Church, he 
led his congregation in forming the First 
Church of Disciples of Christ. He was ac- 
tive in forming new churches and traveled 
widely throughout the United States as a 
Disciples missionary. A prolific writer, he 
published many essays and poems in peri- 
odicals, prepared question books on the 
Bible, edited several magazines and an- 
nuals, and also edited the Juvenile Library 
in 41 volumes (1859). 
The Cave of Machpelah and Other Poems, 

Philadelphia, 1854. 
The Gospel and Its Elements, Philadelphia, 

Christian Evidences, Philadelphia, 1857. 
Frank Eliott; Or, Wells in the Desert, Phila- 
delphia, 1859. 
Igdrasil; Or, the Tree of Existence, Phila- 
delphia, 1859. 
Island of the Giant Fairies, Philadelphia, 

1897- ), clergyman and educator, was 
born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. He 
graduated from Johns Hopkins University in 
1917 and Yale Divinity School in 1922. 
Ordained a Congregational minister in 1922, 
he served a church in New York City until 
1948, when he joined the faculty of Boston 
University School of Theology. His books 
include Candles in the Wind, New York, 
1941. WW 30 

CHALMERS, JEAN (d. Sept. 28, 1939), was 
born in Michigan, but lived in Toledo after 
her marriage to W. W. Chalmers, who served 
in the U. S. House of Representatives, 
1920-30. During her stay in Washington 
she published a volume of poems: Wash- 
ington People, Places and Other Poems, 
[Toledo, 1928]. 

22, 1883- ), editor and school consult- 
ant, was born in Oberlin, Lorain County. 
He graduated from Oberlin College in 1904 
and from the seminary in 1910. He taught 
English and music in several institutions be- 
fore devoting himself to public relations in 

the field of education. Since his retirement, 
he has lived in Oberlin. His writings include 
Our Independent Schools . . . , [New York, 
1944]. LE 3 

CHAMBERLAIN, JACOB (April 13, 1835- 
March 2, 1908), missionary, born in Sharon, 
Conn., was reared in Hudson, where his 
family moved in 1838. He graduated from 
Western Reserve College in 1856 and con- 
tinued his education in the fields of theology 
(Union Seminary and Rutgers) and medi- 
cine (New York University and Western 
Reserve College). In 1859 he was ordained 
a missionary of the Dutch Reformed Church 
and sailed for India, where he devoted his 
life to evangelistic and medical endeavors. 
He mastered the Telugu and Tamil lan- 
guages, preached widely, and established 
several hospitals. 

The Bible Tested in India, New York, 1878. 
In the Tiger Jungle and Other Stories of 
Missionary Work among the Telugus of 
India, New York, [1896]. 
The Religions of the Orient, 1896. 
The Cobra's Den, and Other Stories of Mis- 
sionary Work among the Telugus of In- 
dia, New York, [1900]. 
The Kingdom in India, Its Progress and Its 
Promise, New York, [1908]. 

11, 1837-June 30, 1920), brother of Jacob 
Chamberlain (q.v.), was born in Sharon, 
Conn., and was brought to Hudson when 
he was a year old. He received an M.A. 
degree from Western Reserve College in 
1861. He taught Latin and Greek at West- 
ern Reserve, 1859-66, was Ohio State Sec- 
retary of Agriculture, 1880-86, and was 
president of Iowa Agricultural College, 
1886-90. He also served in editorial capaci- 
ties on the Ohio Farmer and The National 
Stockman and Farmer. 
Tile Drainage, [n.p.], 1891. 

20, 1870-July 28, 1943), businessman, was 
born in Randolph, N. Y., but his family 
moved to Dayton when he was three years 
old, and he grew up in that city. After 
graduating from Denison University in 1890, 
he entered the insurance business. He was 
active in musical activities in Dayton. Be- 
sides a history of his college fraternity, Phi 
Gamma Delta, he wrote an autobiographical 
book: / Remember, Newark, 1942. 

19, 1833-March 11, 1912), was born in 
Ross County. He was commissioned first 

Chambers, J. J. 


lieutenant in the 81st O.V.I., Oct. 1, 1861, 
and resigned with the rank of major, Sept. 
15, 1864. His faithful chronicle of the serv- 
ices of the 81st O.V.I, was one of the first 
Ohio regimental histories written after the 
war. From 1895 to 1898 he was recorder 
of the Ohio commandery of the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion of the U. S., in 
which capacity he edited volumes IV and 
V of the splendid Sketches of War History 
published by that organization. For a time 
he was head of the Associated Press bureau 
in Cincinnati. 

History of the Eighty-first Regiment . . . , 
Cincinnati, 1865. 


1850-Feb. 12, 1920), journalist, was born 
in Bellefontaine, Logan County. After grad- 
uating from Cornell University in 1870, he 
became a reporter on the New York Tribune. 
Two years later, at the height of the con- 
troversy over the source of the Mississippi 
River, he explored its headwaters and dis- 
covered Elk Lake and the connecting stream 
which bears his name. Returning to New 
York he contrived to have himself com- 
mitted to the Bloomingdale Asylum; gaining 
his release after ten days, he published dis- 
closures which resulted in the liberation of 
twelve sane persons and a revision of New 
York's lunacy laws. In 1873 he joined the 
staff of the New York Herald, serving as 
correspondent in various parts of the world; 
he became managing editor in 1886, and 
the following year he launched the Paris 
Herald. He was managing editor of the 
New York World, 1889-91. His remaining 
years were spent in travel and writing. 
A Mad World and Its Inhabitants, London, 

On a Margin . . . , New York, 1884. 
Lovers Four and Maidens Five . . . , Phila- 
delphia, 1886. 
"In Sargasso" . . . , New York, 1896. 
A Woman's Mistake, London, 1896. 
The Rascal Club, London, [1897]. 
The Destiny of Doris . . . , New York, 

The Mississippi River and Its Wonderful 

Valley . . . , New York, 1910. 
The Book of New York; Forty Years' Recol- 
lections . . . , New York, [1912]. 
News Hunting on Three Continents, New 
York, 1921. 

26, 1899- ), educator, was born in Knox 
County. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan 
University in 1922 and Ohio State Univer- 
sity (Ph.D.) in 1931. He has operated La- 
fayette Farms, Mt. Vernon, since 1951. 

He has edited or written a variety of books 
and bibliographies pertaining to education, 
e.g., "Every Man a Brick!" The Status of 
Military Training in American Universities, 
Bloomington, 111., [1927]. WW 30 


(Feb. 6, 1850-Oct. 13, 1922), was born 
in Springfield, Clark County. She graduated 
from Vassar College in 1869. In her later 
years she chose to forget that she had 
written the once very popular "Vassar Girls" 
series, yet today the name of "Lizzie" 
Champney is remembered only as the author 
of that landmark in American juvenile lit- 
erature. In 1873 she married the distin- 
guished painter James Wells Champney, 
who illustrated many of her books. Her 
death occurred in Seattle, Wash. 
In the Sky Garden, Boston, 1877. 
All around a Palette, Boston, 1878. 
Bourbon Lilies, Boston, 1878. 
Entertainments, Boston, [1879]. 
Rosemary and Rue, Boston, 1881. 
Three Vassar Girls Abroad, Boston, 1883. 
Three Vassar Girls in England, Boston, 

Three Vassar Girls in Italy, Boston, 1885. 
Three Vassar Girls in South America, Bos- 
ton, 1885. 
Great Grandmother's Girls in New France, 

Boston, [1887]. 
Three Vassar Girls in Tyrol, Boston, 1887. 
Three Vassar Girls on the Rhine, Boston, 

Great Grandmother's Girls in New Mexico, 

Boston, [1888]. 
Three Vassar Girls at Home, Boston, 1888. 
Three Vassar Girls in France, Boston, 

Three Vassar Girls in Russia and Turkey, 

Boston, [1889]. 
Witch Winnie; The Story of a "King's 

Daughter," New York, [1889]. 
Three Vassar Girls in Switzerland, Boston, 

Witch Winnie's Mystery, New York, [1891]. 
Three Vassar Girls in the Holy Land, Bos- 
ton, [1892]. 
Witch Winnie's Studio, New York, [1892]. 
Six Boys, Boston, [1893]. 
Witch Winnie in Paris, New York, [1893]. 
Witch Winnie in Shinnecock, New York, 

Paddv O'Lenrey and His Learned Pig, New 

York, 1895.' 
Witch Winnie at Versailles, New York, 

Witch Winnie in Holland, New York, 1896. 
Pierre and His Poodle. New York, 1897. 
Witch Winnie in Venice, New York, 1897. 
Witch Winnie in Spain, New York, 1898. 



Patience, a Daughter of the Mayflower, New 
York, 1899. 

Anneke; A Little Dame of New Nether- 
lands, New York, 1900. 

The Romance of the Feudal Chateaux, New 
York, 1900. 

A Daughter of the Huguenots, New York, 

Romance of the Renaissance Chateaux, New 
York, 1901. 

Margarita; A Legend of the Fight for the 
Great River, New York, 1902. 

Romance of the Bourbon Chateaux, New 
York, 1903. 

Romance of the French Abbeys, New York, 

Romance of the Italian Villas, New York, 

Romance of the Roman Villas, New York, 

Romance of Imperial Rome, New York, 

Romance of Old Belgium, (with Frere 
Champney), New York, 1915. 

Romance of Old Japan, (with Frere Champ- 
ney), New York, 1917. 

Romance of Russia, (with Frere Champ- 
ney), New York, 1921. 


(Sept. 25, 1867- ), educator, was born 
in Dayton, Montgomery County. He grad- 
uated from Amherst College in 1889. After 
teaching in high schools in the East, he 
joined the faculty of the College of Wooster 
in 1914. In 1927 he became professor of 
economics at Xavier University, Cincinnati. 
His residence in 1960 was a rest home in 
Wooster. The author of many textbooks, he 
also wrote a notorious attack on President 
Harding's ancestry: Warren Gamaliel Hard- 
ing, President of the United States. A Re- 
view of Facts Collected from Anthropo- 
logical, Historical and Political Researches, 
[Wooster, 1922]. A less dubious claim to 
remembrance is the book Our Presidents 
and Their Office . . . , New York, 1912. 
WW 26 

25, 1884-March 22, 1957), educator, born 
in Norwich, Conn., was a member of the 
Ohio State University philosophy depart- 
ment, 1914-51. He graduated from Dart- 
mouth in 1908 and from Harvard (Ph.D.) 
in 1913. He died in Worthington. He edited 
an anthology, published a bibliography on 
esthetics, and a book entitled Rosenberg's 
Nazi Myth, Ithaca, N. Y., 1945. WW 27 

24, 1878-May 18, 1939), army officer, was 

born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. He 
served in the U. S. Army, 1898-1920, and 
was chief of the balloon section of the Air 
Service in France during World War I. 
In addition to several technical books and 
manuals, a book written with Frank P. 
Lahm was published posthumously: How 
Our Army Grew Wings; Airmen and Air- 
craft before 1914, New York, [1943]. 
WWW 1 

16, 1873-June 13, 1947), educator, was 
born in Brooklyn, N. Y. He graduated from 
Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute in 1891 
and Columbia University (Ph.D.) in 1899. 
In 1910 he became professor of English 
and comparative literature at the University 
of Cincinnati. He retired in 1943. Besides 
a number of textbooks he wrote several 
critical studies, e.g., Modern Continental 
Playwrights, New York, 1931. WWW 2 


(Dec. 23, 1872-March 23, 1953), was born 
in Chandlerville, 111. She spent part of her 
girlhood in Cleveland, and after her mar- 
riage to Stanley Tucker she lived in Wil- 
loughby. Under the name Gertrude Lee 
she published at least three collections of 
verse, e.g., Scattered Gems, Boston, [1930]. 

1818-Dec. 23, 1901), nephew of the founder 
of American Unitarianism, lived for a brief 
period in Cincinnati, where his uncle, James 
H. Perkins (q.v.), was a Unitarian minister. 
After deciding to discontinue his Harvard 
course of study, Channing went to Illinois 
in 1839, where he lived in a log hut for a 
time. He then went to Cincinnati, where he 
read law and wrote for the Gazette. He 
left in 1842 to settle in Concord, Mass., so 
that he could be near Emerson. Channing 
was a prolific and undisciplined poet. His 
best-known work is probably Thoreau, the 
Poet-Naturalist, Boston, 1873. 

1810-Dec. 23, 1884), Unitarian minister, 
served as pastor of a Unitarian church in 
Cincinnati from 1839 to 1841. During the 
same period he edited the Western Messen- 
ger. A fairly prolific writer, he is best known 
for a three-volume biography of his uncle, 
William Ellery Channing: The Life of Wil- 
liam Ellery Channing, Boston, 1848. 

CHAPIN, HENRY DWIGHT (Feb. 4, 1857- 
June 27, 1942), physician and educator, 
was born in Steubenville, Jefferson County. 
He graduated from Princeton University in 

Chapman, E. S. 


1877 and the New York College of Phy- 
sicians and Surgeons in 1881. He practiced 
in New York City and taught at the New 
York Post-Graduate Medical School and 
hospital. Besides his well-known Diseases 
of Infants and Children and other profes- 
sional works, he wrote several books for 
popular consumption. His death occurred 
in Bronxville, N. Y. 
Diphtheria, [New York, 1890]. 
Vital Questions, New York, [1905]. 
Health First, the Fine Art of Living, New 

York, 1917. 
Heredity and Child Culture, New York, 


CHAPMAN, ERVIN S. (June 23, 1838-Aug. 
30, 1921). clergyman, was born in Defiance 
County. He entered the United Brethren 
ministry in 1870 and transferred to the 
Presbyterian Church in 1883; he served as 
a pastor in Ohio, Wyoming, and California. 
An active temperance advocate, he wrote 
many articles against liquor and Latest 
Light on Abraham Lincoln, and War-Time 
Memories . . . , New York, [1917]. WWW 1 

CHAPMAN, LEE JACKSON (Dec. 22, 1867- 
Feb. 14, 1953), physician, was born in cen- 
tral Texas and was named for Confederate 
generals. He studied at Lebanon University 
and Starling Medical College, Ohio State 
University. He lived and practiced in Co- 
lumbus and in Lancaster. After losing his 
sight in a blasting accident in 1925, he be- 
gan writing poems, a collection of which 
was published privately: Human Sunshine, 
Lancaster, 1930. 

1875-Oct. 27, 1923), writer and lecturer, 
daughter of Mary Wood-Allen (q.v.), was 
born in Lakeside, Ottawa County. She was 
active in the W.C.T.U. and in the American 
Social Hygiene Association. She lectured 
widely and wrote several books on child 
training, e.g., The Moral Problem of the 
Children, New York, [1911]. WWW 1 

CHARLES, JOAN. Pseud. See Charlotte W. 

27, 1905- ), was born in Greenville, Darke 
County. She attended public schools in 
Greenville and graduated from Asbury Col- 
lege, Wilmore, Ky. She has published a 
novel, Rain on the Roof, Philadelphia, 


(May 6, 1865-June 28, 1949), was born in 

Cincinnati, Hamilton County. After grad- 
uating from Smith College in 1886, she was 
a tutor in Latin and Greek at Milton Acad- 
emy. After marrying Robert S. Anderson, 
an artist, she made her home in Boston. Be- 
sides the titles below, she wrote several 

Three Freshmen; Ruth, Fran, and Nathalie, 
Boston, 1898. 

Mayken; A Child's Story of the Nether- 
lands in the Sixteenth Century, Chicago, 

A Daughter of the Revolution, Boston, 

Chan's Wife; A Story, Boston, 1919. 

The Story of Paul Revere, Junior; Revolu- 
tionary Days in Old Boston, Boston, 

CHASE, JOHN A. (c.l828-May 13, 1907), 
lawyer, was born in Trenton, Mich. Dur- 
ing the Civil War he raised ten companies 
for service and was colonel of the 14th 
O.V.I. He afterward practiced law in To- 
ledo, and his death occurred in that city. 
History of the Fourteenth Ohio Regiment 
. . . , Toledo, 1881. 

CHASE, PHILANDER (Dec. 14, 1775- 
Sept. 20, 1852), the first bishop of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in Ohio 
and, later on, in Illinois, founder of Ken- 
yon College at Gambier, was born at Corn- 
ish, N. H., as the fifteenth child of a Con- 
gregational family. While studying at 
Dartmouth College (1791-96), he joined 
the Episcopal Church. After graduation, 
a year and a half of theological study under 
an Anglican clergyman equipped him with 
what was considered sufficient for ordina- 
tion in those days; already married since 
1796, he was ordained deacon in 1798 
and priest in 1799. An enthusiastic mis- 
sionary all through his life, he started his 
career with missions work in upper New 
York State. After having been rector in 
Poughkeepsie, N. Y. (1799-1805), New 
Orleans (1805-11), and Hartford, Conn. 
(1811-17), he came to Ohio in 1817 as 
one of the first missionaries of his church to 
minister to a sparse population of Episco- 
palians. His feverish and adventurous activity 
in preaching and organizing parishes in widely 
scattered places all over the new state made 
him conspicuous at once among the few 
clergymen in Ohio, and in 1818 he was 
elected bishop of the newly established 
diocese. The task of organizing the diocese 
in a half-wilderness which had just been 
opened up to settlement, with new settlers 
coming in great numbers, appealed to his 
pioneer instincts. Strong in will and body; 


Chase, P. 

unafraid of any kind of work, whether 
clerical, manual, or agricultural; enjoying 
hardships rather than avoiding them; en- 
tirely free of fear and unshakable in his 
belief in God's providence, he defied the 
difficulties of his missionary work. Since no 
salary was connected with his position as 
a bishop, he made a living by running a 
farm at Worthington, sometimes without 
help, and for one year (1821-22) by di- 
recting Cincinnati College as its president. 
At the same time he provided, off and on, 
the parishes at Delaware, Berkshire, Worth- 
ington, and Columbus with his ministrations, 
and traveled widely on horseback over the 
state in his episcopal visitations. The de- 
velopment of the diocese depended on ad- 
ditions to its clerical personnel. Disappointed 
in his expectations of receiving missionary 
help from the East, Chase conceived the 
plan of educating his own clergy in a 
school to be established within the diocese. 
Ohio was too poor to finance his plan and 
solicitations in the East did not help; Chase, 
an enterprising and untiring traveler, went 
to England in 1823 to collect money for his 
plan. The idea met with strong disap- 
proval and active opposition, even from the 
American episcopate. Chase nevertheless 
succeeded in finding sponsors among the 
English nobility and moneyed church peo- 
ple. The idealistic sincerity of his appeal 
and the unceasing flow of his eloquence, 
combined with a shrewd utilization of per- 
sonal contacts as soon as they were es- 
tablished, brought him the considerable re- 
sult of about $30,000, enough to make at 
least a start. Meanwhile, his plan for a 
theological seminary, for which there were 
no satisfactorily prepared candidates in 
the Middle West, had broadened into the 
idea of an institution able to give prepara- 
tory education, as well as theological train- 
ing. Originally incorporated in 1824 as the 
Theological Seminary of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in Ohio and beginning 
its activities at Chase's farm at Worthing- 
ton, the school developed quickly into a 
grammar school and college in which theo- 
logical training played only a minor part. 
In 1826, Chase found a location which 
he considered ideal: a hill in the wilderness, 
five miles from Mt. Vernon; a "retreat of 
virtue in seclusion from the vices of the 
World." There he built his school, named 
Kenyon College for his foremost English 
benefactor, and founded a village which he 
gave the name of another English sponsor, 
Lord Gambier. Old Kenyon, the oldest hall 
of the college and the first attempt at Col- 
legiate Gothic in America, was built in 
1827-29. It was destroyed by fire in 1949 

and has since been rebuilt. For a few years, 
Chase ruled his college on the strict prin- 
ciples of what he called "patriarchal" gov- 
ernment, largely with the assistance of his 
efficient second wife, Sophia Ingraham 
Chase. She and a few other members of 
the family were the only collaborators who 
ever possessed his full confidence. A born 
autocrat, compared by one of his biogra- 
phers to Wellington and Czar Nicholas of 
Russia, Chase alienated both his college 
faculty and the diocesan clergy and laity 
by his domineering ways and his lack of 
regard for other people's feelings. He de- 
manded unqualified submission to his will 
from everybody. In 1831, in consequence 
of a "conspiracy," he rashly resigned his 
episcopacy and retired to a farm in Michi- 
gan. Four years later, he accepted the elec- 
tion as bishop of the new diocese of Illinois, 
where he spent the rest of his life doing 
once more what he had done in his Ohio 
years: preaching, organizing, traveling, but 
on an even larger scale; he even begged 
another diocesan school (Jubilee College, 
near Peoria: founded 1838, now extinct). 
In 1843, he succeeded, by seniority, to the 
position of Presiding Bishop of the Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church. Generally respected 
rather than beloved, he died by an accident 
at Jubilee College on Sept. 20, 1852. The 
Church, both in Ohio and in Illinois, owes 
much to his vision and energy. He was en- 
tirely unselfish and capable of great sacrifice; 
his whole life was devoutly dedicated to 
what he considered God's will, which, how- 
ever, as forceful characters of his type will 
do, he occasionally identified with his own 
intentions. It remains true for the whole of 
his career that, as his parishioners at 
Hartford stated in 1818: "His zeal may 
sometimes have transcended the limits of 
prudence." As a monument to Chase, the 
Chase Tower, in which a series of stained- 
glass windows by J. C. Connick presents 
his life story in a most original style, was 
erected at Kenyon College in 1927. Chase's 
literary activity was subordinated to his 
missionary and educational aims. Besides 
his utterances in official capacity — episcopal 
addresses and pastoral letters — he published 
some sermons, and numerous appeals, 
broadsides, and pamphlets for his cause. 
This material is partly polemical in char- 
acter and not always pleasant. Often the 
good intentions of the fund-raiser and the 
controversialist get the better of a due sense 
of proportion. In 1841-44 Chase published 
his only large work, the Reminiscences 
(Seven issues: 1-4, Peoria, 1841-42; 5-7, 
New York, 1843-44). A second, enlarged, 
edition in two volumes appeared in Boston 

Chase, S. P. 


in 1848. Describing life in New England 
before 1800, in New Orleans at the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century, in Ohio and 
Illinois between 1817 and 1848, the book 
will retain a certain value as a source; some 
chapters give vivid pictures of genuine ad- 
venture. For the most part, however, the 
unctuous and flowery style, the frequent 
stress on the author's "sufferings" and un- 
measured breadth, make the work hard 
reading even as a period piece. For long 
stretches, the narrative is interrupted by a 
printed file of Chase's enormous corre- 
spondence, with little discrimination be- 
tween wheat and chaff. The Motto, a journal 
which Chase published and, for the greater 
part, wrote himself in his last years at 
Jubilee College (1847-52), is a miscellany 
of tracts, correspondence, diocesan notes, 
and polemics. 

R. G. Salomon 
The Star in the West, or Kenyon College 

. . . , [Columbus?, 1828]. 
Bishop Chase's Defence of Himself against 
the Late Conspiracy at Gambler . . . , 
[Steubenville, 1831]. 
Defence of Kenyon College, Columbus, 

The Reminiscences of Bishop Chase . . . , 

New York, 1844. 
Bishop Chase's Defence against the Slan- 
ders of the Rev. G. M. West, [n.p., n.d.]. 

1808-May 7, 1873), lawyer and statesman, 
was born in Cornish, N. H. In 1820, with 
his brother and H. H. Schoolcraft, he came 
to Ohio. He spent three years in Worthing- 
ton and Cincinnati, living with his uncle, 
Philander Chase (q.v.). In 1823, he en- 
tered Dartmouth and later read law in 
Washington, D. C, with William Wirt. In 
1830, he returned to Cincinnati to practice 
and soon acquired a reputation as an anti- 
slavery man. His Statutes of Ohio was a 
milestone in the development of Ohio law. 
The Sketch listed below was originally pub- 
lished as an introduction to the first volume 
of the larger work. Chase was elected to 
the Senate in 1849; he also served for a 
time as Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury 
and as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 
during the Reconstruction period. Many of 
his political speeches and letters were pub- 
lished separately. 

A Sketch of the History of Ohio, Cincin- 
nati, 1833. 
Statutes of Ohio, 3 vols., Cincinnati, 1833— 

CHEFFEY, JESSIE ANN (July 24, 1895- 
), nurse, born in Waterford, Washing- 

ton County, still lives in that community. 
A graduate of Washington County Normal 
School and the Chautauqua School of Nurs- 
ing, she has taught in elementary schools 
and done private nursing. Her poems have 
appeared in many periodicals and anthol- 
ogies, and she has published a collection: 
Jewels by the Wayside, New York, [1942]. 

CHENEY, FRANK J. (March 16, 1851-Oct. 
30, 1919), who was born in Conneaut, 
Ashtabula County, was president of the 
Cheney Medicine Co., Toledo, and lived in 
that city for many years before his death. 
He published two collections of stories, 
e.g., A Life of Unity and Other Stories, To- 
ledo, 1901. 

24, 1877-March 13, 1950), editor and 
temperance advocate, was born in Hamden, 
Vinton County. A graduate of Ohio Wes- 
leyan University in 1897, he was active in 
the Anti-Saloon League and worked on 
newspapers in various cities. At the time of 
his death he lived in Westerville. His writ- 
ings, all relating to the temperance move- 
ment, include The Evolution of Prohibition 
. . . , Westerville, [1920]. WWW 2 

1848-April 11, 1937), was born in Neshanic, 
N. J.; his parents moved to Sharon, Medina 
County, in 1856. A lifelong cripple, he was 
driving a stage between Akron and Cleve- 
land at the age of twelve. He taught school 
in Wadsworth Township and edited the 
Sharon Tidal Wave, the Young Folks' Gem, 
and other papers. In 1880 he moved to 
Akron, where he worked in the offices of 
B. F. Goodrich Co. for many years. He was 
deeply interested in local history and ar- 
chaeology and published articles on those 
subjects, in addition to the titles below. 
The Grave-Creek Mound . . . , Wadsworth, 

Curious Stones from the Stone Age, Wads- 
worth, 1878. 
The Portage Path, Akron, 1911. 
The Western Reserve and Early Ohio, Ak- 
ron, 1921. 


(April 4, 1892-Dec. 24, 1954), army of- 
ficer, was born in London, Madison 
County. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan 
University and from the Washington Col- 
lege of Law. He served in the army in both 
World Wars and retired as a colonel in 
1951. During World War II he was an 
aide to Gen. Lucius D. Clay. He also served 
on the Federal Reserve Board. His death 
occurred in Corona, Calif. He contributed 



a number of military papers to professional 
publications and published Ohio in the Rain- 
bow: Official Story of the 166th Infantry, 
42nd Division, in the World War, Colum- 
bus, 1924. 

CHESLEY, MARTIN. Pseud. See Chesley M. 

20, 1858-Nov. 15, 1932), novelist, was born 
in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, the year 
after the Dred Scott decision and the year be- 
fore the South made its last aggressive at- 
tempt to reopen the slave trade. It was a 
period of mounting national tension and 
the tension was to strike deeply into the 
imagination of the growing boy. While 
Charles was still an infant, the family 
moved for a short time to Oberlin, then 
an important station in the Underground 
Railroad. His father participated in the fa- 
mous Oberlin-Wellington Rescue and, when 
the Civil War broke out, enlisted in the 
Union Army and served throughout the 
war. Long after, Chesnutt was to recall 
these formative years and to realize how 
they had impressed him and molded his 
character and career. He was to relate to 
his family how he had listened with awe to 
the singing of the new "Battle Hymn of 
the Republic." The vision of the Lord 
trampling out the vintage from the "grapes 
of wrath" was a vision of reality and eter- 
nal justice. He was to recall, too, holding 
his mother's hand and, with thousands of 
other Cleveland citizens, filing in deep si- 
lence past the bier of the martyred Presi- 
dent lying in state in Cleveland's Public 
Square. Child though he was, he somehow 
caught the emanation of greatness and was 
moved and influenced by it. The year after 
the close of the Civil War, the Chesnutt 
family returned to their home in Fayette- 
ville, N. C, which they had left a decade 
earlier in their search for a fuller life in 
the North. Here Charles attended the How- 
ard School, at fourteen became a pupil- 
teacher, and at sixteen went to Charlotte as 
a regular teacher. In the summer, teaching 
in small ungraded country schools, he was 
moved with compassion as daily he faced 
his little group of ignorant but poignantly 
eager children. Young Chesnutt started a 
journal in which he recorded the intimate 
details of his life. Intent on his own educa- 
tion, he devoured history and biography, 
read the English classics, memorized vast 
amounts of poetry, gave himself a course 
in higher mathematics, and, entirely by 
himself, learned Latin. French, and Ger- 
man. Fortunately for him, a noted language 

teacher, Professor Neufeld, had come to 
Fayetteville to hold classes in French and 
German for those wealthy enough to take 
advantage of such opportunity. Neufeld, a 
German Jew by birth and a former student 
of T. H. Huxley, consented to give Ches- 
nutt private lessons although friends had 
warned him that, in doing so, he would 
lose some of his white pupils. Chesnutt 
wrote in his journal: "A fellow-feeling 
makes us wondrous kind," for Neufeld had 
declared that he was "quite able to lose 
twenty pupils without experiencing any in- 
convenience." Neufeld, impressed by young 
Chesnutt's obvious zeal and accomplish- 
ments, "broke the color line"; Chesnutt, in 
turn, with such expert help made French 
and German an integral part of his equip- 
ment as a writer and student of society. At 
nineteen Chesnutt was appointed assistant 
principal of the New Fayetteville State 
Normal School, established to train teach- 
ers for the colored schools. Three years 
later he became its principal. Alone with 
his journal in the evenings, Chesnutt poured 
out his inmost thoughts and aspirations: 
"I think I must write a book. If I do write 
I shall write for a purpose, a high, holy 
purpose, and this will inspire me to greater 
effort. The object of my writing would not 
be so much the elevation of the colored 
people, as the elevation of the whites — for 
I consider the unjust spirit of caste which 
is so insidious as to pervade a whole na- 
tion, and so powerful as to subject a whole 
race to scorn and social ostracism — I con- 
sider this a barrier to the moral progress 
of the American people." In 1878, Chesnutt 
married. Two daughters were born of the 
union. Considering their future as well as 
his own, Chesnutt wrote in the spring of 
1882: "I shudder to think of exposing my 
children to the social and intellectual pro- 
scription to which I have been a victim." 
To escape these circumstances, he needed 
a means of support. He set himself to mas- 
ter stenography, the art which held the 
promise of independence for him and his 
family. He studied and practiced assidu- 
ously, calling upon his wife for dictation 
until, as he relates in his journal, he al- 
most worried Susan into a "positive dislike" 
for him. By the following spring Chesnutt 
had succeeded. He could write two hundred 
words a minute. To the regret of all his 
friends and associates, he left Fayetteville 
for New York City. He found work as a 
reporter for a Wall Street news agency and 
later wrote a daily column called "Wall 
Street Gossip" for the New York Mail and 
Express. His real opportunity, however, 
came some months later in Cleveland, the 



city of his birth, where in the law office of 
Judge Samuel E. Williamson, he worked as 
a stenographer and studied law. Established 
now, Chesnutt sent for his family, settled 
them in a comfortable home, and began 
to write in earnest. The Atlantic Monthly 
published the first of his "conjure" stories 
in 1887. In the same year he was admitted 
to the Ohio bar, standing at the head of his 
class. In 1890 he set up in business as a 
court reporter, a business which he fol- 
lowed for the rest of his life. During the 
decade of the 1890s he spent all his spare 
time in writing. In 1900 and 1901, he even 
closed his business office in order that noth- 
ing might stand between him and his am- 
bition to bridge the race problem, to make 
some contribution to what Myrdal was to 
describe later as The American Dilemma. 
Chesnutt's contribution was at once simple 
and profound. He wrote about Negroes as 
human beings, as persons, not as types or 
subtypes. This was indeed a new departure 
in literature, for no white writer had done 
this and the colored race in this country 
had, as yet, no recognized literary spokes- 
man. Chesnutt was fortunate in having 
Houghton, Mifflin and Company as his 
publishers. The members of the firm were 
deeply interested in the "Negro problem." 
Walter Hines Page, literary adviser for the 
firm and editor of the Atlantic Monthly, 
approved Chesnutt's approach to the prob- 
lem and greatly admired his literary skill 
and art in presenting it. They became warm 
friends. The year 1899 was outstanding for 
Chesnutt. Two volumes of his short stories 
were published by Houghton, Mifflin and 
Company. The Conjure Woman, published 
in March, is a collection of stories in Negro 
dialect told by "Uncle Julius." They are 
simple, moving tales about the days of 
slavery and the activities of old Aunt Peggy, 
the plantation conjure woman. This book, 
widely acclaimed, headed the list of best- 
sellers in Cleveland during the month of 
April. The Rowfant Club, of which Ches- 
nutt later became a member, persuaded 
Houghton, Mifflin to issue a special num- 
bered edition of 150 copies for which mem- 
bers of the club and of the Cleveland bar 
subscribed. The Wife of his Youth and 
Other Stories of the Color Line, published 
in Dec, 1899, contains stories about 
people of mixed blood living mainly in the 
North. Chesnutt's aim in these stories was 
to put understanding and tenderness for the 
Negro into the hearts of his readers. Two 
of the greatest literary critics of the period 
wrote essays about these books: Hamilton 
Wright Mabie, in the Outlook of Feb. 24, 
1900, and William Dean Howells, in the 

Atlantic Monthly of May, 1900. Both of 
these critics placed Chesnutt in the top 
rank of American short story writers. In 
this same year, Chesnutt wrote a biography 
of the great abolitionist Frederick Douglass 
for the series called The Beacon Biographies 
of Eminent Americans, published by Small, 
Maynard and Company of Boston. The En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica lists this as one of 
the standard works on the life of Douglass. 
The House behind the Cedars, Chesnutt's 
most popular novel, was published in Oct., 
1900. This is a love story, romantic 
and tragic, touching upon the theme of in- 
termarriage, which up to that time had been 
considered untouchable in American litera- 
ture. It was called by the critics "the most 
notable novel of the month," and had gone 
into its fourth printing by April, 1901. The 
Marrow of Tradition was published in 
Oct., 1901, just after Theodore Roosevelt 
had invited Booker T. Washington to din- 
ner at the White House to discuss the 
Negro problem and its bearing on the po- 
litical situation. This act by the President 
aroused great indignation in the South and 
produced an avalanche of bitter condemna- 
tion of Roosevelt and his policy of "social 
equality." This novel, written at white heat 
after a visit to the South, presents for the 
first time in American literature the con- 
flict between the white leaders of the South 
and the educated, cultured colored people 
there. The story is told with extraordinary 
skill and with great dramatic power. The 
Northern papers expressed unqualified praise 
for it; the critics acclaimed it as the most 
important book on the Negro since Uncle 
Tom's Cabin; but the Southern press de- 
nounced it as a bitter and libelous attack 
upon the white people in their relations 
with the Negro. It was an acknowledged 
literary success and was rated by the Out- 
look among the twenty-five books of the 
year. But the South had gained a hearing 
in the North and, to the astonishment and 
bitter disappointment of Chesnutt and his 
publishers, The Marrow of Tradition was 
not the financial success that they had ex- 
pected. Chesnutt's last book, The Colonel's 
Dream, was published by Doubleday, Page 
and Company in Sept., 1905, and was 
issued in England by Archibald Constable 
and Company. This was written with the 
avowed purpose of exposing peonage and 
the convict lease system which were mak- 
ing the lives of the Negro masses far more 
wretched than in the days of slavery. Many 
people thought it his best book and gave it 
great praise, but America was tired of read- 
ing about the wrongs done to the Negro, 
and it was not as popular as his other 



books. The Southern press, as usual, de- 
nounced it bitterly and claimed that his 
stories of cruelty and injustice to the Negro 
were not only "false but impossible!" In 
Dec. 1905, Colonel George Harvey, pres- 
ident of Harper and Brothers, invited 
Chesnutt along with one hundred and fifty 
of America's most distinguished writers of 
imaginative literature to attend Mark 
Twain's seventieth birthday party at Del- 
monico's in New York City. This party, 
proclaimed as one of the most important 
events in the history of American litera- 
ture, was considered by Chesnutt as the 
peak of his literary career. His days as a 
novelist and writer of short stories were 
practically over by then. He had thoroughly 
alienated the greater part of the white read- 
ing public by his outspoken stand for rec- 
ognition of the Negro as a human being 
and an American citizen, and by his de- 
mand for civil rights and equality of op- 
portunity. Once again, business and civic 
matters claimed his full time. In Cleveland 
and throughout the country, Chesnutt was 
recognized as the champion of the Negro. 
As president of the Council of Sociology 
(from which organization the Cleveland 
Welfare Federation was developed) and as 
a member of the Cleveland Chamber of 
Commerce, his opportunities to work for 
the advancement of the Negro were, of 
course, greatly increased. He wrote many 
articles and lectured frequently in various 
cities on the problems of the colored citi- 
zens of our country. In 1928 he was 
awarded the Spingarn Medal for his "pio- 
neer work as a literary artist depicting the 
life and struggles of Americans of Negro 
descent, and for his long and useful career 
as scholar, worker, and freeman of one of 
America's greatest cities." 

Helen M. Chesnutt 
The Conjure Woman, Boston, 1899. 
Frederick Douglass, Boston, 1899. 
The Wife of His Youth, and Other Stories 

of the Color Line, Boston. 1899. 
The House behind the Cedars, Boston, 1900. 
The Marrow of Tradition, Boston, 1901. 
The Colonel's Dream, New York, 1905. 

Feb. 26, 1924), was born in Ohio (ac- 
cording to one account, his birthplace was 
in Cincinnati, Hamilton County). Although 
he achieved considerable celebrity, few 
specific details regarding his early life are 
available. He left home at an early age and 
worked at various jobs throughout the coun- 
try. He was a reporter on the Detroit News 
for several years before returning to Cin- 

cinnati, where he worked on the Enquirer, 
1901-08. "The Strike Breaker," a story in 
McClure's, was his first work to attract na- 
tional attention. He wrote stories for Cos- 
mopolitan and other national magazines 
and also worked for various motion-pic- 
ture companies as a writer and director. 
His best-known work was Get-Rich-Quick 
Walling ford, New York, [1908], which was 
also the basis of a play by George M. 
Cohan. Chester died in New York City and 
is buried in Cincinnati. DAB 4 


13, 1913- ), labor union official, was 
born in Montreal, Canada. After graduat- 
ing from the University of Michigan in 
1934, he was an official of the Mine, Mill 
and Smelter Workers, C.I.O., in Toledo 
until 1946. He resigned to take a position 
with the Moving Picture Association of 
America, which he resigned in 1951 to 
study law. He has written pamphlets and 
magazine articles on labor questions and a 
book: Constructive Collective Bargaining, 
New York, 1947. WWL 


14, 1 8 1 1-July 14, 1892), clergyman, was 
born in Bala, Wales. In 1821 his parents 
emigrated to Delaware County, where the 
boy received his primary education in a 
log schoolhouse; he later attended Philan- 
der Chase's academy at Worthington. He 
graduated from Miami University in 1833. 
Ordained by the Presbytery of Oxford in 
1835, he settled over a Welsh Congrega- 
tional Church at Paddy's Run, Butler 
County, where he preached and taught in 
Welsh and English, 1836-43. He was em- 
ployed by the American Sunday School 
Union in Cincinnati; during this associa- 
tion, which was continued for many years, 
he established many Sunday schools. While 
on a visit to Wales in 1840, he published 
an account in Welsh of his trip from Ohio, 
a history of the Welsh settlements in Amer- 
ica, and advice to those about to emigrate 
to the United States. During the Civil War 
he served for a time as chaplain of the 
39th O.V.I. His autobiography contains a 
splendid account of his early days in Ohio. 
He died in Wales while visiting his birth- 

Yr American, Yr Hwn Sydd yn Cynnwys 
Nodau ar Daith o Ddyffryn Ohio 1 
Gymru, Golwg ar Dalaeth Ohio; Hanes 
Sefydliadau Cymreig yn America; Cyfar- 
wyddiadau I Ymofynwyr Cyn y Daith, 
ac yn y Wlad, Llanrwst, Wales, 1840. 

The Story of My Life, Philadelphia, [1890]. 

Chipman, H. G. 


CHIPMAN, H. G. (1827-1852), journalist, 
was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 
He began his literary career by writing for 
the Great West. He served as a volunteer 
in the Mexican War, and after his return 
he published a series of sketches that were 
extensively copied and highly commended. 
Other series, published in the Enquirer and 
the Commercial, also attracted considerable 
attention. He worked as a printer, and in 
1850 was one of the proprietors and edi- 
tors of the Nonpareil. 
Lilly of Senora, Cincinnati, 1849. 

1838-Feb. 1, 1924), lawyer and judge, was 
born in Milford, Clermont County. After 
graduating from Cincinnati Law School in 
1859, he practiced in Iowa. He served 
throughout the Civil War, rising to the 
rank of brigadier general. From 1871 to 
1875 he was delegate to Congress from the 
District of Columbia; many of his speeches 
in the House were printed as pamphlets. In 
1875 he went to California, where he be- 
came presiding justice of the District Court 
of Appeals, San Francisco. As president of 
the California Board of Trade, he wrote 
articles and pamphlets on the industries and 
resources of the state. 
The Horrors of Andersonville Rebel Prison 

. . . , San Francisco, 1891. 
The Tragedy of Andersonville; Trial of 

Captain Henry Win, the Prison Keeper, 

[Sacramento?, Calif.], 1911. 

CHISHOLM, RELLE V. (Aug. 30, 1843-?), 
was born in Beaver County, Pa. In 1863 
she moved with her parents to New Con- 
cord, Muskingum County. She attended 
Muskingum College, and after teaching 
school for a time she married Dr. Isaac W. 
Chisholm of Zanesville. Besides the titles 
below, she published fiction in various pe- 

Who Wins? . . . , Philadelphia, 1888. 
In Search of a Home, Philadelphia, 1890. 
Stephen Lylc, Gentleman and Philanthro- 
pist, Cincinnati, 1891. 
Consecrated Anew . . . , Philadelphia, 

outfit was thrown into the Ohio River be- 
cause of his antislavery tendencies. In 1848 
he was appointed agent of the American 
Colonization Society and undertook to raise 
money to purchase a tract of land in Af- 
rica to be known as "Ohio in Africa" and 
to be used as a site for a free settlement 
for Negroes. He appeared before the Ohio 
Legislature in 1849, when that body was 
engaged in a hot debate over the repeal of 
the "Black Laws," which were designed to 
prevent the immigration of Negroes into 
Ohio. Christy delivered lectures on coloni- 
zation before the legislature which were 
later published as a pamphlet. His Lectures 
on African Colonization was republished in 
1857 as Ethiopia: Her Gloom and Glory. 
His most important work, Cotton Is King, 
which was published anonymously, was in- 
tended to convince abolitionists of the fail- 
ure of their efforts. It is said to have been 
consulted by Lincoln. Christy had a natural 
aptitude for science; he reported on geolog- 
ical observations in periodicals and for a 
time held a position with a mineral com- 

H. B. McConnell 
Letters on Geology . . . , Rossville, 1848. 
The Spirit Rappings, Mesmerism, Clair- 
voyance, and Psychometry . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1851. 
Republic of Liberia. Facts for Thinking 

Men . . . , [Cleveland], 1852. 
Lectures on African Colonization and Kin- 
dred Subjects, Columbus, 1853. 
Cotton Is King . . . , Cincinnati, 1855. 
The Southern Highlands, As Adapted to 
Pasturage and Grape Culture, Cincin- 
nati, 1858. 
Pulpit Politics; Or, Ecclesiastical Legisla- 
tion on Slavery, in Its Disturbing In- 
fluence on the American Union, Cincin- 
nati, 1862. 

CHRISTY, WILBUR A. (1845-1928), cler- 
gyman, was born in Kinsman, Trumbull 
County. He wrote at least two books on re- 
ligious themes, e.g., The Theory of Im- 
mersion Considered . . . , Louisville, Ky., 

CHRONIQUEUSE. Pseud. See Olive Logan. 

CHRISTY, DAVID (1802-?), journalist, was 
editor of the Harrison Telegraph, published 
in Cadiz, from 1824 until 1836. While in 
Cadiz, he edited the Historical Family Li- 
brary (1835-36) and began editing the five- 
volume Calvinistic Family Library (1835- 
44). After leaving Cadiz, he lived in Oxford 
for a time and then moved to Cincinnati, 
where, according to tradition, his printing 

CHUBB, EDWIN WATTS (Aug. 25, 1865- 
July 23, 1959), educator, was born in Leb- 
anon, Pa. He graduated from Lafayette 
College in 1887 and later studied at the 
University of Berlin. After teaching at 
Schuylkill Seminary, California State Nor- 
mal School, and Platteville State Normal 
School, he joined the faculty of Ohio Uni- 
versity in 1900. He taught English there, 


Clark, A. 

served as dean, and twice was acting presi- 
dent. Besides a number of textbooks, he 
wrote Stories of Authors, British and 
American, New York, 1910. WW 21 

CHURTON, HENRY. Pseud. See Albion W. 

CIRACI, NORMA (June 11, 1922- ), nov- 
elist, born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, 
attended public schools in that city. She at- 
tended Northwestern University, 1940-42, 
dropped out of school to work as a wait- 
ress, factory hand, and taxi driver, then re- 
turned to Northwestern and graduated in 
1945. The result of her experiences in Flor- 
ida and elsewhere was a vivid first novel: 
Detour, New York, 1947. 

CIST, CHARLES (April 24, 1793-Sept. 8, 
1868), born in Philadelphia, Pa., was the 
son of Charles Cist (1738-1805), a noted 
Philadelphia printer and publisher who, dur- 
ing the administration of John Adams, was 
the first public printer. The boy was edu- 
cated in Philadelphia. After the War of 
1812, he moved first to Pittsburgh and then 
to Harmony, Pa., where he operated a 
store and served as postmaster. He moved 
to Cincinnati in 1827. He compiled the Cin- 
cinnati directories of 1842 and 1843 and, 
in the latter year, established a family jour- 
nal, The Weekly Advertiser. Intensely in- 
terested in the early history of Ohio, he 
encouraged competent writers to submit au- 
thentic articles on the early history and sta- 
tistics of the state. With slight changes in 
its masthead, the Advertiser was continued 
until 1853. In Oct., 1845, he began pub- 
lishing the monthly Cincinnati Miscellany, 
in which appeared not only much of the 
best historical material which had been 
printed in the Advertiser but a number of 
new contributions, the most important of 
which was Colonel J. Johnston's superb se- 
rial, Recollections of the Last Sixty Years. 
The Miscellany was suspended with the is- 
sue of March, 1846. Cist's best-known 
works are his annals of Cincinnati: Cincin- 
nati in 1841; Sketches and Statistics of Cin- 
cinnati in 1851; and Sketches and Statistics 
of Cincinnati in 1859. In the first of these 
is a review of the early annals of the city 
drawn from contemporary newspapers and 
a full, graphic letter written by John Cleves 
Symmes to his partner, Jonathan Dayton, 
in 1789. Fortified with the priceless ma- 
terial which he had collected for the Ad- 
vertiser, he devoted over 150 pages of the 
issue of 1859 to the city's early annals, a 
most important supplement to his earlier 

account. Cist's works are invaluable sources. 
His death occurred in Cincinnati. 

Ernest J. Wessen 
Cincinnati in 1841: Its Early Annals and 

Future Prospects, Cincinnati, 1841. 
Sketches and Statistics of Cincinnati in 

1851, Cincinnati, 1851. 
Sketches and Statistics of Cincinnati in 

1859, [Cincinnati, 1859]. 

CIST, HENRY MARTYN (Feb. 20, 1838- 
Dec. 17, 1902), born in Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton County, was the son of Charles Cist 
(q.v.). He graduated from Farmers' Col- 
lege, Cincinnati, in 1858 and then studied 
law. In 1861 he enlisted as a private in the 
O.V.I. ; he saw much service and advanced 
through the ranks to the brevet of brigadier 
general. After the war he returned to the 
practice of law in Cincinnati and assumed 
the office of corresponding secretary of the 
Society of the Army of the Cumberland. He 
contributed many articles on the Civil War 
to periodicals and edited the reports of the 
Society of the Army of the Cumberland, 
which extended to seventeen volumes. His 
death occurred in Rome, Italy. 
The Army of the Cumberland. New York, 

The Romance of Shiloh, [Cincinnati, 1895?]. 

CIST, LEWIS JACOR (Nov. 30, 1818-March 
30, 1885), born in Harmony, Pa., was the 
eldest son of Charles Cist (q.v.). When he 
was nine years old, his parents moved to 
Cincinnati, where the boy attended school. 
After studying at Hanover College he was 
employed by the Commercial Bank of Cin- 
cinnati and later became teller of the Ohio 
Life and Trust Company. He was engaged 
in the banking business in St. Louis, 1850- 
70. In 1870 he returned to Cincinnati, 
where he spent the rest of his days. He was 
for many years secretary of the Cincinnati 
Zoological Gardens. Before going to St. 
Louis he wrote considerable verse, which 
appeared in the Western Monthly Review, 
the Hesperian, and his father's Weekly Ad- 
vertiser. He became widely known as a 
leading collector of autographs. In Amer- 
ica, his collection was excelled only by the 
great William E. Sprague collection. It was 
sold in New York in 1886 and 1887. 
Trifles in Verse; A Collection of Fugitive 
Poems, Cincinnati, 1845. 

CLAFLIN, TENNIE. Pseud. See Tennessee C. 
C. Cook. 

CLARK, ALEXANDER (March 10, 1834- 
July 6, 1879), clergyman, was born near 
Wellsville, Jefferson County. After teaching 

Clark, C. T. 


school for five years, he was ordained to 
the Methodist ministry in 1861, and served 
churches in Pennsylvania and Ohio. He be- 
came editor of the Methodist Recorder in 
1870. His death occurred in Atlanta, Ga., 
while he was making a Southern trip. 
The Old Log Schoolhouse . . . , Philadel- 
phia, 1859. 
The Red Sea Freedman, Philadelphia, 1864. 
The Gospel in the Trees . . . , Philadelphia, 

Memory's Tribute to the Life Character and 

Work of the Rev. T. H. Stockton, New 

York, 1869. 
Workaday Christianity . . . , New York, 

Starting Out: A Story of the Ohio Hills, 

Philadelphia, 1875. 
Summer Rambles in Europe, New York, 


1845-April 19, 1911), who was born in 
Dalton, Wayne County, served as a captain 
in the 125th O.V.I, from Sept., 1862, to 
Sept., 1865. Ryan described his book as 
"one of the best" regimental histories. Clark 
also lived in Trumbull County; his death 
occurred in Franklin County. 
Opdycke Tigers, 125th O.V.I. . . . , Colum- 
bus, 1895. 


(Aug. 10, 1829-Nov. 20, 1895), Confed- 
erate spy, lecturer, author, and newspaper- 
woman, was born in Danville, Va. Her 
father, Robert S. Moon, was one of "the 
Albemarle Moons" of Virginia. In the 
early 1830s, Robert Moon and his wife 
(Cynthia A. Sullivan) came to Oxford, 
Butler County, to live. At the age of five, 
their third child and eldest daughter, Cyn- 
thia Charlotte, was memorizing selections 
from the best English poets and studying 
the Latin language. Under the tutelage of 
her scholarly father, she became well 
grounded in languages, history, and litera- 
ture. As a young woman, "Lottie" Moon 
was not beautiful, but she was a dainty 
little sprite, with rosy cheeks, sparkling 
deep-set gray eyes, a wealth of soft brown 
hair, and beautiful hands. She was a bril- 
liant conversationalist, a wit, a superb 
mimic, an unconscionable flirt and prank- 
ster. One of her maddest pranks was the 
jilting of young Ambrose E. Burnside at 
the altar, in Brownsville, Ind. The patient 
Burnside, however, courted her until she 
married James Clark, a graduate of Miami 
University and the Cincinnati Law School. 
Charlotte Moon met her match in James 
Clark. On the evening of Jan. 30, 1849, he 

arrived at the Moon home determined not 
to suffer the fate of Burnside. When he met 
"Lottie" at the head of the stairs to go 
down to the parlor to be married, he pulled 
a small revolver from his pocket and whis- 
pered, "There will be a wedding here to- 
night or a funeral tomorrow." There was a 
wedding. The Clarks established their home 
at Jones Station, near Hamilton, the county 
seat of Butler County. James was a rising 
young attorney in Hamilton. On an inde- 
pendent ticket, he was elected judge of the 
common pleas court in 1855. In the ex- 
citing campaign of 1856, "Mrs. Judge 
Clark" organized the women of Butler 
County to take an active part in the cam- 
paign. With enthusiasm they made a silken 
banner to be offered as a prize to the town- 
ship having the largest attendance at a 
Democratic rally. Mrs. Clark made the first 
presentation with a short but stirring patri- 
otic speech. Throughout the Civil War, the 
Clarks ardently supported Clement L. Val- 
landigham (q.v.). Judge Clark was a strict 
Constitutionalist and boldly declared his 
views. He was considered "the brains of the 
Butler County Copperheads." The Clarks and 
Virginia Moon, youngest sister of Mrs. 
Clark, played important roles in the Great 
Northwest Conspiracy in which the Knights 
of the Golden Circle plotted with the Con- 
federate government to join forces and 
bring the war to a close on Northern soil. 
The Clark home at Jones Station was a 
supply base for the Confederacy and hiding 
place for Confederate spies and soldiers in 
need of help. Mrs. Clark performed many 
perilous missions for the Knights of the 
Golden Circle and the Confederacy. She 
and her sister Virginia were intimate 
friends of Jefferson Davis. Posing as an 
English invalid traveling for her health, she 
once tricked Secretary of War Stanton, 
President Lincoln, and George B. McClellan 
into passing her through Union lines. She 
was carrying important dispatches to Jef- 
ferson Davis. In Richmond, she was known 
as "the embassadress of the North." In 
April, 1863, upon her return to Cincinnati 
from one of these missions, she found her 
mother and sister in the custody of General 
Ambrose E. Burnside at his headquarters 
at the Burnet House. They had been ar- 
rested on board the Alice Dean as they 
were about to sail for Memphis, Tenn., 
with medical supplies and mail for the 
South. With a stout heart, Charlotte faced 
the General, pretending not to know him, 
and asked for a pass to the South. She 
was quietly placed under guard and con- 
fined to the fashionable Spencer House for 
a time. After her release, she disappeared 


Clark, D. W. 

from Ohio. In 1864, the Knights of the 
Golden Circle became the Sons of Liberty, 
and Vallandigham was their Supreme Com- 
mander. The crushing defeat of Vallandig- 
ham by John Brough in the race for the 
governorship of Ohio in that year shattered 
the grandiose plans of those involved in the 
Great Northwest Conspiracy. Early in De- 
cember, Judge Clark left Butler County for- 
ever. The Clarks went to New York City, 
a Copperhead stronghold, to live. Judge 
Clark practiced law and wrote regularly for 
the New York Ledger, a literary magazine 
having a weekly circulation of more than 
400,000. Mrs. Clark wrote for the New 
York World, an important Copperhead 
paper. In poetry, Charlotte Clark could ex- 
press deep emotions with great power. 
After the war was over, her poem "Peace" 
appeared in Southern newspapers and mag- 
azines under her own name. It was a mov- 
ing lamentation for the Lost Cause. In 
1870, Charlotte was sent to Paris as a cor- 
respondent of the New York World during 
the Franco-Prussian War. She was pre- 
sented at court by the American Minister. 
From Paris, she went to London, where 
she became identified with an artistic and 
literary set. One night, at a card party in 
the stately home of Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 
she was challenged to write a book in 
which a woman would be the wielder of 
power. Lord Lytton said to her, "It is a 
gallant battle cry, 'Place aux Dames.' You 
will succeed." Charlotte replied, "In such 
a combat and with such a cause, Lord Lyt- 
ton, there is no such word as fail." Upon 
her return to the United States, Mrs. Clark 
lectured in the principal cities of the North 
with much success under the nom de plume 
of "Chalk Level." Her lectures dealt with 
social and economic conditions in France, 
England, and the United States. A lecture 
on literature was entitled "Literary Bo- 
hemia." The work promised Lord Lytton 
and his friends appeared in 1878 under the 
name of Charles M. Clay. The initials of 
Mrs. Clark's pseudonym matched her own, 
and Clay was the name of her maternal 
grandmother. The book was published un- 
der the title of How She Came into Her 
Kingdom. One critic wrote that this was 
the "maddest book of the season," but fas- 
cinating because of the author's "unrivalled 
powers of expression." Others compared her 
to Jules Verne, George Eliot, and Charlotte 
Bronte in imagination and dramatic power. 
A second edition of this sensational novel 
was published in 1880. White and Stokes 
brought out a third edition entitled A 
Daughter of the Gods in 1883. A fourth 
edition was published under the same title 

in Dodd's Dollar Novels series in 1885. A 
second novel, Baby Rue, appeared in the 
No Name series. Mrs. Clark's two-volume 
work, The Modern Hagar, was published in 
the Kaaterskill series in 1882. The New 
York Times found it "easy to praise and 
easy to find fault with . . . but impossible 
to ignore." The next year, a one-volume 
edition was issued. The author's wide ac- 
quaintance with politics and economics sup- 
ported the assumption that "Charles M. 
Clay" was a man. Even Jefferson Davis was 
deceived. A popular book which went 
through several editions — More True Than 
Truthful (1887) — has been incorrectly 
ascribed to her. It was written by Mrs. 
Charles Montague Clay. After the death of 
her husband in 1881, Charlotte Clark, aided 
by her son, earned her living by translating 
French novels. At one time she undertook 
to write a guide to all the waterways of 
America. So far as is known, only a small 
pamphlet on the Mississippi River was pub- 
lished. She did not live to complete a novel 
based on her experiences in Paris. Charlotte 
Moon Clark died in Philadelphia at St. 
George's Rectory, the home of her only 
child, the Rev. Franklin Pinckney Clark 

Ophia D. Smith 
How She Came into Her Kingdom; A Ro- 
mance . . . , Chicago, 1878. 
Baby Rue . . . , Boston, 1881. 
The Modern Hagar. A Drama, 2 vols., New 
York, 1882. 

23, 1871), clergyman, was born in Mount 
Desert, Maine. He graduated from Wes- 
leyan University, Conn., in 1836. He be- 
came a Methodist clergyman in 1843 after 
teaching in New York State for several 
years. In 1852 he became editor of the 
Ladies' Repository in Cincinnati and con- 
tinued in that position until he was chosen 
bishop in 1864. As bishop he worked 
chiefly in Kentucky and Tennessee. He died 
in Cincinnati. Besides the titles below, he 
published a mathematics textbook, ser- 
mons, and numerous pamphlets. 
Death-bed Scenes . . . , New York, 1851. 
Life and Times of Rev. Elijah Hedding 

. . . , New York, 1855. 
Historical Sketches . . . , Cincinnati, 1856. 
Traits and Anecdotes of Birds and Fishes 

. . . , Cincinnati, 1856. 

CLARK, DAVIS WASGATT (July 28, 1849- 
July 25, 1935), clergyman, son of Bishop 
D. W. Clark (q.v.), was born in New York 
City. He graduated from Ohio Wesleyan 
University in 1871 and Boston University 

Clark, E. M. 


School of Theology in 1875. Among the 
cities where he served as a Methodist min- 
ister were Columbus, Dayton, and Cincin- 
nati. He was district superintendent, Cin- 
cinnati, 1900-05. He published articles and 
books on social questions, e.g., Child Labor 
and the Social Conscience . . . , [New York, 
1924]. WWW 1 

CLARK, EDNA MARIA (Mrs. James E.) 
(June 1, 1874-June 18, 1961), art historian 
and authority on early American crafts, was 
born in Woodstock, Champaign County. A 
graduate of Ohio State University, she also 
studied at Harvard University and toured 
European art galleries during several sum- 
mers. She wrote many articles on American 
crafts for periodicals, lectured on art in 
various cities, superintended the restoration 
of historic houses, and compiled a valuable 
book: Ohio Art and Artists, Richmond, 
[Va.], 1932. 

CLARK, FRED GEORGE (Nov. 2, 1890- 
), industrialist, was born in Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga County. He attended Kenyon 
College, 1909-13. He held various positions 
in the petroleum industry before becoming 
chairman of the American Economic Foun- 
dation in 1939. He has directed numerous 
radio forums and written newspaper articles 
on economic issues. His books, several of 
which were written in collaboration with 
Richard S. Rimanoczy, include Magnificent 
Delusion, New York, [1940]. WW 30 

1857-Dec. 19, 1931), clergyman, was born 
in Casstown, Miami County. After graduat- 
ing from Wittenberg College in 1887 and 
the Seminary in 1890, he was ordained to 
the Lutheran ministry. He served churches 
in Kentucky, Ohio, Kansas, and Colorado. 
At the time of his death he was pastor of a 
Lutheran church in Canon City, Colo. He 
is buried in Dayton. 

History of Wittenberg College . . . , Spring- 
field, 1887. 

1857-Dec. 14, 1945), naval officer, was 
born in Monroe, Butler County. With sev- 
eral other naval officers he wrote The Navy 
1775 to 1910, 2 vols., Baltimore, 1910, 
which was reissued several times in re- 
vised and enlarged editions. WWW 2 

Aug. 9, 1905), born in Pekin, 111., was 
brought to Toledo while a young girl and 
spent her life in that city. Her poems ap- 

peared in newspapers and magazines, and 
she published one collection: Heart Songs, 
Toledo, 1901. 

CLARK, HAROLD TERRY (Sept. 4, 1882- 
), lawyer, was born in Derby, Conn. 
He graduated from Yale University in 1903 
and Harvard Law School in 1906, in which 
year he was admitted to the Ohio bar. He 
practiced in Cleveland, has been active in 
civic and humanitarian enterprises, and has 
written several pamphlets and books relat- 
ing to these interests, e.g., Talking Gloves 
for the Deaf and Blind, [Cleveland, 1917]. 
WW 30 

CLARK, JOAN. Pseud. See Mildred W. Ben- 

CLARK, MAZIE EARHART (Feb. 16, 1874- 
Jan. 10, 1958), poet, born in Glendale, 
Hamilton County, was married to George 
Clark. A beauty operator and a chiropodist, 
she wrote poetry as a pastime. Her poems 
appeared in various periodicals, and she 
published a collection: Garden of Memo- 
ries, Cincinnati, 1932. 

1867-Dec. 16, 1932), was born in Danvers, 
Mass. She was assistant editor of Living 
Age, 1897-1900. In 1900 she married 
Frank L. Clark and in 1908 came with him 
to Miami University, where he served as 
professor of Greek. Some of her writings 
were published under the pen name Hobart 

The Green Garnet, Boston, 1895. 
Blake Redding: A Boy of To-day, Boston, 

Bacon's Dial in Shakespeare; A Compass- 
Clock Cipher, Cincinnati, 1922. 
Bacon's Drama Dial in Shakespeare; A Pup- 
pet Stage in the Plays . . . , Mansfield, 
Hamlet on the Dial Stage, Paris, 1931. 

1890- ), was born in Croton, Licking 
County. He attended Croton public schools 
and East High School, Cleveland, and grad- 
uated from Harvard University in 1912. 
He did editorial work for A. W. Shaw Com- 
pany, Chicago, 1912-20, and has since been 
a free-lance writer. His home is in South 
Strafford, Vt. He has published poems, ar- 
ticles, and short stories in many national 
magazines, and he has written several biog- 
raphies and other books, e.g., An Inside 
Story of Success . . . , New York, 1929. 


Clarke, R. 

CLARK, WALTER ERNEST (June 9, 1873- 
May 1, 1955), educator, was born in De- 
fiance, Defiance County. He graduated from 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1896 and Co- 
lumbia University (Ph.D.) in 1903. He 
taught political science at the University of 
Nevada, 1907-17, and served as president, 
1917-38. He published a number of pam- 
phlets and books on economic questions, 
e.g., The Cost of Living, Chicago, 1915. 
WWW 3 

1888-Sept. 15, 1948), educator, was born 
in Westboro, Mass. He graduated from 
Clark University in 1909 and Columbia 
University (Ph.D.) in 1916. He taught so- 
ciology at Ohio State University, 1919-23, 
and Oberlin College, 1927-30. His works 
include a textbook, a doctoral study of 
American authors, and Petting, Wise or 
Otherwise?, New York, 1938. WWW 2 

CLARKE, JOHN HESSIN (Sept. 18, 1857- 
March 22, 1945), lawyer and judge, was 
born in Lisbon, Columbiana County. After 
graduating from Western Reserve Univer- 
sity in 1877, he read law and was admitted 
to the Ohio bar. He served as associate 
justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, 1916- 
22. His death occurred in San Diego, Calif. 
He wrote America and World Peace, New 
York, 1925. WWW 2 

CLARKE, PETER H. (?-?), educator, was 
born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. A 
teacher in the Cincinnati schools, he was 
instrumental in securing the establishment 
of Gaines High School and served as its 
principal, 1866-87. He conducted classes 
after school hours to train teachers for 
Negro schools. He taught in St. Louis, Mo., 

The Black Brigade of Cincinnati . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1864. 

CLARKE, ROBERT (May 1, 1829-Aug. 27, 
1899), book dealer, publisher, and bib- 
liophile, was born in Annan, Dumfreeshire, 
Scotland. Coming with his parents to Cin- 
cinnati in 1840, he was educated locally 
and had a short try at bookkeeping. Then, 
following his inclinations, he became inter- 
ested in a small secondhand bookshop in 
the city. This he developed into Robert 
Clarke and Company, which in addition 
succeeded H. W. Derby & Co. in 1858 as a 
new book outlet. Thence into publishing 
where finally the firm became incorporated 
in 1894 as the Robert Clarke Company. 
The bookstore's stock was accurately de- 
scribed in a series of seven catalogues, 

Bibliotheca Americana, issued from 1875 
to 1893, recommended by such authorities 
as Justin Windsor and John Fiske. Clarke 
was responsible for a most interesting and 
discriminating series of publications. Al- 
though his law publications were then the 
most important in the West, his historical 
reprints are of the greatest interest today. 
Drawing from an extensive personal library, 
he began in 1868 by issuing reprints of 
four rare pamphlets such as "The Court 
Sermon, 1674." His best-known publications 
are the seven volumes of the Ohio Valley 
Historical Series issued between 1868 and 
1871. These books, published against the 
advice of his partners, were purchased by 
the more important libraries and historical 
societies. Bouquet's Expedition (Cincinnati, 
1868) was the first of this series which was 
hailed by critics and students as an im- 
portant contribution to American history. 
However, local support was wanting and 
this valuable project was brought to a close 
with the seventh volume. These books and 
others related to the history and culture of 
the Ohio Valley were all bound in the same 
green pebbled cloth which soon became rec- 
ognized as distinctive of the Clarke publica- 
tions. W. H. Venable's Beginnings of Lit- 
erary Culture in the Ohio Valley (1891) is 
now one of the most useful and valuable 
of the firm's publications. Clarke himself 
edited for the Historical Series George Rog- 
ers Clark's Campaign in Illinois, 1778-79 
(1869), James McBride's Pioneer Biog- 
raphies (1869), and Captain James Smith's 
Captivity with the Indians (1870). His own 
published productions are very slight: a 
record of the distribution and sale of lots 
in the town of Losantiville 1789 to 1790, 
Information Wanted with Reference to the 
Early Settlers of Losantiville (Now Cincin- 
nati), (1870), The Ancient of Days (1873), 
and an explanation of the authenticity of an 
aboriginal artifact, The Prehistoric Remains 
Which Were Found on the Site of the City 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, with a Vindication of 
the "Cincinnati Tablet" (1876). His home 
in Glendale, a suburb of Cincinnati, was 
famous for its library, which W. H. Ven- 
able said could not be duplicated in the 
West. A carefully chosen collection of 7,000 
volumes of Americana was purchased from 
it by William A. Procter a few years before 
Clarke's death to be presented to the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, where it now forms 
an important part of the University Library. 
An earlier collection of about 4,000 vol- 
umes of Americana had been purchased in 
1874 by Rutherford B. Hayes to form the 
nucleus of his personal library now in the 
Hayes Memorial Library at Fremont. A 



collection of Clarke's books on fishing is in 
the Field Museum of Chicago while his 
personal copies, uniformly bound in dull 
green three-quarter leather, of the books 
printed by the Clarke firm are in the li- 
brary of the Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio. Clarke was never mar- 
ried, contentedly spending his life in con- 
stant reading and study. He was a bibli- 
ophile as well as a connoisseur of printing. 
His own books are attractive productions, 
most legible, being reminiscent of the more 
subtle typography of William Pickering 
from the early part of the century. Clarke 
was one of the first life members of the 
Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society, 
being elected a trustee in Feb., 1899. He was 
beloved in Glendale and was specially 
known as the founder of the Lyceum. He 
raised the money to build this unique social 
center and presented it with a library of 
nearly 5,000 volumes. He died suddenly in 
the library of his home, having devoted a 
good life to publishing books of quality in 
the West. 

Wyman W. Parker 
Information Wanted with Reference to the 
Early Settlers of Losantiville (Now Cin- 
cinnati), Cincinnati, 1870. 
The Ancient of Days, Cincinnati, 1873. 
The Prehistoric Remains Which Were 
Found on the Site of the City of Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, with a Vindication of the 
"Cincinnati Tablet," Cincinnati, 1876. 
The Founders of Ohio, Cincinnati, 1888. 

CLAY, CHARLES M. Pseud. See Cynthia C. 
M. Clark. 

CLEAR, HOBART. Pseud. See Natalie L. R. 

CLEAVELAND, CHARLES H. (1820-1863), 
physician, was born in Lebanon, N. H. He 
graduated from Dartmouth Medical School 
in 1843. In 1854 he came to Cincinnati to 
teach in the Eclectic Medical Institute. A 
dispute with other faculty members led 
Cleaveland to attempt to gain control of 
the school. Unable to buy sufficient stock, 
he barricaded himself and some friends in 
the building but was driven out. Despite re- 
peated attempts until stopped by the police, 
he was unable to retake the beleaguered 
building. He and some friends, including 
Joseph Rodes Buchanan (q.v. ), thereupon 
organized the College of Eclectic Medicine 
to compete with the Institute. Besides the 
book below, Cleaveland published a medi- 
cal lexicon, a book on diseases of the feet, 
and several medical articles. 
Galvanism; Its Application as a Remedial 
Agent, New York, 1853. 

CLEAVELAND, MOSES (Jan. 29, 1754-Nov. 
16, 1806), founder of Cleveland, led the 
survey party in 1796 that laid out the city. 
After returning to Connecticut in the fall 
of 1796, Cleaveland never returned to the 
Western Reserve. Though not an author in 
the usual sense of the word, he published 
An Oration Commemorative of the Life and 
Death of General George Washington, 
Windham, Conn., 1800. 


(July 27, 1840-Nov. 5, 1885), was born 
near Jamestown, Greene County. She taught 
in the Jamestown schools before her mar- 
riage to William Clemans, then superin- 
tendent of schools and after 1866 a Meth- 
odist minister. After her death her husband 
compiled a volume of her poems, letters, 
and excerpts from her journal. 
Flowers from the Pathways of a Conse- 
crated Life . . . , Columbus, 1886. 


(Jan. 16, 1860-Nov. 25, 1931), journalist, 
was born in Paris, Stark County. He was 
educated in Akron schools and at Buchtel 
College. From 1879 until 1908 he served 
on the editorial staffs of a number of 
metropolitan newspapers, including the Pitts- 
burgh Dispatch, Cleveland Plain Dealer, 
San Francisco Chronicle, and New York 
World. A prolific writer and a tireless re- 
searcher in the field of genealogy, he not 
only founded several short-lived periodicals, 
but also edited genealogical records for a 
number of families and compiled lists of 
early wills and marriage records. His death 
occurred in Somerset, Bermuda. 
Famous Funny Fellows; Brief Biographical 
Sketches of American Humorists, Cleve- 
land, 1882. 
Mark Twain; His Life and Work . . . , San 

Francisco, 1892. 
Life of Admiral George Dewey . . . , New 

York, [1898]. 
A Ken of Kipling; Being a Biographical 
Sketch of Rudyard Kipling . . . , New 
York, 1899. 
Theodore Roosevelt, the American, New 

York, [1899]. 
The Gilded Lady; Being the True Story of 
a Crime against the United States Gov- 
ernment as Recorded by Henry Chardon, 
Late of the Secret Service, New York, 
Benjamin Franklin; A Biographical Sketch, 

Akron, 1904. 
American Unclaimed Money Index . . . , 

New York, 1914. 
The Ancestry of Theodore Roosevelt . . . , 
New York, 1914. 


Coates, A. A. 

Button Gwinnett, Man of Mystery . . . , 

Pompton Lakes, N. J., 1921. 
Famous Virginians . . . , Pompton Lakes, 

N. J., 1921. 
The Ancestry of Mary Baker Eddy . . . , 

Pompton Lakes, N. J., 1924. 
Life and Times of John Brown, [n.p., n.d.]. 

CLERINIC. Pseud. See Milton G. Nicola. 

CLESS, GEORGE HENRY (Dec. 6, 1892- 
), was born in Columbus, Franklin 
County. He graduated from Ohio State 
University in 1914 and New York State 
School of Forestry, Syracuse, in 1916. He 
served in World War I, published the 
Barnesville Enterprise, 1922-24, held var- 
ious positions in Virginia and New York 
State, and is now managing editor of Chris- 
tian Economic Publications, New York. He 
has published a book on world peace: The 
Eleventh Commandment, New York, 1938. 
WW 24 

THEWS (June 30, 1864-June 30, 1933), 
was born in Glendale, Hamilton County. 
A daughter of Stanley Matthews, Supreme 
Court justice and the wife of Harlan Cleve- 
land, a Cincinnati attorney, she wrote 
Mother Eva Mary C. T. . . . , Milwaukee, 
Wis., [1929]. 

CLEVELAND, KATE. Pseud. See Mrs. Re- 
becca S. R. Nichols. 

CLIFTON, JOHN LEROY (June 13, 1881- 
April 24, 1943), educator, was born in 
Etna, Licking County. He taught in Ohio 
public schools, 1898-1911, graduated from 
Ohio University in 1913, was an official in 
the Ohio Department of Education, 1911- 
15, and joined the faculty of Ohio State 
University in 1915. His writings include 
Ten Famous American Educators, Colum- 
bus, [1933]. WWW 3 

CLINTON, ALTHEA L. Pseud. See Alta 

1879-Dec. 1, 1953), social worker, was 
born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. He 
graduated from Bethany College, W. Va., 
in 1897 and the University of Cincinnati 
(Ph.D.) in 1912. He served with a number 
of state and Federal social agencies and 
taught social work at the University of 
Cincinnati and Ohio State University. Child 
welfare, his major interest, was the subject 
of a wide variety of articles, reports, and 
books, e.g., Society and the Child, Boston, 
[1929]. WWW 3 

CLYMAN, JAMES (1792-Dec. 27, 1881), 
frontiersman, was born in Virginia. His 
flaming career of adventure started in Stark 
County in 1811, the year in which his fam- 
ily settled there. Commencing with the 
Indian outbreaks which followed the Battle 
of Tippecanoe, he served as ranger until 
the close of the War of 1812. The next few 
years he spent with surveying parties. He 
joined Ashley's second expedition to ascend 
the Missouri in 1823. He was a member of 
the party of four who were the first to cir- 
cumnavigate the Great Salt Lake. He was 
a soldier in the Black Hawk War, 1832-34. 
While serving with General Henry Dodge 
in Wisconsin, he was severely wounded in 
an encounter with an Indian. He crossed 
the plains to Willamette, Oreg., in 1844 and 
the following year went to California. He 
guided a group of disappointed emigrants 
back to Independence, Mo., in 1846 and 
guided another party westward in 1848. 
settling down that year in Napa. Bernard 
DeVoto has referred to Clyman's journals, 
which were edited by Charles L. Camp, as 
one of the half-dozen classics in the field. 
His death occurred at Napa, Calif. His 
journals were published as James Clyman; 
American Frontiersman . . . , San Fran- 
cisco, 1928. 

CLYMER, ALBERT (Dec. 10, 1827-1897), 
was born in Fairfield County, where he 
operated a farm throughout his life. He 
wrote poetry as an avocation. 
Echoes from the Woods . . . , Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa, 1888. 

COAN, CHARLES FLORUS (April 30, 1886- 
Sept. 19, 1928), educator, was born in Day- 
ton, Montgomery County. He graduated 
from the University of Washington in 1908 
and the University of California (Ph.D.) 
in 1920. He taught at the University of New 
Mexico and other schools. Besides profes- 
sional articles he published A History of 
New Mexico, 3 vols., [Chicago, 1925]. 
WWW 1 

COATES, ARCHIE AUSTIN (Oct. 21, 1891- 
), was born in Dayton, Montgomery 
County, where his father was on the staff 
of the Dayton Journal. He was educated 
in Dayton and New York City schools and 
graduated from Columbia University in 
1913. He was associated with various peri- 
odicals including the New York Tribune, 
Literary Digest, and the original Life. He 
was a staff writer at C.B.S. radio for four 
years. He is now employed in the Depart- 
ment of Motor Vehicles, California. His 

Coates, W. R. 


poems have appeared in various magazines, 
and he has published a collection: City 
Tides, New York, [1918]. 

COATES, WILLIAM R. (Nov. 17, 1851- 
Feb. 20, 1935), was born in North Royal- 
ton, Cuyahoga County. Soon after his birth 
the family moved to Brecksville, where he 
attended public schools. After studying at 
Oberlin College, he taught school in Brecks- 
ville and Independence for twelve years. A 
leader in the Republican Party in Cleveland, 
he served as county clerk and was mayor 
of Brooklyn village before it was annexed 
to the city in 1894. He published A History 
of Cuyahoga County and the City of Cleve- 
land, 3 vols., Chicago, 1924. WWO 

1841-March 26, 1926), judge, was born in 
Colerain Township, Belmont County. From 
his memories of his native county, he wrote 
a series of sketches, many dealing with 
Civil War days: Bonnie Belmont . . . , 
[Wheeling, W. Va., 1907]. 

1863-April 13, 1941). journalist, was born 
in Martins Ferry, Belmont County. He at- 
tended Lindsley Institute, Wheeling, W. Va., 
and the University of Michigan. In 1883 
he entered journalism in Toledo, where he 
worked for all of the major newspapers at 
various times; in 1897 he became editor of 
the News-Bee. He published a biography, 
E. W. Scripps, New York, [1933]. OBB 

COCHRAN, WILLIAM C. (March 29, 1848- 
Sept. 19, 1936), lawyer, was born in Ober- 
lin, Lorain County. In 1869 he graduated 
from Oberlin College, where his father was 
a member of the faculty. After studying law 
he was admitted to the bar; he practiced in 
Cincinnati, 1872-1915. He continued to 
live in Cincinnati after his retirement and 
died in that city. He compiled a law lexi- 
con, published a valuable account of the 
early life of Gen. Jacob D. Cox, first de- 
livered as an address, and wrote The West- 
ern Reserve and the Fugitive Slave Law 
. . . , Cleveland, 1920. OBB 

COE, DOUGLAS. Pseud. See Beryl Williams. 

1886-May 12, 1950), poet, born in Indiana, 
married Dr. Oliver P. Coe of Cincin- 
nati and thereafter lived in that city until 
her death. She was active in Cincinnati 
poetry groups and published a collection of 
verse: Sundial Shadows, Dawlish, England, 
[1938]. WWNAA 7 

COFFEEN, HENRY ASA (Feb. 14, 1841- 
Dec. 9, 1912), was born near Gallipolis, 
Gallia County. He moved with his parents 
to Indiana and thence to Illinois in 1853. 
Following his graduation from Abingdon 
College he became a teacher, and for a 
time he was a member of the faculty of 
Hiram College. He moved to Sheridan, 
Wyo., in 1884; there he became prominent 
in politics and was elected to the 53rd 

Vermillion County (Illinois), Historical, Sta- 
tistical, and Descriptive . . . , Danville, 
111., [1871?]. 

COFFIN, ELIJAH (Nov. 27, 1830-April 19, 
1910), who was born on a farm in Har- 
mony Township, Clark County, learned the 
shoemaking trade as a boy and was a shoe- 
maker in South Charleston for fifteen years. 
Elected sheriff of the county in 1868, he 
settled in Springfield, where he also engaged 
in farming and the real estate business. He 
served four terms as sheriff and later was 
warden of the Ohio Penitentiary, 1886-90 
and 1896-1900. 

Speeches and Essays on Prison Reform 
. . . , Columbus, 1899. 

COFFIN, LEVI (Oct. 28, 1798-Sept. 16, 
1877), was born in New Garden, N. C, of 
Quaker parentage. Although his education 
was slight, he taught school at intervals. 
His efforts to conduct a Sunday school for 
Negroes were unappreciated by neighboring 
slave-owners, and in 1826 he moved to 
Newport (Fountain City), Ind. Here for 
twenty years he was very active in assisting 
Negroes escaping from the South. In 1847 
he went to Cincinnati, where he opened a 
wholesale free-labor store, supported by 
Indiana Quakers. During and after the 
Civil War he worked zealously for the wel- 
fare of freedmen. 
Reminiscences of Levi Coffin, the Reputed 

President of the Underground Railroad 

. . . , Cincinnati, [1876]. 

COFFINBERRY, ANDREW (Aug. 20, 1788- 
May 12, 1856), lawyer, was born in Mar- 
tinsburg, Va. He came with his parents to 
Chillicothe in 1806 and moved to Lancaster 
the following year. After serving two years 
in the navy, he read law in Mansfield, 
where he later practiced. In 1836 he was at 
Perrysburg and served as one of Governor 
Lucas's advisors during the boundary dis- 
pute with Michigan. He went to California 
in 1849 but returned to Ohio before his 
death, which occurred at Findlay. He 
dressed in Colonial costume as late as 1855 
and because of his polished manners and 


Colby, H. F. 

meticulous appearance was known among 
his legal colleagues as Count Comnberry. 
His long poem describing the wilderness 
frontier and Indian warfare apparently was 
written by 1825. It was published in 1842 
by the Ohio Bar Association "as a compli- 
ment to the author." 

The Forest Rangers; A Poetic Tale of the 
Western Wilderness in 1794 . . . , Colum- 
bus, 1842. 

6, 1824-Aug. 2, 1867), editor and librarian, 
was born in Lewistown, Pa. In 1842 he 
came to Akron, where he edited a temper- 
ance paper; in 1847 he moved to Cincin- 
nati to work on the Gazette. He edited or 
wrote for a variety of magazines, the most 
important of which was The Genius of 
the West, a monthly, 1854-56. He served as 
state librarian, 1856-62. During the Civil 
War he was on Governor Dennison's staff 
and is said to have done secret service work 
in Virginia, during which service he con- 
tracted the tuberculosis which caused his 
death. He owned the Springfield Republic, 
1862-65, wrote for the Ohio State Journal, 
1865-66, and served as private secretary to 
Governor Jacob D. Cox early in 1866. He 
was named American minister to Ecuador 
in the hope that a warm climate would re- 
store his health, but he died in Quito. His 
fiction, which was quite popular during his 
lifetime, is too moralistic and sentimental 
for modern taste. His major contribution 
to literary history was his continuation of 
the thesis of W. D. Gallagher (q.v.) that 
Western writers were ignored because of 
the domination of publishing and critical 
circles by an Eastern clique. Coggeshall ex- 
pressed his belief in an address, "The Pro- 
tective Policy in Literature," delivered in 
1859. He planned a series of anthologies 
to illustrate the merit of Western writers, 
but only the first was completed, the in- 
valuable collection, The Poets and Poetry 
of the West. 

The Signs of the Times: Comprising a His- 
tory of the Spirit-Rappings, in Cincinnati 
and Other Places . . . , Cincinnati, 1851. 
Easy Warren and His Contemporaries: 
Sketched for Home Circles, New York, 
Oakshaw; Or, the Victims of Avarice: A 

Tale of Intrigue, Cincinnati, 1855. 
The Newspaper Record . . . , Philadelphia, 

Home Hits and Hints, New York, 1859. 
The Poets and Poetry of the West . . . , 

Columbus, 1860. 
Stories of Frontier Adventure in the South 
and West, Columbus, 1860. 

Ohio's Prosperity, Social and Material . . . , 

[n.p., 1863?]. 
Lincoln Memorial . . . , Columbus, 1865. 

COHEN, ARMOND E. (June 5, 1909- ), 
rabbi, was born in Canton, Stark County. 
He graduated from New York University in 
1930 and Jewish Theological Seminary in 
1934. Since 1934 a rabbi of Park Synagogue, 
Cleveland, he has written All God's Chil- 
dren; A Jew Speaks, New York, 1945. 

1888- ), rabbi, born in Lohi, Russia, 
came to America in 1904 and graduated 
from the University of Cincinnati in 1911. 
He served as rabbi of several congrega- 
tions in Ohio and Illinois before joining the 
Hebrew Union faculty, where he taught 
Jewish theology, 1923-56. His writings in- 
clude What We Jews Believe, Cincinnati, 
1931. WW 30 

COIT, STANTON (Aug. 11, 1857-Feb. 15, 
1944), religious lecturer, was born in Co- 
lumbus, Franklin County. He attended Am- 
herst College, Columbia University, and 
the University of Berlin. A leader in the 
Ethical Religion movement, he lectured at 
the West London Ethical Society, was a 
settlement worker in New York City, and 
preached at the Ethical Church, London, 
England. Besides the titles below, he com- 
piled a hymnbook and books of "ethical 
scriptures." He died in England. 
Neighborhood Guilds; An Instrument of 

Social Reform, London, 1891. 
National Idealism and a State Church . . . , 

London, 1907. 
National Idealism and the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer . . . , London, 1908. 
Woman in Church and State, London, 1910. 
The Soul of America . . . , New York, 1914. 
Is Civilization a Disease?, Boston, 1917. 

COLBY, HENRY FRANCIS (Nov. 25, 1842- 
May 8, 1915), clergyman, was born in 
Roxbury, Mass., and was ordained to the 
ministry in the Baptist Church in 1868. He 
served as pastor of First Baptist Church, 
Dayton, until his retirement in 1903, and 
after retiring continued to live in Dayton 
until his death. 
A Tribute to the Memory of Eliam E. 

Barney, Cincinnati, 1881. 
A Tribute to the Memory of Ebenezer 

Thresher, Dayton, 1886. 
A Tribute to the Memory of Charles H. 

Crawford, Dayton, 1888. 
History of the First Baptist Church . . . , 

Dayton, 1914. 
Under Caesar's Shadow, New York, 1918. 

Colby, J. R. 


COLBY, JUNE ROSE (June, 1856-May 11, 
1940), educator, was born in Cherry Valley, 
Ashtabula County. She graduated from the 
University of Michigan in 1878 and earned 
her Ph.D. there in 1886. After teaching in 
high schools, 1879-92, she taught at Illinois 
State Normal University, 1892-1931, pub- 
lished numerous professional works, and 
wrote Literature and Life in School, [Bos- 
ton, 1906]. WWW 1 

COLE, ARTHUR CHARLES (April 22, 1886- 
), educator, was born in Ann Arbor, 
Mich. He served in the history departments 
of Ohio State University, 1920-30, and 
Western Reserve University, 1930-44. He 
retired at Brooklyn College in 1958 and 
has since lived in Florida. He has written 
numerous articles and several books related 
to American history, e.g., The Irrepressible 
Conflict, 1850-1865, New York, 1934. WW 

COLE, MERL BURKE (Mrs. Homer Lee 
Kimsey) (d. June 4, 1959), was born in 
Nevada, Wyandot County. She was edu- 
cated in private schools, later lived in 
Placerville, Calif., and wrote Six Days on 
a Mule in Mexico, Boston, 1928. WWAW 1 

COLE, RALPH DAYTON (Nov. 30, 1873- 
Oct. 15, 1932), lawyer and congressman, 
was born in Vanlue, Hancock County. He 
practiced law in Findlay and served in the 
House of Representatives, 1905-11. He was 
a founder of the American Legion. He 
served as lieutenant colonel in the division 
whose history he wrote with William C. 
Howells: The Thirty-seventh Division in the 
World War . . . , Columbus, 1926. WWW 1 


George Elliston. 


Nov. 28, 1890- ), was born in Spring- 
field, Clark County. She attended Massa- 
chusetts schools and studied art in New 
York, Chicago, and Europe. A practicing 
landscape and interior architect in West- 
port, Conn., she has published numerous 
magazine articles and a book on beekeeping: 
Bees in the Garden and Honey in the 
Larder, New York, 1939. 

1858-Jan. 6, 1944), educator, was born in 
Malta-McConnelsville, Morgan County. He 
graduated from Ohio University in 1883 
and did graduate work at Johns Hopkins 
University. He was a Federal land agent 
in the Dakota Territory, taught in the pub- 

lic schools of Ohio, North Carolina, and 
New Jersey, and lectured at various insti- 
tutes. He died in West Lafayette, where he 
spent the last 25 years of his life. 
Character Building . . . , New York, 1897. 

1905), lawyer, was born in Mount Vernon, 
Knox County. His family moved to Fort 
Wayne, Ind., in 1828, and he spent his life 
in that state. He practiced law in Fort 
Wayne and Indianapolis. Besides the title 
below, he published many articles in peri- 

Adventures of Pioneer Children; Or, Life 
in the Wilderness . . . , Cincinnati, 1888. 


(Nov. 5, 1876-Sept. 19, 1933), poet, born 
in Clear Creek Township, Warren County, 
married Howard Collett and lived in Wil- 
mington. She published a pamphlet collec- 
tion of her verse: Home Poems, [Roswell, 
N. M., 1917]. 

COLLINS, CHARLES H. (April 15, 1832- 
Dec. 28, 1904), lawyer, was born in Mays- 
ville, Ky., the brother of William Arm- 
strong Collins (q.v.). In 1850 he moved to 
a farm at Horse Shoe Bend on the east 
fork of the Little Miami River in Clermont 
County, which had been his father's home. 
He was admitted to the Ohio bar at Ba- 
tavia in 1854. He lived in Waverly, Mo., 
1858-64, but then settled in Hillsboro, 
where he spent the rest of his life. His 
play, Wibbleton to Wobbleton, was written 
at sea to divert the passengers of a ship 
that broke its shaft and drifted for 21 days 
until repairs were made; the play was later 
printed for his family. 
Echoes from the Highland Hills, Cincinnati, 

Wibbleton to Wobbleton . . . , Hillsboro, 

From Highland Hills to an Emperor's Tomb 

. . . , Cincinnati, 1886. 
The New Year Comes, My Lady, Buffalo, 

N. Y., 1895. 
Here and There in Verse and Prose, Nor- 

walk, 1897. 
Past and Present, Hillsboro, 1899. 

COLLINS, CLINTON (Nov. 15, 1863-Jan. 
25, 1940), was born in Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton County. After graduating from Wood- 
ward High School and Harvard University, 
he published a Democratic newspaper in 
Cincinnati and was active in local politics. 
He was assistant editor of reports and stat- 
utes of the State Supreme Court, Colum- 
bus, 1912-37. 



Poems, Sketches of Moses Traddles, Cin- 
cinnati, 1890. 

1818-Oct. 21, 1901), physician, was born 
in Clark County. After studying medicine, 
he practiced for nearly sixty years in South 
Charleston. He wrote The Soul . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, [1901]. 

COLLINS, JAMES H. (April 25, 1904-March 
22, 1935), aviator, was born in Warren, 
Trumbull County. Left an orphan at the 
age of eleven, he was reared in Cuyahoga 
Falls by an uncle and aunt. He graduated 
from high school in Akron and attended 
the University of Akron for a time while 
working nights at Goodyear Rubber Com- 
pany. In 1925 he graduated from the Army 
Advanced Flying School, Kelly Field, 
Texas. After four years of intermittent serv- 
ice as an Air Corps lieutenant, he became 
a free-lance pilot. An article in the Satur- 
day Evening Post on his experiences gained 
him a post as aviation columnist for the 
New York Daily News. He planned to give 
up flying after filling a contract with Grum- 
man Aircraft Corporation. He died when 
a biplane he was testing crashed near Farm- 
ingdale, Long Island. He had just com- 
pleted a book which was published post- 
humously: Test Pilot, New York, [1935]. 


(June 3, 1882- ), was born in Love- 
ville, Pa., but has lived in Cincinnati since 
1924. After graduating from Dickinson Col- 
lege and the University of Kentucky Law 
School, she was admitted to the bar in 
1911. She was national president of Chi 
Omega Sorority, 1910-52. She has written 
numerous magazine articles and a play. The 
Thrill to Power, New York, [1929]. WO 2 

the Progressive Republican nominee for 
governor of Minnesota in 1912. He then 
became manager of the Paul V. Collins In- 
ternational Newspaper Syndicate, Washing- 
ton and London. He also wrote for maga- 
zines and interviewed Benito Mussolini for 
Outlook in 1927. His death occurred in 
Washington, D. C. 

A Baton for a Heart, Chicago, 1888. 
A Country Romance, Milwaukee, 1896. 
Canadian Reciprocity vs. American Manu- 
facturers as Well as Farmers . . . , Min- 
neapolis, [1910?]. 

COLLINS, MRS. VIVIAN. See Marjorie M. 

21. 1834-Nov. 4, 1898), lawyer and jour- 
nalist, was born in Maysville, Ky., the 
brother of Charles H. Collins, (q.v.). In 
1850 he moved to Cincinnati, where he 
studied law and was admitted to the bar. 
He practiced in Cincinnati, New Orleans, 
and Memphis, and later was associated 
in an editorial capacity with various news- 
papers, including the Cleveland Plain 
Dealer, Pittsburgh Chronicle, and the Cin- 
cinnati Saturday Night. In 1874 he moved 
to Florida; his last years were spent in 
Hagerstown, Md. 

At Long and Short Range, Philadelphia, 

COLLISON, WILSON (Nov. 5, 1893-May 
4. 1941), who was born in Gloucester, 
Adams County, wrote a number of success- 
ful plays, including Getting Gertie's Garter 
(1921), in collaboration with Avery Hop- 
wood (q.v.), and numerous mystery novels, 
e.g., A Woman in Purple Pajamas, New 
York, 1931, published under the pen name 
Willis Kent. WWW 1 


(July 22, 1860-March 8, 1931), journalist, 
was born in Camden, Preble County. He 
studied at the University of Minnesota, 
University of Toulouse, and the Art Stu- 
dents' League. After working as a reporter 
on the Dayton Herald and the Cincinnati 
Commercial Gazette, he went to Paris to 
study art, but became cable correspondent 
for the New York Tribune and other 
American newspapers. He interviewed de 
Lesseps when he returned from his Panama 
inspection and Pasteur when he first an- 
nounced the successful treatment of hydro- 
phobia. He was editor and proprietor of 
the St. Peter, Minn., Tribune, 1887-90, and 
principal owner of the Northwestern Agri- 
culturist, Minneapolis, 1893-95. He was 

COLT, CLEM. Pseud. See Nelson C. Nye. 

COLTON, OLIVE A. (Sept. 2. 1873- ), 
was born in Toledo, Lucas County. She 
wrote and lectured on women's suffrage, 
the American Red Cross, and other topics. 
She has published a number of pamphlets 
and booklets and a travel account: Rambles 
Abroad, Toledo, [1904]. 

COLVER, ANNE (Mrs. S. Stewart Graff) 
(June 20, 1908- ), born in Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga County, now lives in Westchester 
County, N. Y. She has written mysteries 
under the pen name Colver Harris, e.g.. 
Murder in Amber, New York. 1938, and 
several biographies and historical novels, 
e.g., Mr. Lincoln's Wife, New York, [1943]. 

Colvin, D. L. 


COLVIN, DAVID LEIGH (Jan. 28, 1880- 
Sept. 7, 1959), was born in South Charles- 
ton, Clark County. He graduated from 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1900 and 
Columbia University (Ph.D.) in 1913. He 
lectured widely on the subject of prohibi- 
tion and served as an officer of various 
temperance and reform organizations. His 
writings include Prohibition in the United 
States . . . , New York, 1926. WWW 3 

COLVIN, MARY MILES (Aug. 16, 1871- 
Sept. 5, 1956), educator, was born in Min- 
eral Ridge, Trumbull County. After attend- 
ing National Normal University, she taught 
in the schools of Youngstown. She married 
Curtis P. Colvin of Scranton, Pa. After his 
death she returned to Youngstown, where 
she conducted a private school and lec- 
tured. She published a collection of verse: 
My Tapestry and Other Poems, [Youngs- 
town, 1931]. 

COLWELL, STEPHEN (March 25, 1800- 
Jan. 15, 1871), industrialist and economist, 
studied law in Steubenville and practiced 
for a time in St. Clairsville before he left 
the state to become an iron manufacturer. 
He wrote widely on both economic and 
religious themes, including New Themes 
for the Protestant Clergy . . . , Philadelphia, 

COLYTON, HENRY JOHN. Pseud. See Sarah 
A. Zimmerman. 

COMAN, KATHARINE (Nov. 23, 1857-Jan. 
11, 1915), educator, was born in Newark. 
Licking County. She graduated from the 
University of Michigan in 1880 and was 
on the faculty of Wellesley College, 1883- 
1913. Besides history textbooks she wrote 
Economic Beginnings of the Far West . . . , 
2 vols., New York, 1912. WWW 1 

1865-July 28, 1943), lawyer, was born in 
Cincinnati, Hamilton County, the youngest 
child of Cornelius George Comegys (q.v.). 
He graduated from the University of Cin- 
cinnati in 1878, studied at Cincinnati Law 
School, and was admitted to the bar in 
1880. He practiced in Cincinnati, and his 
death occurred in that city. 
Cornelius G. Comegys, M.D.; His Life and 
Career in the Development of Cincinnati 
for Nearly Half a Century . . . , Cincin- 
nati, 1896. 

23, 1816-Feb. 10, 1896), physician, was 
born in Cherbourg, Del. He was educated at 

Dover Academy. Failing in an attempt to 
establish a business in Indiana, he began 
the study of medicine and graduated from 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1848. 
He came to Cincinnati in 1849, where his 
zest for writing was first disclosed; Etiology 
and Treatment of Phthisis Pulmonalis ap- 
peared in the transactions of the Cincinnati 
Medico-Chirurgical Society for 1849, and 
Matthew Simpson (q.v.), editor of the 
Western Christian Advocate, employed him 
as assistant editor. While abroad in 1851 
for a year of study in London and Paris, 
he served as European correspondent of the 
Advocate. He became professor of anatomy 
in the Cincinnati College of Medicine in 
1852, resigning to accept the chair of the 
institutes of medicine in the new Miami 
Medical College. This was united with the 
Medical College of Ohio in 1857, and 
Comegys retained his chair until 1869. He 
became lecturer on clinical medicine in the 
Cincinnati hospital in 1857. For many years 
he was director of the board of education, 
and he played an active role in developing 
the Cincinnati Public Library. He assisted 
in the organization of the University of 
Cincinnati in 1869. Up to the time of his 
death, he fought persistently for the crea- 
tion of a department of public health. On 
Oct. 3, 1839, he married Rebecca Turner 
Tiffin, daughter of Edward Tiffin, the first 
governor of Ohio. His Reminiscences of 
the Life and Public Services of Edward 
Tiffin was published in 1869. Written as a 
reply to a derogatory article by William N. 
Anderson in the Circleville Democrat, it 
has become a recognized source on the life 
of the governor. His most ambitious literary 
work was the translation from the French 
of Renouard's History of Medicine. He was 
the author of a great many papers pub- 
lished in the medical press — two of them 
especially attracted much attention: On the 
Pathology and Treatment of Phthisis 
(1854), which was referred to in the Ameri- 
can editions of Watson's Practice and Cope- 
land's Dictionary, and On Cool Bathing 
Treatment of (Infantile) Enterocolitis (1875). 
His death occurred in Cincinnati. 

Ernest J. Wessen 
The Discouragements and Encouragements 
of the Medical Student, Cincinnati, 1856. 
Reminiscences of the Life and Public Serv- 
ices of Edward Tiffin, Ohio's First 
Governor, Chillicothe, 1869. 
Cincinnati; A Plea for an Institute, Cincin- 
nati, 1889. 

1862-May 11, 1944), economist, was born 
in Hollandsburg, Darke County. He gradu- 



ated from Oberlin College (A.B., 1888; 
A.M., 1890). After teaching for brief 
periods in several universities, he joined the 
faculty of the University of Wisconsin in 
1904 and remained on the staff until his re- 
tirement in 1932. He also served on many 
state and Federal agencies. He was an in- 
fluential teacher and a prolific writer. He 
produced many articles, pamphlets, and 
textbooks in addition to the titles listed 
The Distribution of Wealth, New York, 

Social Reform and the Church, New York, 

Proportional Representation, New York, 

Social Problems, New York, 1898. 
Representative Democracy, New York, 

Races and Immigrants in America, New 

York, 1907. 
Documentary History of the American In- 
dustrial Society, Cincinnati, 1910. 
Labor and Administration, New York. 1913. 
History of Labour in the United St ites, 
(with others), 4 vols., New York, 1918— 
Industrial Goodwill, New York. 1919. 
A Reconstruction Health Program, [Madi- 
son, Wis., 1920]. 
Legal Foundations of Capitalism, New 

York, 1924. 
Institutional Economics: Its Place in Polit- 
ical Economy, New York, 1934. 
Myself, New York, 1934. 

1892- ), physicist, was born in Wooster, 
Wayne County. His father, Elias Compton. 
was a Presbyterian minister and a professor 
in the college. Arthur graduated from the 
College of Wooster in 1913 and went to 
Princeton for graduate study (A.M.. 1914; 
Ph.D., 1916). After a year of teaching at 
the University of Minnesota and two years 
with Westinghouse, he went to Cambridge 
University, England, where he worked 
under the great British scientist. Ernest 
Rutherford. Compton became professor of 
physics at Washington University. St. Louis, 
1920-23, and then the University of Chi- 
cago, 1923-45. He returned to Washington 
University as chancellor, 1945-53. and is 
now distinguished service professor. He was 
awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 
1927 for his work with X-rays and has re- 
ceived many other honors. During World 
War II he directed the Metallurgical Lab- 
oratory of the Manhattan Project. He has 
published technical scientific articles, lec- 
tures on science and education, and his 

story of the Manhattan Project, Atomic 
Quest: A Personal Narrative, New York, 
1956. A volume of his lectures is entitled 
The Freedom of Man, New Haven, 1935. 
CB 58 

1887-June 22, 1954), physicist, was born 
in Wooster. Wayne County, eldest son in a 
distinguished family of scientists. He gradu- 
ated from the College of Wooster in 1908 
and Princeton (Ph.D.) in 1912. After teach- 
ing two years at Reed College and serving 
in France during World War I. he was pro- 
fessor of physics at Princeton, 1919-30. 
From 1930 to 1948 he was president of 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He 
also served as an adviser or an official of 
many governmental research projects. The 
essence of many of his lectures and 
speeches published separately can be found 
in A Scientist Speaks . . . , Cambridge. 
[Mass.], 1955. WWW 3 

15, 1900- ), educator, was born in 
Wooster, Wayne County, the brother of 
Arthur H. and Karl T. (qq.v.). Like his 
brothers he graduated from the College of 
Wooster (1911) and earned a Ph.D. at 
Princeton (1915). After a year as an in- 
structor at Dartmouth College and two 
years with the Federal Trade Commission, 
he became secretary of the National Lum- 
ber Manufacturers Association, 191 8—44. 
He was also professor of economics at 
George Washington University, 1934-41, 
and president of Washington State College, 
1944-51. Since 1953 he has been president 
of the Council for Financial Aid to Educa- 
tion. He has published articles and speeches 
on economics, forestry, and science, e.g., 
Conservation: The Form or the Substance: 
Which? [Chicago, 1919]. WW 30 

1840-May 19, 1917), lawyer and judge, 
was born in Germantown, Montgomery 
County. After graduating from Ohio Wes- 
leyan University in 1860. he began the 
study of law in New Castle, Ind. In 1866 
he settled in Richmond, Ind., and in 1867 
he married Josephine A. Rohrer of his na- 
tive town. He practiced law in Richmond, 
served in the Indiana State Senate, and 
was judge of the Seventh Judicial Circuit. 
Ninth Cavalry: One Hundred and Twenty- 
first Regiment Indiana Volunteers, Rich- 
mond. Ind., 1890. 

CONARD, HOWARD LOUIS (1853 -Dec. 7, 
1925), who was born in Hartford, Lick- 



ing County, attended Kenyon College and 
Ohio Wesleyan University. After two years 
as State Librarian (1883-85) and a few 
years as a hack writer, Conard learned dur- 
ing a trip in the West that one of the last 
and most colorful of the "mountain men," 
the famous "Uncle Dick" Wootton, was 
still living in his adobe house high in the 
Raton Mountains. Seeking him out, Conard 
took down the old fellow's narrative of his 
eventful past. Therein lies Conard's claim 
to fame. He had the good sense to let the 
old trapper tell his story in his own ram- 
bling style — his story that touched virtually 
every outstanding incident in the opening 
of the Rocky Mountain region. The book 
achieved immediate recognition as a classic 
in the literature of the Rocky Mountain 
West. Conard's death occurred in Colum- 

"Uncle Dick" Wootton, the Pioneer Fron- 
tiersman of the Rocky Mountain Region 
, . . , Chicago, 1890. 
Reconstructing Eden, Columbus, 1909. 

CONDON, FRANK (1882-Dec. 19, 1940), 
was born in Toledo, Lucas County. He 
began his career as a reporter in his native 
city, moved to New York City to work as 
an advertising man. and in 1925 moved to 
Hollywood. He died in Beverley Hills, 
Calif. A highly successful writer for motion 
pictures and for national magazines, he 
also published Once in a Blue Moon, New 
York, [1929]. 

CONE, MARY (?-?), was born in Marietta. 
Washington County. She never married and 
spent most of her life in the vicinity of 

Two Years in California, Chicago, 1876. 
Life of Rufus Putnam . . . , Cleveland, 

CONE, ORELLO (Nov. 16. 1835-June 23, 
1905), educator, was born in Lincklaen, 
N. Y. In 1864 he became a Universalist 
minister. A liberal, painstaking scholar, he 
aroused controversy within and outside his 
church. From 1880 to 1897 he was presi- 
dent of Buchtel College, now the University 
of Akron. During his stay in Akron he 
published some of his most important stud- 
ies of the New Testament. 
Salvation, Boston, 1889. 
Gospel-Criticism and Historical Christianity 

. . . , New York, 1891. 
The Gospel and Its Earliest Interpretations 

. . . , New York, 1893. 
Paul; The Man, the Missionary, and the 

Teacher, New York, 1898. 

The Epistles . . . , New York, 1901. 
Rich and Poor in the New Testament . . . , 
New York, 1902. 

1840-Aug. 11, 1908), journalist, was born 
near Crosby, Hamilton County. He learned 
the printing trade on the Intelligencer in 
Hamilton. During the Civil War he served 
in the 167th O.V.I., after which he became 
a foreman-printer in various establishments 
in Cincinnati, Columbus, Fort Wayne, Ind., 
and Hamilton. He edited the Oxford Citi- 
zen, 1885-91, and the Paulding Democrat, 
1892-97. His last years were spent in 
Biographical and Historical Sketches; A 

Narrative of Hamilton . . . , Hamilton, 

A Concise History of Hamilton . . . , 

Middletown, 1901. 

1872-Feb. 22, 1951), army officer, was 
born in Peninsula. Summit County, and 
was reared in Akron. He graduated from 
Harvard University in 1894, enlisted in the 
army in 1898. and retired as a colonel in 
1928. After his retirement he joined an 
automobile brokerage business in Akron. 
His death occurred in Pasadena, Calif. He 
wrote The Rise of U. S. Grant, New York, 

1843-May 31, 1917), wife of Arthur L. 
Conger, Akron industrialist, was born in 
Peninsula. Summit County. Active in Akron 
cultural and social activities, she also stud- 
ied osteopathy and was one of the first 
women to earn a degree in that field. She 
published an account of her travels in the 
Orient and of two years spent with her son, 
Colonel A. L. Conger (q.v. ). in the Philip- 
pines: An Ohio Woman in the Philippines 
. . . , [Akron, 1904]. 

CONGER, SARAH PIKE (July 24. 1842-?), 
was born in Painesville, Lake County. She 
graduated from Lombard College in 1863. 
In 1866 she married Edwin Hurd Conger, a 
lawyer, congressman, and diplomat. When 
her husband was appointed minister to 
Brazil in 1891, she accompanied him to his 
post, as she did when he was transferred to 
China in 1898. The latter experience pro- 
vided her with material for books on China, 
e.g.. Old China and Young America, Chi- 
cago, 1913. WW 6 

CONKLIN, EDWIN GRANT (Nov. 24, 1863- 
Nov. 27, 1952), educator, was born in 


Conover, F. 

Waldo, Marion County. He graduated from 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1885 and 
Johns Hopkins University (Ph.D.) in 1891. 
He served on the faculties of Ohio Wes- 
leyan, 1891-94, Northwestern University, 
1894-96, the University of Pennsylvania, 
1896-1908, and Princeton University, 
1908-33. He wrote a great many scientific 
articles and monographs and numerous 
books on evolution, heredity, and educa- 
tion, e.g., The Direction of Human Evolu- 
tion, New York, 1921. WWW 3 

1837-June 18, 1904), daughter of Cornelius 
Ambrosius Logan (q.v.), was born in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. She came to Cincinnati when 
her family settled there in 1840; there she 
attended school and at an early age began 
appearing on the stage. Her first husband 
was the Cincinnati artist Miner Kilbourne 
Kellogg (q.v.), with whom she lived in 
Europe while serving as a correspondent for 
American newspapers. During the Civil 
War she translated the war news for the 
newspapers of Milan, Italy, where she was 
then a resident. Afterward she was associate 
editor of The Capital in Washington, D. C. 
Divorced from Kellogg, she married James 
F. Connelley in 1872. Most of her novels 
and plays were published under the pen 
name L. Fairfax. 
The Elopement; A Tale of the Confederate 

States of America, London, 1863. 
An American Marriage, [n.p., 1883]. 
"Maryland," An Original Drama . . . , [n.p., 

Her Strange Fate. A Novel, New York, 


CONNELLY, THOMAS W. (Sept. 21, 1839- 
Jan. 29, 1908), was born near Brady ville, 
Adams County. He was educated in the 
public schools of Manchester. On Oct. 14, 
1861, he enlisted in the 70th O.V.I. and 
served with this regiment, a part of Sher- 
man's forces, throughout the war. He was 
discharged in Aug., 1865. After the war he 
made his home in Manchester, holding the 
offices of marshal, notary public, and con- 
stable. He was an active member of the 
G.A.R. and the Republican Party. He wrote 
a regimental history: History of the Seven- 
tieth Ohio Regiment . . . , Cincinnati, 1902. 

1912), journalist, was born in Clermont 
County. She graduated from Antioch Col- 
lege in 1861, taught in the schools of In- 
dianapolis, Ind., and in 1869 married Dr. 
George Conner of Cincinnati. In 1865 she 
became a regular contributor to the Satur- 

day Evening Post under the nom de plume 
"Zig," and later to the Cincinnati Commer- 
cial under the initials "E. A." She became 
literary editor of the New York World in 
1884, and the following year, joined the 
American Press Association in an editorial 

"E. A." Abroad. A Summer in Europe, Cin- 
cinnati, 1883. 

CONNER, JACOB ELON (Oct. 21, 1861- ?), 
was born in Wilmington, Clinton County. 
He graduated from the University of Iowa 
(A.B., 1891; Ph.D., 1903). After teaching 
in several universities, he entered govern- 
ment service. He was American consul at 
Saigon, 1907-09, and St. Petersburg, Rus- 
sia, 1909-14. 

Uncle Sam Abroad, Chicago, [1900]. 
Christ Was Not a Jew . . . , New York, 

CONNER, JAMES RYAN (Sept. 21, 1839- 
June 30, 1930), clergyman, was born in 
Crossenville, Perry County. He graduated 
from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1867. 
He served as a Methodist and later as a 
Congregational clergyman. He wrote Mis- 
taken Views of Scripture, Cincinnati, 1923. 


14, 1855-Sept. 23, 1940), historian, was 
born in Dayton, Montgomery County. She 
attended Dayton schools and the University 
of Geneva, Switzerland. She married Frank 
Conover (q.v.) of Dayton in 1874. She 
taught private classes, lectured on historical 
subjects, wrote feature stories for the Day- 
ton Journal, and served as historical secre- 
tary to J. H. Patterson, president of National 
Cash Register Company. She published a 
number of useful historical and biographi- 
cal works, e.g., Some Dayton Saints and 
Prophets, [Dayton], 1907, and Dayton and 
Montgomery County . . . , 4 vols., New 
York, 1932, and an autobiographical work: 
On Being Eighty . . . , Yellow Springs, 1938. 

CONOVER, FRANK (May 29, 1853-Oct. 
24, 1912), was born in Dayton, Montgom- 
ery County. In 1875 he graduated from 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but 
he practiced engineering for only a short 
time. He turned to law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1878. In 1879 he married 
Charlotte Elizabeth Reeve (see above), 
daughter of a Dayton physician. He wrote 
editorials and poems for Dayton newspapers 
and delivered many public addresses, chiefly 
on libraries and education. He died in 



Centennial Portrait and Biographical Rec- 
ord of the City of Dayton and of Mont- 
gomery County . . . , [Logansport, Ind.], 

YSIUS (Sept. 21, 1869-June 15, 1930), who 
was born in Hardin County, went to Arizona 
in the early 1890s, and there he became a 
successful businessman. During the latter 
years of his life he followed writing as a 
profession. He was a classical scholar whose 
poems ranked high in poetic technique. In 
addition to poetry he wrote stories, novels, 
and plays. 

A Junior's Poems, Cincinnati, 1891. 
Idle Songs and Idle Sonnets, Cincinnati, 

Quivira, Boston, 1907. 
The Golden Bowl, New York, 1925. 
The Ogre of Bandit Roost, New York, 1927. 
Peggy of Lone Peak, New York. 1927. 
Desert Madness, New York, [1928]. 

CONROY, JACK (Dec. 5, 1899- ), born 
in Moberly, Mo., spent several years as a 
migratory worker and lived four years in 
Toledo ( 1 927-3 1 ) before publishing his 
autobiographical first novel: The Disin- 
herited, [New York, 1933]. 

CONTEUR. Pseud. See Edwin Henderson. 

Sept. 2, 1902), editor, was born in Chardon, 
Geauga County. He began working in the 
local printing shop when he was sixteen, 
and in 1859 he became editor of the Jef- 
fersonian Democrat, renamed in 1872 the 
Geauga Republican. He edited this news- 
paper until 1902. He was active in politics 
and was a popular speaker. His address on 
James A. Garfield, reprinted as a pamphlet, 
was widely circulated. 

Garfield, the Ideal Man . . . , Cleveland, 

1832-Nov. 15, 1907), clergyman, was born 
in Virginia and was minister of First Con- 
gregational Church, Cincinnati, 1856-62. 
Slaves from his father's plantation made 
their way north, and he settled them near 
Yellow Springs. He took an active part in 
Cincinnati cultural life; he founded and 
edited The Dial, where he published con- 
tributions from Emerson, Howells, and 
others. A prolific writer, he contributed to 
the Atlantic Monthly and other periodicals 
while living in Ohio and also published an 
appeal for abolition: The Golden Hour, 

Boston, 1862. Acquainted with most of the 
American and British writers of his day, 
he wrote a valuable record of the literary 
world in his autobiography, Autobiography 
. . . , Boston, 1904. 


(Oct. 26, 1845-Jan. 18, 1923), was born in 
Homer, Licking County. She and her sister, 
Victoria C. Woodhull Martin (q.v. ), are 
two of the most flamboyant characters Ohio 
has produced. Tennessee married a John 
Bartels but never used his name. Although 
both sisters lived in England after 1877, 
they visited the United States frequently, 
always managing to stir some controversy 
that kept them in the public eye. In 1885 
Tennessee married a wealthy Englishman, 
Francis Cook, who later was made a baronet. 
As Lady Cook she settled down in semire- 
spectability. She collaborated with her sister 
in writing The Human Body the Temple of 
God. Like her sister she lectured frequently, 
and some of her talks were issued separately 
as pamphlets. Before going to England she 
usually signed herself Tennie C. Claflin. 
Constitutional Equality a Right of Women 

. . . , New York, 1871. 
What Was Her Crime? . . . , [New York, 

Talks and Essays, 4 vols, in 2, London, 

Essays on Social Topics, London, [1898]. 
Illegitimacy, [London, 1909?]. 
Who Rules? [n.p., 191-?]. 

COOKE, EDMUND VANCE (June 5, 1864- 
Dec. 18, 1932), poet, born in Port Dover, 
Ontario, Canada, was educated in the 
public schools of Cleveland and spent his 
life in that city. A popular lecturer and a 
nonconformist, he advocated the single tax, 
practiced vegetarianism, and opposed vac- 

A Patch of Pansies, New York, 1894. 
Rimes to Be Read, Chicago, [1897]. 
Impertinent Poems, New York, 1903. 
Chronicles of the Little Tot, New York, 

The Biography of Our Baby, New York, 

Told to the Little Tot, New York, [1906]. 
A Morning's Mail, Philadelphia, 1907. 
Just Then Something Happened, New York, 

Little Songs for Two, New York, [1909]. 
/ Rule the House, New York, [1910]. 
Baseballology, Chicago, 1912. 
The Story Club, New York, [1912], 
The Uncommon Commoner . . . , New 

York, [1913]. 
Cheerful Children, Chicago, [1923]. 


Cooper, W. C. 

Companionable Poems, Chicago, 1924. 
From the Book of Extenuations . . . , New 
York, [1926]. 

COOKE, FLORA JULIETTE (d.Feb., 1953), 
educator, was born in Bainbridge, Ross 
County. She attended public school in 
Youngstown and then studied at Chicago 
Normal School. She taught in Francis W. 
Parker School, Chicago. 1891-1900, and 
served as principal, 1900-34. The book 
below was revised several times. She also 
published articles on education. 
Nature Myths and Stories for Little Chil- 
dren, Chicago, [1895]. 

1863-1944), who was born in Grand 
Rapids, Wood County, spent her girlhood in 
Chattanooga, Tenn., where her father was 
editor of the Chattanooga Times. She mar- 
ried William Cooke of Chattanooga, from 
whom she was later divorced. She began 
contributing to magazines in 1888 and was 
the first president of the Tennessee Women's 
Press Club. With her sister, Alice Mac- 
Gowan (q.v.), she joined Upton Sinclair at 
Helicon Hall, his experimental community 
in New Jersey, and followed him to Cali- 
fornia when the hall burned. She lived for 
many years at Carmel, Calif., where her 
home was a gathering place for artists and 
writers. She wrote a number of novels, e.g., 
The Power and the Glory, New York, 1910. 
Several of her books were collaborations 
with her sister Alice. WW 19 

COOKSON, CHARLES W. (July 6, 1861- 
Nov. 14, 1947), educator, was born in Red- 
field, Perry County. He attended Fulton- 
ham Academy, College of Wooster, and 
Ohio University. After serving as superin- 
tendent of schools in various Ohio com- 
munities, he settled in Troy, where he wrote 
his autobiography, After Fifty Years, a 
Pleasant Memory, [Troy, 1942]. OBB 

COOLIDGE, SUSAN. Pseud. See Sarah C. 

COOMES, OLIVER (Aug. 26, 1845-June 
27, 1921), was born near Newark, Licking 
County. In 1856 his parents moved to Iowa, 
and he spent most of his life in that state. 
He operated a farm in Cass County from 
1870 until a few years before his death, 
when he retired to Atlantic. He served in 
the Iowa legislature, 1877-80. In 1870 he 
began to write dime novels; some were de- 
tective stories but most were stories of the 
Midwest frontier and the Indian. A few ap- 
peared under the pen name Will Dexter, 

but most he published as Oil Coomes. Al- 
together he wrote more than 75 stories in 
various Beadle series. A few representative 
titles are Antelope Abe, the Boy Guide 
. . . , New York, 1872; Foghorn Phil, the 
King of the Border . . . , New York, 1874; 
Jabez Dart, Detective . . . , New York, 
1887; Dandy Bill's Doom . . . , New York, 

COOMES, OLL. See Oliver Coomes. 

COOPER, DOROTHY (1902-1939), edu- 
cator, was born in Lockland, Hamilton 
County. A graduate of the University of 
Cincinnati, she taught English in Hughes 
High School, Cincinnati, for fifteen years. 
Her poems appeared in various periodicals, 
and after her death her father published a 
collection: Bedrock, Prairie City, 111., [1943]. 

COOPER, JACOB (Dec. 7, 1830-Jan. 21, 
1904), educator, was born near Somerville, 
Butler County. He graduated from Yale 
University in 1852 and from the Univer- 
sity of Berlin (Ph.D.) in 1854. He also 
studied theology at Halle and Edinburgh. 
In 1855 he became professor of Greek at 
Centre College, Danville, Ky. Here he soon 
found himself the leader of a group of 
educators who were intent on supporting 
the Federal cause and who established the 
Danville Review, of which Cooper was the 
editor, 1861-65. He joined the faculty of 
Rutgers College in 1866, where for 27 years 
he was professor of Greek and from 1893 
until his death was professor of philosophy 
and logic. He served as an editor of Biblio- 
theca Sacra, 1897-1903. His published writ- 
ings were chiefly articles contributed to 
scholarly periodicals and later issued as 
pamphlets. His death occurred in New 
Brunswick, N. J. 

The Loyalty Demanded by the Present 
Crisis, Philadelphia, 1864. 

1914), physician, was born in North Bend, 
Hamilton County. According to Otto Juett- 
ner (q.v.), he was without formal educa- 
tion when he became a schoolteacher at the 
age of twenty, and in twelve years he rose 
to be principal of a high school. After 
studying medicine for a short while under 
a local practitioner, he entered the Eclec- 
tic Medical Institute, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1867. He practiced for twelve years 
in Indianapolis, where he edited a small 
professional journal, the Medical Review. 
In 1880 he took up his permanent residence 
in Cleves. His death occurred in that com- 
munity. For twelve years he was associated 



with W. E. Bloyer in the editorial manage- 
ment of the Medical Gleaner. He was a 
gifted writer with a delightful sense of 
humor and was a forcible critic and ob- 
The Primitive Fundamental, Cleveland, 

Tethered Truants; Being Essays, Sketches 

and Poems, Cincinnati, 1897. 
Immortality . . . , Cleves, 1904. 
Preventive Medicine . . . , Cleves, 1905. 
Mind and Matter, Cleveland, [n.d.]. 

1852-Aug. 8, 1916), clergyman, was born 
in Licking County. After graduating from 
Capital University in 1875 and Columbus 
Theological Seminary in 1877, he served 
various pastorates, 1877-1901. He also edited 
the Lutheran Standard, 1898-1909. He died 
in Columbus. 

Be True, Columbus, 1890. 
The Lamb of God, Columbus, 1902. 
The Last Things, Columbus, 1911. 
In His Service, Columbus, 1913. 

10, 1907- ), educator, was born in East 
Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. A graduate 
of Yale University (A.B., 1928; Ph.D., 
1933), he taught English at his alma mater, 
1934-49, and since 1949 has been a mem- 
ber of the University of Chicago faculty. 
His writings include Our Eminent Friend 
Edmund Burke . . . , New Haven, 1949. 
DAS 3 

COPPENS, CHARLES (May 24, 1835-Dec. 
14, 1920), Jesuit educator, was on the 
faculty of St. Xavier's College, Cincinnati, 
1860-62. He published numerous articles, 
textbooks, and devotional works. 

COQUINA. Pseud. See George O. Shields, 

1893-Feb. 19, 1950), journalist, was born 
in Zanesville, Muskingum County. He 
worked on newspapers in Zanesville, Toledo, 
and Minneapolis; the last city was his resi- 
dence at the time of his death. His books 
include Why News Is News, New York, 
[1928]. WWW 2 

COREY, HERBERT (June 28, 1872-Dec. 
28, 1954), journalist, was born in Toledo, 
Lucas County. He spent a number of years 
in Colorado and Wyoming before joining 
the Cincinnati Enquirer in 1900. He was 
later traveling correspondent for the Cin- 
cinnati Times-Star. He died in Washington, 
D. C. He wrote numerous magazine articles 

and several books on topics of current pub- 
lic interest, e.g., The Truth about Hoover, 
New York, 1932. WWW 3 

COREY, LEWIS (1894-Sept. 16, 1953), edu- 
cator, was born Louis C. Traina in Italy, 
but was brought to the United States when 
a child of three. He grew up in San Fran- 
cisco, was director of the Bolshevist Bureau 
in New York, and was one of the organizers 
of the Communist Party in the United States 
in 1919. In 1922 he broke with the party, 
the first of its major leaders to do so; for 
the rest of his career he was one of the 
most vigorous leaders of the anti-Com- 
munist liberal movement. He was associate 
professor of political economy, Antioch 
College, 1942-51. He wrote a number of 
books on social and economic issues, e.g., 
The House of Morgan, New York, 1930. 

CORINNE. Pseud. See Sarah M. N. G. Dahl- 

1854-June 11, 1948), physician, was born 
in Orange, Coshocton County. He gradu- 
ated from the medical department of Uni- 
versity of Wooster in 1877, studied in 
Europe, and served on the faculties of 
Wooster, 1883-85, and Western Reserve 
University, 1885-1924. Besides a number 
of medical articles on diseases of the skin, 
he wrote The Medicine-Man of the Ameri- 
can Indian and His Cultural Background, 
Springfield, 111., [1935]. WWW 2 

CORNE, MOLLY E. Pseud. See Mrs. Clifford 
B. Sturgeon. 

in Knoxville, Tenn., lived in Cincinnati for 
fifteen years. She is now a resident of Fort 
Mitchell, Ky., and she is still active in Cin- 
cinnati literary activities. She attended the 
University of Cincinnati, University of Ten- 
nessee, and Schuster Martin School of 
Drama. In 1920 she married Dr. Josiah H. 
Cornell. Since 1928 she has published poems 
in more than a hundred periodicals and in 
many anthologies. In 1936 she was co- 
founder with B. Y. Williams (q.v.) of 
Talaria, a poetry quarterly, and she is now 
editor of Talaria publications. She has 
published several collections of verse, among 
them, a collaboration with Frank Hartman 
(q.v.): Golden Feather, Ludlow, Ky., 1938, 
and The Forbidden Woman, Cincinnati, 

CORNETET, NOAH E. (June 2, 1867-Nov. 
13, 1931), clergyman and educator, was 
born in Mowrystown, Highland County. He 


Cotton, W. D. 

was educated at Otterbein College. After 
being ordained a United Brethren minister 
in 1890, he served parishes in Hallsville, 
C\nthiana, Newark, and Logan. From 1901 
until his death he was on the faculty of 
Otterbein College. He wrote Prayer, a 
Means of Spiritual Growth, Davton, [1904]. 
WWW 1 

Donovan C.) (Nov. 17. 1925- ), who was 
born in Pittsburgh. Pa., lived in Youngstown 
and Painesville for eighteen years, moved 
to Louisville. Ky.. after her marriage, and 
now lives in Philadelphia. She has written 
book reviews and feature stories for vari- 
ous newspapers and has published short 
stories. Her novel They Dare Not Go 
A-hunting, New York, 1944. was awarded 
the Dodd Mead prize for fiction in 1944. 

1861-Jan. 25. 1953). wife of Oscar T. Cor- 
son (q.v.), was born in Camden, Preble 
County. She was active in the cultural life of 
Columbus, where her husband served as 
commissioner of common schools. Her writ- 
ings include Glimpses of Longfellow, Colum- 
bus, 1903. 

April 14, 1928), educator, was born near 
Camden, Preble County. He served as prin- 
cipal of several Ohio schools and was state 
commissioner of common schools, 1892- 
98. He lectured widely and wrote articles 
and books on educational and other sub- 
jects, e.e.. Abraham Lincoln; His Words 
and Dee"ds, Dansville, N. Y., [1937]. WWW 

CORWIN, JANE HUDSON (Oct. 6, 1809- 
March 6, 1881), born in County Down, 
Ireland, was the daughter of a Presbyterian 
clergyman who came to the United States 
in 1818. In 1829 she married Jesse Corwin, 
brother of Thomas Corwin (q.v.), and re- 
sided near Hamilton. She contributed many 
sketches and poems to various periodicals 
and newspapers. These were collected, and 
500 copies were published at the solicitation 
of her friends. 

The Harp of Home; Or, the Medley, Cin- 
cinnati, 1858. 

CORWIN, THOMAS (July 29, 1794-Dec. 
18, 1865), lawyer and public official, was 
born in Bourbon County, Ky., but grew up 
in Lebanon, where his father moved in 
1798. Largely self-educated, he was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1818. He served in 
the Ohio legislature, 1822-29, in the U. S. 
House of Representatives, 1830-40 and 

1858-61, as governor of Ohio, 1840-42, 
in the U. S. Senate, 1844-50, as Secretary 
of the Treasury, 1850-53, and as minister 
to Mexico. 1861-64. At the time of his 
death in Washington, D. C, he was prac- 
ticing law in that city. His vigorous op- 
position to the Mexican War probably handi- 
capped his political advancement. He was 
a witty, eloquent orator, and many of his 
speeches were published separately. 
Speeches of Thomas Corwin, with a Sketch 

of His Life, (Isaac Strohm, ed.), Dayton, 


1895- ). engineer, was born in Sylvania, 
Lucas County. After graduating from the 
University of Michigan in 1917, he was a 
valuation engineer for Chicago Common- 
wealth Edison Company and was on field 
duty with the Federal Power Commission, 
1939-59. He has written a number of his- 
torical pamphlets, e.g., A History of Syl- 
vania for the First Hundred Years . . . , 
[Sylvania, 1933]. 

COTTER, JAMES HENRY (Aug. 19, 1858- 
Dec. 9. 1947), clergyman, was born in 
Tipperary. Ireland. Educated at Mt. St. 
Mary's, Md., he edited the Catholic Colum- 
bian, published in Columbus, and from 1889 
until his death was pastor of St. Lawrence 
Church, Ironton. In 1904 he began lecturing 
on Ireland and Shakespeare. He published a 
book about his native town: Tipperary, New 
York, [1929]. CWW 7 

8, 1866-March 12, 1930), was born in 
Ounenice. Ontario, Canada. In 1898 he was 
made general manager of the Sherwin Wil- 
liams Company in Ohio, and in 1908 he 
became president of the company. He re- 
signed as president in 1922 and retired to 
England, where he spent the remainder of 
his life. He published a widely distributed 
book, Business Success, [Cleveland?, 1907]. 

COTTON, JAMES HARRY (June 9, 1896- 
), clergyman, born in Stephens, Minn., 
graduated from the College of Wooster in 
1921 and served on the Wooster faculty, 
1926-28. He was pastor of Broad Street 
Presbyterian Church, Columbus, 1928-40. 
Since leaving Ohio he has been president of 
McCormick Theological Seminary, 1940- 
47, and professor of philosophy, Wabash 
College. He has written The Christian Ex- 
perience of Life, New York, [1933]. WW 30 

COTTON, WILLI A DAWSON (Sept. 2, 1868- 
June 7, 1942), librarian, was born in Mari- 



etta, Washington County. She became li- 
brarian of Marietta Public Library in 1901, 
and spent her entire life in that community. 
She wrote Sketch of Mound Cemetery . . . , 
Marietta, 1904. 

COULTER, ERNEST KENT (Nov. 14, 1871- 
May 1, 1952), lawyer, was born in Colum- 
bus, Franklin County. After graduating 
from Ohio State University in 1893, he 
worked on New York newspapers and stud- 
ied law. He was one of the organizers of 
the Children's Court, New York City, 
founded the Big Brother Movement in 1904, 
and was active in other children's protective 
movements. He practiced law, 1912-37, 
and after his retirement lived in California. 
His writings include The Children in the 
Shadow, New York, 1913. WW 26 

COVERT, JOHN CUTLER (Feb. 11, 1837- 
Jan. 14, 1919), founder and first president 
of the Rowfant Club of Cleveland, was 
born in Norwich, N. Y. His parents brought 
him to Cleveland while he was a boy, and, 
after serving a three-year apprenticeship, 
he worked as a printer in Cleveland and 
other cities. He became a reporter on the 
Cleveland Leader in 1868 and in 1890 was 
made editor. He lived in France, 1897— 
1909, serving as American consul in Lyons 
and Marseilles and teaching English. His 
death occurred in Cleveland. 
The A. B.C. of Finances . . . , Akron, 1896. 

COVEY, MRS. ARTHUR S. See Lois Lenski. 

COWDEN, ROBERT (May 24, 1833-Sept. 
27, 1922), was born in Leesville, Crawford 
County. Educated in local schools, he be- 
came a carpenter and worked at this trade 
until Sept. 9, 1861, when he enlisted as a 
private in Company B, 56th Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry. His service career was a most 
active one. He was promoted to lieutenant 
by reason of meritorious service at the 
battle of Shiloh, and on July 29, 1863, he 
was promoted to major of the 59th U. S. 
Colored Infantry. He was discharged Jan. 
31, 1866, with the rank of lieutenant colonel. 
He served as postmaster at Gabon, 1878— 
82. For a great many years he was a mem- 
ber of the general board of the Ohio Sun- 
day School Association and became known 
throughout Ohio and the United Brethren 
Church as "The Sunday School Man." He 
wrote a family history in addition to the 
regimental history cited below. 
A Brief Sketch of the Organization and 
Services of the Fifty-ninth Regiment of 
United States Colored Infantry, and 
Biographical Sketches, Dayton, 1883. 

COWEN, BENJAMIN RUSH (Aug. 15, 1831- 
1908), who was born in Moorefield, Har- 
rison County, was a journalist and also held 
various political appointments. During the 
Civil War he rose from private to brigadier 
general of volunteers. He died in Cincinnati. 
Our Beacon Light . . . , Columbus, 1884. 
The Miracle of the Nineteenth Century. Do 

Missions Pay?, Cincinnati, 1891. 
Abraham Lincoln; An Appreciation by One 

Who Knew Him, Cincinnati, 1909. 

COWLES, HENRY (April 24, 1803-Sept. 6, 
1881), clergyman and educator, was born 
in Norfolk, Conn. He graduated from Yale 
University in 1826, and after attending the 
theological seminary for two years, he was 
ordained a home missionary in 1828. He 
came to Ohio, where he labored in mission- 
ary work for two years, chiefly in Ashta- 
bula and Sandusky. He was on the faculty 
of Oberlin College, 1835-48, edited the 
Oberlin Evangelist, 1848-62, was general 
agent of the College, 1860-63, and was a 
lecturer there, 1869-78. He was an active 
antislavery man. 
The Revelation of John . . . , New York, 

The Pentateuch . . . , New York, 1874. 
Hebrew History . . . , New York, 1875. 
The Gospel and Epistles of John . . . , New 

York, 1876. 
The Epistle to the Hebrews . . . , New York, 

The Shorter Epistles . . . , New York, 1879. 
The Longer Epistles of Paul . . . , New 

York, 1880. 
Luke . . . , New York, 1881. 
Matthew and Mark . . . , New York, 1881. 
A Defence of Ohio Congregationalism and 

Oberlin College, [n.p., n.d.]. 

COWLES, JULIA DARROW (Jan. 6, 1862- 
Sept. 6, 1919), was born in Norwalk, Huron 
County. She graduated from Central High 
School, Buffalo, N. Y., in 1880 and studied 
at the University of Minnesota and North- 
western Conservatory, Minneapolis. She was 
department editor of the Housekeeper, 1903- 
06, and specialized in literature for children 
and storytelling to children. Her death oc- 
curred in Minneapolis, Minn. 
Artistic Home Furnishing for People of 

Moderate Means, New York, [1898]. 
Jim Crow's Language Lessons, and Other 

Stories of Birds and Animals, New York, 

Our Little Athenian Cousin of Long Ago; 

Being the Story of Hiero, a Boy of 

Athens, Boston, 1913. 
Our Little Roman Cousin of Long Ago; 

Being the Story of Marcus, a Boy of 

Rome, Boston, 1913. 


Cox, James M. 

The Art of Story Telling, with Nearly Half 
a Hundred Stories, Chicago, 1914. 

Our Little Spartan Cousin of Long Ago; 
Being the Story of Chartas, a Boy of 
Sparta, Boston, 1914. 

Favorite Fairy Tales Retold; The First of 
a Series of Children's Classics Adapted 
for Story-telling, Chicago, 1915. 

Our Little Macedonian Cousin of Long Ago; 
Being the Story of Nearchus, a Boy of 
Macedonia and Companion of Alexander, 
Boston, 1915. 

Favorite Folk Tales Retold; The Second of 
a Series of Children's Classics Especially 
Adapted for Story-telling, Chicago, 1916. 

Our Little Saxon Cousin of Long Ago; 
Being the Story of Turgar, a Boy of An- 
glo-Saxons, in the Time of Alfred the 
Great, Boston, 1916. 

Going to School in Animal Land, Chicago, 

Indian Nature Myths, Chicago, [1918]. 

The Children's Story Hour, (with Ethelyn 
Abbott), Chicago, 1924. 

The Child's Own Fairy Book, Chicago, 

Favorite Tales for Story-telling, Chicago, 

Myths from Many Lands, Chicago, 1924. 

Twilight Folk Tales, Chicago, 1924. 

COX, GEORGE CLARKE (May 17, 1865- 
Dec. 17, 1943), clergyman, educator, and 
investment counselor, was born in Colum- 
bus, Franklin County. He graduated from 
Kenyon College in 1886 and Harvard Uni- 
versity (Ph.D.) in 1910. He served as an 
Episcopal priest, 1888-1908. After resign- 
ing from the ministry in 1908, he was on 
the Harvard faculty until 1911, and he 
then taught at Dartmouth until 1915. After 
1915 he was an insurance analyst and an 
economic advisor. Besides many magazine 
and newspaper articles, he wrote The Public 
Conscience . . . , New York, [1922]. WWW 

COX, JACOB DOLSON (Oct. 27. 1828-Aug. 
4, 1900), was born in Montreal, Canada, 
of American parents, who moved to New 
York City the year after his birth. He at- 
tended private schools. He moved to Lorain 
in 1846 and three years later married Helen 
C. Finney, the daughter of Charles G. 
Finney (q.v. ), president of Oberlin Col- 
lege. He graduated from Oberlin in 1851, 
studied law in Warren while serving as 
superintendent of schools, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1853. He was a member of 
the state senate in 1860 and 1861. During 
the Civil War he entered the Union Army 
as a brigadier general of Ohio Volunteers, 

April 23, 1861, and was promoted to major 
general, Oct. 6, 1862. Having been elected 
governor of Ohio in 1865, he resigned 
from the army Jan. 1, 1866. He served as 
governor, 1866-68, then moved to Cincin- 
nati, where he resumed the practice of law. 
He was Secretary of Interior in the first 
Cabinet of President Grant, resigning Nov. 
1, 1870, and again resuming the practice 
of law in Cincinnati. While president of 
the Wabash Railroad, 1873-78, he lived 
in Toledo. He was elected to the 45th 
Congress, but declined to be a candidate 
for renomination. He served as dean of the 
Cincinnati Law School, 1881-97, and as 
president of the University of Cincinnati, 
1885-89. He died at Magnolia, Mass., and 
was interred at Spring Grove Cemetery, 
Cincinnati. From 1874 until his death he 
reviewed military books for the Nation, 
and he also wrote several important military 
histories. Many of his addresses were pub- 
lished separately as pamphlets. 
Reconstruction and the Relation of the 
Races in the United States, Columbus, 
Atlanta, New York, 1882. 
The March to the Sea. Franklin and Nash- 
ville, New York, 1882. 
The Second Battle of Bull Rim . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1882. 
The Battle of Franklin, Tennessee . . . , 

New York, 1897. 
Military Reminiscences of the Civil War, 
2 vols., New York, 1900. 

COX, JACOB DOLSON (Nov. 1, 1881-Feb. 
16, 1953), industrialist, was born in Cleve- 
land, Cuyahoga County, the grandson of 
Jacob D. Cox (q.v.). He graduated from 
Williams College in 1903. After spending 
eight years in the lumber business in Ore- 
gon and Washington, he began as a mechanic 
in the Cleveland Twist Drill Co., founded 
by his father, and rose to the presidency 
in 1919. He wrote The Economic Basis of 
Fair Wages, New York, [1926]. WWW 3 

1870-July 15, 1957), newspaper publisher, 
was born in Jacksonburg, Butler County. 
He grew up on a farm, learned the print- 
ing business, taught school, and worked on 
the Cincinnati Enquirer. In 1898 he bought 
the Dayton Daily News, to which he later 
added papers in Canton, Springfield, At- 
lanta, Ga., and Miami, Fla. He was a mem- 
ber of Congress, 1909-13, served three 
terms as governor of Ohio, 1913-15, 1917— 
21, and was the Democratic candidate for 
President in 1920. He published an auto- 
biography, Journev through My Years, 
New York, 1946. WWW 3 

Cox, Joseph 


COX, JOSEPH (Aug. 4, 1822-Oct. 13, 1900), 
lawyer and judge, was born in Chambers- 
burg, Pa., but his parents brought him to 
Cincinnati in 1830. He read law, was ad- 
mitted to the bar, and practiced in Cincin- 
nati. He also served fifteen years as judge 
of common pleas court and fourteen years 
as judge of the circuit court. Besides the 
booklet below, several of his addresses were 
published as pamphlets. 

United States Supreme Court: Its Organiza- 
tion and Judges to 1835, [Cincinnati, 

COX, KENYON (Oct. 27, 1856-March 17, 
1919), artist, was born in Warren, Trum- 
bull County, the son of General Jacob Dol- 
son Cox (q.v.). His paintings, mostly por- 
traits, hang in many galleries. Though toler- 
ant of other styles, he was a traditionalist 
in his own paintings. Several of his lectures 
and articles on painting were reprinted. He 
also wrote Mixed Beasts, Rhymes and Pic- 
tures, New York, 1904. DAB 4 

COX, SAMUEL SULLIVAN (Sept. 30, 1824- 
Sept. 10, 1889), journalist and congress- 
man, was born in Zanesville, Muskingum 
County, where his father, Ezekiel T. Cox, 
was editor of the Muskingum Messenger. 
After spending two years at Ohio University, 
he transferred to Brown University, where 
he graduated in 1846. He read law and 
practiced for two years in Cincinnati. A 
trip to Europe resulted in his writing A 
Buckeye Abroad. He became editor of the 
Ohio Statesman in Columbus in 1853 and 
from that time took an increasingly active 
part in politics. In 1856 he was first elected 
to the House of Representatives, where he 
served a total of twenty years, though not 
continuously. A vivid description of a sun- 
set written for his newspaper gave him the 
nickname "Sunset" Cox, which remained 
with him throughout his life. During the 
Civil War he supported the government war 
effort, but he favored a swift peace, and he 
maintained his friendship with Clement L. 
Vallandigham (q.v.). In 1866 he moved 
to New York City, where he practiced law 
and continued his participation in Demo- 
cratic politics. Many of his speeches were 
published separately, and he was a prolific 
contributor to newspapers and magazines. 

A Buckeye Abroad; Or, Wanderings in Eu- 
rope, and in the Orient, New York, 1852. 

Ohio Politics. Cox after Giddings . . . , 
[Washington, 1859]. 

Eight Years in Congress, from 1857 to 
1865. Memoir and Speeches, New York, 

Search for Sunbeams in the Riviera, Corsica, 
Algiers and Spain, New York, 1870. 

Why We Laugh, New York, 1876. 

Free Land and Free Trade. The Lessons 
of the English Corn Laws Applied to the 
United States, New York, 1880. 

Arctic Sunbeams: Or, from Broadway to 
the Bosphorus, by Way of the North 
Cape, 2 vols., New York, 1882. 

Memorial Eulogies . . . , Washington, 1883. 

Union — Disunion — Reunion. Three Decades 
of Federal Legislation . . . , Providence, 
R. I., 1885. 

Diversions of a Diplomat in Turkey, New 
York, 1887. 

The Isles of the Princes . . . , New York, 

1852-July 24, 1923), was born near Zanes- 
ville, Muskingum County. A graduate of 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1874, he was 
admitted to the Ohio bar in 1877. He served 
in the U. S. Museum and was an official 
of many expositions. He became president 
of Second National Bank, Washington, 
D. C, in 1901. He wrote and lectured on 
historical and biographical subjects and with 
Milton H. Northrup wrote a life of his 
uncle, Samuel S. Cox (q.v.). 
Life of Samuel Sullivan Cox, Syracuse, 

N. Y., 1899. 
Biography of Matthew Gault Emery . . . , 

Washington, D. C, 1904. 

COXE, MARGARET (1800-?), was born in 
Burlington, N. J. Her personal life is quite 
obscured by her activity in behalf of the 
feminist movement. She apparently became 
effective in Ohio in the 1840s, reaching 
Cincinnati by 1845. There she taught in and 
probably helped to found the Cincinnati 
Female Seminary, being its director from 
1849 to 1851. Her pious pen was very busy 
exhorting action and admonishing conduct 
of the righteous ladies of the day. Her moral 
strictures, The Young Lady's Companion, 
now as dull and old hat as the cause itself, 
received from clergymen what would be 
termed "rave" notices today. Isaac E. Whit- 
ing of Columbus was her enterprising pub- 
lisher and sent out the manuscript for 
separate printings both in Gambier and in 
Boston, Mass. A third edition in gift format 
(1846) included "Token of Affection" on 
the gaudy title page and appended a recom- 
mended "List of books for female readers." 
The enormous success of this conduct book 
led to a similar book whose title is but a 
variant to intrigue a wider audience: Claims 
of the Country on American Females. Her 
Floral Emblems; Or, Moral Sketches from 



Flowers is as juvenile and as saccharine as 
the decade itself when sentimentality Was 
the convention. She was earlier responsible 
for several religious juveniles all published 
anonymously in New York: Botany of the 
Scriptures, Wonders of the Deep, The In- 
fant Brother, and Visit to Nahant. These 
have sunk into an obscurity from which it 
is only kindness and good taste not to 
rescue them. 

Wyman W. Parker 

The Young Lady's Companion; In a Series 
of Letters, Columbus, 1839. 

The Life of John Wycliffe, D.D., Columbus, 

Claims of the Country on American Fe- 
males, 2 vols., Columbus, 1842. 

Floral Emblems; Or, Moral Sketches from 
Flowers, Cincinnati, 1845. 

The Young Lady's Companion, and Token 
of Affection . . . , Columbus, 1846. 

Woman: Her Station Providentially Ap- 
pointed . . . , Columbus, 1848. 

COXEY, JACOB SECHLER (April 16, 1854- 
May 18, 1951), reformer, was born in 
Selingsgrove, Pa., but lived most of his ma- 
ture life in Massillon. Though wealthy from 
sandstone quarries, scrap iron, patent medi- 
cines, and a variety of other enterprises, he 
led bands of unemployed to Washington in 
1894 and again in 1914 to urge loans of 
fiat money to local governments to finance 
public works. Though designated the Com- 
monweal of Christ, his followers were 
familiarly known as Coxey's Army. He was 
a perennial candidate for political office. 
He wrote an analysis of his panacea: The 
Coxey Plan . . . , Massillon, 1914. WWW 3 

COY, MARTIN (April 8, 1863-Oct. 17, 1949), 
was born in Louisville, Stark County. He 
moved to Alliance in 1916 and was em- 
ployed at the Alliance Machine Company 
and the First National Bank. In 1905 he 
became treasurer of the East Ohio Classis 
of the Reformed Church. He published a 
volume of religious savings: Gems of Wis- 
dom, New York, [1941]. 

1860-Feb. 24, 1936), was born in Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton County, but made his home 
in Philadelphia, Pa., where he was an in- 
surance broker. He published privately 
Fenceless France; The Story of an Auto- 
mobile Ride, Philadelphia, [i908]. WWW 1 

1864-June 9, 1945), educator, was born in 
Scioto County. After graduating from State 
Normal School, Peru, Neb., he taught in 

Nebraska and Wisconsin. He was secretary 
of the National Education Association, 
1917-35. Besides numerous articles on edu- 
cational subjects, he wrote his autobiogra- 
phy: What Counted Most, Lincoln, Neb., 
1935. WWW 2 

CRAFTS, SARA JANE (d. 1930), religious 
educator, was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. She was active in the temperance 
movement, was a Chautauqua lecturer, and 
founded the International Primary Union 
of Sunday School Teachers. With her hus- 
band, Wilbur F. Crafts, she wrote a num- 
ber of lesson books for use in Sunday 
Schools and pleas for temperance. 
The Infant Class . . . , (Edward Eggleston, 

ed.), Chicago, 1870. 
A Tour around the World among the 

Temperance Brownies . . . , New York, 


1895-Aug. 20, 1953), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Benton Harbor, Maine. 
He graduated from Morningside College, 
Iowa, in 1915 and Boston University (S.T.B., 
1919; Ph.D., 1924). He was professor of 
New Testament at Oberlin Graduate School 
of Theology, 1928-46. During his Ohio 
years he published One God, One World 
. . . , New York, 1943. WWW 3 

CRAIG, JOHN DAVID (April 28, 1903- ), 
was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 
From 1924 to 1941 he served as cameraman 
and director on various expeditions. He has 
specialized in the production of adventure 
motion pictures and television films that re- 
quire underwater or jungle scenes. His ex- 
periences are described in Danger Is My 
Business, New York, 1938. WW 30 

CRAMER, MICHAEL JOHN (Feb. 6, 1835- 
Jan. 23, 1898), clergyman and diplomat, 
was born near Schaffhausen, Switzerland. 
In 1845 his family came to America and 
settled in Cincinnati, where Michael learned 
the printing trade. After graduating from 
Ohio Wesleyan University in 1859, he be- 
came a Methodist minister. In 1863 he 
married Mary Frances Grant, sister of 
U. S. Grant. He served in diplomatic posts 
in Leipzig, 1867-70. Denmark, 1871-81, 
and Switzerland, 1881-85. He died in Car- 
lisle, Pa., while serving as professor of 
philosophy at Dickinson College. He pub- 
lished many theological articles, but only 
one book. 

Ulysses S. Grant: Conversations and Un- 
published Letters, New York, [1897]. 

Crane, G. 


CRANE, GABRIEL (1783-?), was born in 
New Jersey. After coming to Ohio, he lived 
in Warren County, and died in Waynesville 
sometime after 1850. Except for his author- 
ship of the pamphlet below, nothing is 
known of his life. 

A Review of the Writings of Philo Pacificus 
against War . . . , Lebanon, 1818. 

CRANE, HART (July 21, 1899-April 27, 
1932), poet, was born in Garrettsville, Port- 
age County. His father, Clarence A. Crane, 
was an energetic businessman, owner of a 
chain of confectionery stores and a candy 
manufacturer. His mother was an ardent 
Christian Scientist. Their incompatibility cul- 
minated in divorce in 1916, and Crane later 
attributed the unhappiness of his personal 
life to "the curse of sundered parentage." 
Throughout his parents' domestic difficulties, 
he sided with his mother and was con- 
stantly at odds with his father, whose chief 
concern was that he should enter the family 
business. He attended public schools of 
Warren and Cleveland. He was writing 
verse at the age of thirteen, but found little 
encouragement except from a few little 
magazines, which were to remain his chief 
publishing outlet. In 1916, after a bitter 
quarrel with his father, he went to New 
York City to stay with Carl Schmitt, an 
Ohio-born painter. He wrote for the Pagan 
and other avant-garde periodicals and drifted 
into the irregular habits which culminated 
in homosexuality and alcoholism. From 
1916 to 1925 he alternated between Ohio 
and Greenwich Village, working inter- 
mittently as a reporter, a warehouse helper, 
a salesman, and a shipyard worker. His 
only congenial companionship in Ohio he 
found at Herbert Fletcher's bookshop next 
to his father's store in Akron. In the early 
1920s he produced his first major poems, 
"For the Marriage of Faustus and Helen" 
and "At Melville's Tomb." Publication of 
White Buildings in 1926 led to two grants 
from Otto Kahn, wealthy patron of the 
arts, and enabled him to work on his am- 
bitious long poem, The Bridge. This poem, 
a conscious effort to refute the spirit of 
Eliot's Wasteland, attempted to express the 
myth of America, its vitality and strength. 
The central symbol of the poem is Brooklyn 
Bridge. His wish to identify himself with 
American life resembles the poetic aims 
of Whitman. A subjective mysticism renders 
the poem highly obscure and robs it of 
organic unity, but it is filled with vivid 
images. The critical success of The Bridge 
in 1930 resulted in Crane's receiving a 
Guggenheim fellowship to go to Mexico to 
write a long poem on Cortes and Monte- 

zuma. Feeling that he had failed and had 
wasted his fellowship time in Mexico, he 
leaped to his death from the ship on which 
he was traveling back to New York. Col- 
lected Poems, edited by Waldo Frank, was 
published in 1933. His genuine poetic tal- 
ents, which were never fully realized, and 
the pathos of his personal life won him a 
circle of admirers; but the obscurity and 
inconclusiveness of his verse have kept that 
circle small. DAB 21 

CRANMER, GIBSON LAMB (1826-1903), 
lawyer, was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. After graduating from Woodward 
College in 1847, he read law; he practiced 
in Wheeling, W. Va., and also served for 
eight years as judge of Wheeling municipal 
court. He wrote History of Wheeling City 
and Ohio County, West Virginia, Chicago, 
1902. WWW 1 

CRANSTON, EARL (June 27, 1840-Aug. 2, 
1932), clergyman, was born in Athens, 
Athens County, and was reared in Jackson 
County. After attending Ohio University, 
he served with Ohio and West Virginia 
troops in the Civil War. Converted to 
Methodism after the war, he joined the 
Ohio Conference in 1867, and after preach- 
ing in several states was made bishop in 
1896. He was a founder of the Methodist 
Book Concern, Cincinnati. He died in New 
Richmond. He published numerous books 
and addresses, including a plea for the 
reuniting of Northern and Southern branches 
of the Methodist Church: Breaking Down 
the Walls, New York, [1915]. DAB 21 

Oct. 23, 1937), wife of Bishop Earl Crans- 
ton (q.v.), was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. She attended Ohio Wesleyan Fe- 
male Seminary. After her husband's retire- 
ment in 1912, they lived near New Rich- 
mond, Clermont County, and her death 
occurred in that community. She published 
an anonymous collection of poetry: Some 
Little Verses (Mostly Reverses) by an Un- 
versed Author, Cincinnati, [1928]. 

1847-Dec. 31, 1927), clergyman, father of 
the poet Adelaide Crapsey, was born in 
Hamilton County. After spending two years 
in the army during the Civil War, he en- 
tered business. From 1869 to 1872 he stud- 
ied at St. Stephen's College and Seminary, 
after which he was ordained an Episcopal 
priest. After serving as rector of St. An- 
drew's Church, Rochester, N. Y., 1879- 


Crawford, T. R. 

1906, he was deposed for heresy for ques- 
tioning the divinity of Jesus Christ. His 
death occurred in Rochester. 
Five Joyful Mysteries, New York, 1888. 
The Story of a Simple Life . . . , New York, 

The Greater Love, New York, [1902]. 
Religion and Politics, New York, [1905]. 
The Re-birth of Religion . . . , New York, 

Did Jesus Really Live? A Debate . . . , 

Chicago, [1908]. 
The Rise of the Working Class, New York, 

International Republicanism, the Way to 

Permanent Peace, Philadelphia. 1918. 
The Ways of the Gods, New York, 1920. 
The Last of the Heretics . . . , New York, 


1806-March 13, 1895), born in Becket, 
Mass., was brought to Kirtland by his par- 
ents in 1811. They were among the first 
settlers of that community. When past 
eighty, he wrote his reminiscences for the 
Willoughby Independent. They were later 
published in an edition of 100 copies. He 
died in Lamoile, Iowa, at the home of a 

Pioneer and Personal Reminiscences, Mar- 
shalltown, Iowa, 1893. 

1861— July 1, 1940), lawyer, was born in 
Berlin Heights, Erie County, where his fa- 
ther was Congregational minister. His 
father was chaplain of the 101st O.V.I, dur- 
ing the Civil War, and afterward the fam- 
ily lived in Cincinnati (1866-70). He grad- 
uated from Oberlin in 1882 and Columbia 
Law School in 1886. Practicing in New 
York City, he became one of the nation's 
first modern corporation lawyers. Besides 
legal works, he published several accounts 
of his travels, including Letters Home from 
the Far East and Russia, [New York, 1931]. 
DAB 22 

CRAVENS, MARY J. (1825-Feb. 5, 1912), 
born in Pavilion, N. Y., lived in Toledo for 
nearly thirty years. She came there in 1873, 
when her husband, Charles Cravens, be- 
came pastor of the Unitarian church. She 
was active in the cultural life of the city, 
worked for the cause of women's suffrage, 
and published poems in various periodicals. 
The volume listed below was written in 
memory of a daughter who died in child- 

Story of Daisy . . . , Toledo, 1898. 

1881- ), clergyman, was born near 
London, Madison County. He graduated 
from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1906 
and also studied at Boston University and 
the University of Pittsburgh. He retired 
from the Methodist ministry in 1945 and 
now lives in Delaware. He has published 
several books on religious themes, e.g.. 
Religious Trends in a Century of Hymns, 
Carnegie, Pa., [1937]. RLA 2 

CRAWFORD, CHARLES (1866-Dec. 28, 
1945), army officer, was born in Coshocton, 
Coshocton County. He graduated from the 
U. S. Military Academy in 1889 and served 
in the army until his retirement as a brig- 
adier general in 1919. After retiring from 
the army, he lived in Paola, Kan. His death 
occurred in that community. He wrote a 
book on economics and at least two books 
on military subjects, e.g., Six Months with 

the 6th Brigade, Kansas City, Mo., [1928]. 
WWW 3 

born in New Orleans. In 1900 she married 
Wilmer Crawford, and in 1908 they moved 
to Cincinnati, where she lived until 1955, 
when she returned to New Orleans. She has 
published a collection of poems: The After- 
glow, Columbus, 1937. 

CRAWFORD, MARY (Oct. 23, 1861-May 
17, 1946), missionary, was born in Madison 
Township, Columbiana County. She at- 
tended Mount Hope Academy, Mount 
Union College, and Moody Bible Institute, 
Chicago. In 1895 she joined her aunts Sue 
and Kate McBeth, Presbyterian missionaries 
to the Nez Perce Indians. After her formal 
retirement, she continued to teach music 
and recreation among the Indians. She died 
in the West and is buried at Spalding, 
Idaho. She wrote The Nez Perces Since 
Spalding . . . , [Berkeley, Calif.], 1936. 

1821-June 24, 1898), clergyman, was born 
near New Athens, Harrison County, but 
grew up near Steubenville, where his par- 
ents moved when he was a few months 
old. He graduated from Franklin College in 
1844, taught there for two years, and was 
ordained by the Steubenville Presbytery in 
1846. He was pastor of Nottingham Pres- 
byterian Church, Moorefield, 1847-86. 
Historical Narrative of the Presbyterian 

Church of Nottingham . . . , Wheeling, 

W. Va., 1871. 
Forty Years Pastorate and Reminiscences, 

Wheeling, W. Va., 1887. 



CREAGER, CHARLES E. (April 28, 1873- 
), was born in Farmersville, near Day- 
ton, Montgomery County. While attending 
Northern Indiana University, he taught 
school; he later worked on various news- 
papers in Dayton, Columbus, Cincinnati, 
and Marietta. He served with the 4th O.V.I, 
during the Spanish-American War. In 1904 
he moved to Muskogee, Okla., and still 
lives in that community. He served in the 
61st Congress, was in the U. S. Indian 
Service, and was in the oil business until 
his retirement in 1934. 
The 14th Ohio National Guard . . . , Co- 
lumbus, 1899. 

CRECRAFT, EARL WILLIS (Jan. 27, 1886- 
March 30, 1950), educator, was born in 
Brookville, Ind. He graduated from Frank- 
lin College in 1907 and Columbia Univer- 
sity (Ph.D.) in 1911. He was professor of 
political science at the University of Akron, 
1919-38, and professor and dean at Kent 
State University, 1938-47. His writings in- 
clude Freedom of the Seas, New York, 
1935. WWW 3 

1864-Sept. 13, 1918), civil engineer, was 
born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. He 
graduated from Yale University in 1886 and 
Sheffield Scientific School in 1888. He lived 
in New Jersey. Besides technical articles, 
he wrote Protection's Brood; A Presentation 
of the Direct and Indirect Consequences of 
the Continuance of a Protective Tariff Sys- 
tem ... , New York, 1912. WWW 1 

1896- ), educator, was born in Tiffin, 
Seneca County. He graduated from Deni- 
son University in 1919 and the University 
of Chicago (Ph.D.) in 1921. He joined the 
faculty of the University of Syracuse in 
1931. Widely known as a geographer and 
geologist, he has written numerous text- 
books and books on current problems, e.g., 
The Basis of Soviet Strength, London, 
[1944]. WW 29 

1877-Nov. 19, 1939), banker, born in Fort 
Wayne, Ind., lived in Cincinnati from 1914 
until his death. An executive of Central 
Trust Company, he published Vignettes of 
Writers and Artists, [San Francisco], 1946. 

CRETCHER, MACK (Dec. 9, 1868-June 20, 
1946), journalist, was born in Springhills, 
Champaign County. In 1871 his parents 
moved to Kansas. After attending the 
schools of Sedgwick, Kan., he operated a 

farm and then published the Sedgwick 
Pantograph, 1892-1913. After eight years 
in the Philippines as assistant director of 
agriculture, he edited the Newton Journal, 
1925-40. He wrote The Kansan; A Novel, 
Philadelphia, [1923]. WWNAA 7 

CREW, FLEMING H. (May 21, 1882- ), 
lawyer, was born in McConnelsville, Mor- 
gan County. After graduating from Ohio 
State University (A.B.; LL.B), he began 
the practice of law in Cleveland in 1907. 
He was assistant attorney general in Puerto 
Rico, 1910-11. He retired from active prac- 
tice in 1930 and now lives in Beverly. 
With his sister, Alice Crew Gall (q.v.), he 
wrote several hundred stories for children 
and a number of books, e.g., The Royal 
Mimkin, New York, 1934. 

CREWSON, EVANDER A. (Dec. 8, 1849- ? ), 
was born in Washington County. No de- 
tails concerning his life have been found, 
but he apparently moved to Missouri, 
where his only book was published. 
Old Times, a Collection of Poems, Kansas 
City, Mo., 1893. 

1864-Jan. 7, 1943), physician, was born in 
Chilli, Coshocton County. He graduated 
from Ohio Northern University in 1886 
and University of Wooster (M.D.) in 1887. 
He was a member of the Wooster faculty, 
1899-1900, and of the Western Reserve 
University faculty. 1900-24. One of the 
world's great surgeons, he was a founder 
of the Cleveland Clinic. He wrote a great 
many professional articles and books, as 
well as books for the general reader, e.g., 
A Mechanistic View of War and Peace, 
New York, 1915. WWW 2 

CRILE, GRACE McBRIDE (Jan. 23, 1876- 
Aug. 23, 1948), was born in Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga County. She married the distin- 
guished surgeon George W. Crile (q.v.), 
Feb. 7, 1900. She accompanied her hus- 
band on a scientific expedition to Africa 
and kept a day-by-day journal of her ad- 
ventures, which she published as Skyways to 
a Jungle Laboratory, New York, [1936]. 
She also edited a two-volume autobiography 
of her husband, drawing on his diaries and 
other records and adding sidelights written 
by herself. 

CRIPPEN, WILLIAM G. (July 4, 1820-April, 
1863), journalist, was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. At the age of sixteen, he 
became a printer working for J. A. James. 
In 1840 he was one of the founders of the 


Cross, D. W. 

Cincinnati Times and served for many years 
on its editorial staff. In the early years of 
the Civil War he served as a correspondent. 
Many of his newspaper pieces were written 
under the pen name Invisible Green. Al- 
though his humorous sketches appear to 
have attracted wide attention, little is 
known about him. 

Green Peas, Picked from the Patch of In- 
visible Green, Esq., Cincinnati, [1856]. 

1833-Jan. 20, 1916), clergyman, was born 
near New Martinsburg, Fayette County, 
and spent his boyhood on a farm in High- 
land County. After graduating from Na- 
tional Normal University in 1860, he taught 
school for several terms and then entered 
the drug and grocery business. In the early 
1880s he was employed by Buchtel College 
as a fund-raiser. He was an ardent prohi- 
bitionist. He preached for a number of 
years before his ordination as a Universalist 
minister in 1890, after which he organized 
a church in Mansfield and also preached in 
Springfield. His death occurred in Akron. 
Besides the title below, he published a fam- 
ily history and a lecture on Abraham Lin- 

Universalism and Problems of the Univer- 
salist Church, Akron, 1888. 

CRONBACH, ABRAHAM (Feb. 16, 1882- 
), educator and rabbi, was born in In- 
dianapolis, Ind. He graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati in 1902 and Hebrew 
Union College in 1906. After serving as 
rabbi in various cities, including Akron 
(1917-19), he joined the faculty of Hebrew 
Union College, where he served as profes- 
sor of social studies, 1922-50. His writings 
include The Quest for Peace, Cincinnati, 
1937. WW 28 

CROOK, ALJA ROBINSON (June 17, 1864- 
May 30, 1930), educator, was born in 
Circleville, Pickaway County. He graduated 
from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1887. 
After 1892 he lived in Illinois, where he 
taught at Wheaton College and Northwest- 
ern University and served as curator of the 
State Museum of Natural History, 1906-17. 
His writings include technical articles and 
monographs and A History of the Illinois 
State Museum of Natural History, Spring- 
field, 111., 1907. WWW 1 

CROOK, GEORGE (Sept. 23, 1829-March 
21, 1890), army officer, was born near Day- 
ton, Montgomery County. After graduating 
from the U. S. Military Academy in 1848, 
he served in the Northwest until the out- 

break of the Civil War. His service during 
the war was commendable though unspec- 
tacular, and he rose to the brevet grade of 
major general. After the war until his death, 
Crook served in the West, fighting against 
the Sioux in 1876 and against the Apaches 
in the early 1880s. His general attitude to- 
ward the Indians, however, was humane 
and enlightened. Except for letters on the 
Indian question and official reports, he pub- 
lished nothing during his lifetime. His au- 
tobiography was edited by Martin F. 
Schmitt in 1946: General George Crook. 
His Autobiography, Norman, Okla., 1946. 
DAB 4 

CROOK, ISAAC (Dec. 10, 1833-Feb. 20, 
1916), clergyman and educator, was born 
in Crossenville, Perry County. He grad- 
uated from Ohio Wesleyan University in 
1859. Ordained to the ministry of the Metho- 
dist Church in 1864, he served pastorates 
in Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and 
Kentucky. He also served as president of the 
University of the Pacific, 1891-92, chancel- 
lor of Nebraska Wesleyan University, 
1892-96. and president of Ohio University, 
1896-98. His death occurred in Spokane, 
Hon. C. C. White. A Character Sketch, 

Cincinnati, 1896. 
Jonathan Edwards, Cincinnati, [1903]. 
The Earnest Expectation, Cincinnati, [1905], 
John Knox: The Reformer, Cincinnati, 

The Great Five; The First Faculty of the 

Ohio Wesleyan University, Cincinnati, 


CROOKS, JAMES (Oct. 6, 1825-Feb. 1, 
1908), physician, was born in Butler 
County, a native Ohioan by the length of 
a hallway. His parents' home was on the 
state line, and he was born on the Ohio 
side. The following year the family moved 
to Indiana, where he spent his life except 
during his attendance at Eclectic Medical 
College, Cincinnati, where he graduated in 

The Autobiography of James Crooks . . . , 
Terre Haute, Ind., 1900. 

CROSS, DAVID WALLACE (Nov. 17, 1814- 
April 9, 1891), was born in Richland, N. Y. 
After attending Hamilton Seminary, he 
moved to Cleveland in 1836. He practiced 
law for a while, but in 1835 with Oliver 
Hazard Perry (q.v.) he engaged in coal 
mining in the Mahoning Valley — a business 
in which he acquired a substantial fortune 
so that he could retire in 1867. He was one 
of the founders of the renowned Winous 

Cross, N. 


Point Shooting Club on Sandusky Bay and 
became well known for his articles on gun- 
nery and angling. 

Fifty Years with the Gun and Rod . . . , 
Cleveland, 1880. 

CROSS, NELSON (1820-March 13, 1897), 
lawyer and judge, was born in Lancaster, 
N. H. Before the Civil War he practiced 
law in Cincinnati, where he was a founder 
of the Literary Club and also served as 
judge of common pleas court in 1854. Dur- 
ing the Civil War, he served in the 1st 
Long Island Volunteers and the 67th New 
York Infantry. He was cited for gallantry 
at Gettysburg, and in 1867 he was pro- 
moted to the brevet rank of major general. 
After the war he practiced law in New 
York City until 1894. He died in Dor- 
chester, Mass. 

Life of General Grant . . . , New York, 

1844-Nov. 18, 1924), clergyman, was born 
in Richville, N. Y. He entered Oberlin Col- 
lege in 1861, and while in college he taught 
in several Ohio schools. He attended Union 
Theological Seminary and was ordained to 
the ministry of the Congregational Church 
in 1869. After serving as principal of the 
preparatory department, Oberlin College, 
1869-74, he served numerous pastorates in 
the West. He was a pastor in Cleveland, 
1910-12, and in Twinsburg, 1912-17. After 
retiring from the ministry, he continued to 
live in Twinsburg until his death. Besides 
the titles below, he published a rhetoric 
manual and a family history. 
Home Duties . . . , Chicago, [1886]. 
Clear as Crystal . . . , Chicago, [1887]. 
Crystals and Gold, York, Neb., 1903. 
My Mountains, Boston, 1921. 

CROSS, STEWART. Pseud. See Harry S. 

CROTHERS, SAMUEL (Oct. 22, 1783-Iuly 
22, 1856), clergyman, was born near 
Chambersburg, Pa. He accompanied his 
father to Lexington, Ky., in 1787. In 1809 
he was licensed to preach by the Kentucky 
Presbytery, and in 1810 he began preach- 
ing in Greenfield and Chillicothe. As a re- 
sult of his opposition to closed communion, 
he resigned in 1818 and moved to Win- 
chester, Ky., but he returned to Greenfield 
in 1820 and organized a church that he 
served until his death. He was a vigorous 
opponent of slavery and wrote a series of 
letters on abolition in the Cincinnati Jour- 

nal, 1827-31. He died in Oswego, 111., while 
visiting his son. Besides the title below, a 
number of his sermons were published. 
The Life and Writings of Samuel Crothers, 

D.D., (Andrew Ritchie, ed.), Cincinnati, 


1883-July 19, 1916), clergyman, was born 
in Greenfield, Highland County, the son of 
Samuel Crothers (q.v.). He studied at 
Centre College, Princeton University, and 
Danville Seminary. In 1863 he became pas- 
tor of the Greenfield church, where his 
father had served for more than 35 years. 
He resigned his pastorate in 1900 because 
of ill health. 
Centennial Historical Sketches of Greenfield, 

Ohio, and Vicinity, (with W. H. Irwin), 

Greenfield, 1876. 

1882- ), electrical engineer, was born 
in Kingston, Ross County, and attended the 
schools of that community. He was chief 
engineer of several electric railway com- 
panies in Maryland and New York. After 
retiring in 1932, he returned to Kingston, 
where he now lives. In 1934 he prepared 
a centennial history of the town. He has 
also published The Ohio Gateway, New 
York, 1938. 

CROUSE, RUSSEL (Feb. 20, 1893- ), 
the son of Hiram Powers and Sarah 
(Schumacher) Crouse, is said to have been 
born in Findlay, Hancock County. No other 
city in or out of Ohio has claimed to be his 
birthplace, but Findlay has never taken the 
trouble to deny it. Thus the Ohioana Li- 
brary has been placed in the delicate posi- 
tion of listing Mr. Crouse among its Ohio 
Authors and Their Books. His father was 
a newspaperman and for many years was 
the publisher of the Toledo News-Bee. This 
forms the basis of the assertion that Russel 
Crouse was educated in the public schools 
of Toledo. He did attend the public schools 
of Toledo. This must be said in all fair- 
ness to Crouse, even if it is not fair to 
Toledo. He was a loving son, however, and 
did learn enough to read newspapers — his 
father's and others. It is not strange, there- 
fore, that when he reached the age of earn- 
ing a living (this was expected of boys 
around the turn of the century) he turned 
to newspaper work. In 1910 he started as a 
reporter on the Cincinnati Commercial- 
Tribune. The next we hear of the subject 
of this dossier is that he had become a re- 
porter on the Kansas City Star. The year 
was 1911. He was later promoted (?) to 


Crouse, R. 

sports writer and managed to hold his job 
on this paper for five years. During his 
tenure as sports writer there was a prize 
fighter in the Middle West who fought un- 
der the name of Buck Crouse. This quickly 
settled the question of how his intimates 
would address our hero. You can hardly 
call a sports writer Russel, so he was called 
Buck, an appellation that has stuck to him 
ever since. In 1916 Buck approached the 
management of the Kansas City Star for a 
small raise. He was turned down and re- 
moved himself from that paper. He has 
said since that had he received this paltry 
raise he might have spent the rest of his 
life on the Kansas City Star. Thus are dram- 
atists made. He next went to the Cincin- 
nati Post as a political reporter. And in 
1918 he enlisted in the Navy. When his 
children say to him: "Daddy, what did you 
do in the great war?", being a truthful 
man, he has to answer: '"I was on recruit- 
ing duty." He was also managing editor of 
the Great Lakes Bulletin. After the war the 
evidence in the files shows that he came to 
New York and was a reporter on the New 
York Globe, the New York Evening Mail, 
and the New York Evening Post. Of these 
three papers, only the latter survived Mr. 
Crouse's services. He became a columnist, 
publishing paragraphs of his own devising, 
besides light verse and pieces of wit which 
were contributed. Through this column he 
gained a reputation in New York of being 
a most amusing fellow. On June 17. 1923. 
he married Alison Smith (now deceased), 
a newspaperwoman with whom he had 
worked on the Evening Globe. During his 
stints on New York newspapers he eked 
out his salary by serving as press agent for 
various people in the entertainment field, 
such as Ruth Draper, Edward Johnson of 
the Met, and a string of prize fighters. In 
1932 he obtained a leave of absence from 
the New York Post and became the press 
agent for the Theatre Guild. This organiza- 
tion was at that time the most active and 
distinguished management producing plays 
in the city of New York. Press agentry 
brought Mr. Crouse into the theater, an 
institution of which he had been a devotee 
since he first went to burlesque shows. In 
1931 Mr. Crouse took a fling at writing the 
libretto of a musical comedy. It was called 
The Gang's All Here. Several collaborators 
were called in to contribute ideas, among 
them being Oscar Hammerstein. II. This is 
worth mentioning because in 1959 Mr. 
Crouse again found himself working with 
Oscar Hammerstein, II. The Gang's All 
Here did not attract any great public at- 
tendance and collapsed after a few weeks. 

In 1933, in collaboration with Corey Ford, 
Mr. Crouse wrote the libretto of Hold 
Your Horses for Joe Cook. This was his 
first success in the theater. It ran an entire 
season. In 1934 Mr. Crouse was looking 
out of the window of his office in the Guild 
Theatre on 52nd Street. Looking out of an 
office window of the Alvin Theatre, exactly 
across the street, was the producer, Vinton 
Freedley, who called across to Crouse to 
come over and see him. It turned out 
Freedley had been trying to reach Mr. 
Crouse all day, it not occurring to him 
that his quarry was just across the street. 
When they met, Mr. Freedley said, "How 
would you like to write a musical comedy 
with Howard Lindsay?" Mr. Crouse an- 
swered, "When do we start?" They started 
that night, and this collaboration has lasted 
ever since — a matter of 25 years as of now. 
To list their joint efforts: Anything Goes, 
1934; Red, Hot and Blue, 1936; Hooray 
for What?, 1937; Life with Father, 1939; 
Strip for Action, 1942; State of the Union, 
1945 (Pulitzer Prize Play, 1946); Life with 
Mother, 1948; Call Me Madam, 1950; Re- 
mains to Be Seen, 1951: The Prescott Pro- 
posals, 1953 (starring Katharine Cornell); 
The Great Sebastians, 1955 (starring Alfred 
Lunt and Lynn Fontanne); Happy Hunt- 
ing, 1956; Tall Story, 1959; The Sound of 
Music, 1959 (with Rodgers and Hammer- 
stein and starring Mary Martin). Life with 
Father holds the record of the longest con- 
secutive run of any play in New York City. 
Not content with writing plays this team 
also produced plays written by other dram- 
atists: Arsenic and Old Lace, by Joseph 
Kesselring (1911). The Hasty Heart, by 
John Patrick (1945), and Detective Story, 
by Sidney Kingsley (1949). The only play 
they both wrote and produced was The 
Great Sebastians. Mr. Crouse's success as 
an author is not limited to plays. He wrote 
the following books: Mr. Currier and Mr. 
Ives (1930), It Seems like Yesterday 
(1931), Murder Won't Out (1932), The 
American Keepsake (1932). Besides these, 
he has been a contributor of articles to 
magazines: and both alone and in collabora- 
tion with Howard Lindsay has written many 
screenplays, and together Mr. Crouse and 
Mr. Lindsay adapted for television Arsenic 
and Old Lace and State of the Union. On 
June 28, 1945, Mr. Crouse married Anna 
Erskine, the daughter of the distinguished 
author and educator, John Erskine. They 
have two children — Timothy, born 1947, 
and Lindsay Ann, born 1948. Mr. Crouse 
and his wife have collaborated on two 
Landmark books for children: Peter Stuyve- 
sant and Alexander Hamilton and Aaron 

Crowell, B. 


Burr. The Crouses have a house at 151 
East 61st Street in New York City and 
another at Annisquam, Mass., where they 
spend the summer months. Mr. Crouse is 
active in the Dramatists' Guild and its par- 
ent body, The Authors' League of America, 
which he served at one time as president. 
He is a member of The Players. In 1951 
Mr. Crouse was given an honorary degree 
of Doctor of Fine Arts by Ohio Wesleyan. 
The humorist who is the subject of this 
biography thereupon stated that this an- 
swered the question "Is there a doctor in 
the Crouse?" This anecdote is included as 
an encouragement to all young Ohioans 
who someday hope to be writers. 

Howard Lindsay 

CROWELL, BENEDICT (Oct. 21, 1869- 
Sept. 8, 1952), mining engineer, was born 
in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. He grad- 
uated from Yale University in 1891. During 
World War I he was assistant secretary of 
war and director of munitions, and in World 
War II he was defense consultant to Sec- 
retary of War Henry L. Stimson. With 
Robert F. Wilson (q.v.), he wrote a six- 
volume World War I history: How Amer- 
ica Went to War, New Haven, 1921. WW 


14, 1888-Dec. 26, 1941), was born, in 
Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. He worked 
on various newspapers in the Southwest 
and on the New York Evening Post. He 
was a special assistant to the Secretary of 
the Treasury in the early years of the New 
Deal, an experience that led to his writing 
Recovery Unlimited; The Administration's 
Monetary Policy and the Current Boom, 
New York, [1936]. WWW 1 

June 3, 1945), was born in Baltimore, Md., 
and became a schoolteacher in Urbana at 
the age of seventeen. She also attended Ur- 
bana University for a time. She later taught 
school in Wisconsin and was a nurse in 
New York City. She wrote many historical 
novels for young readers, e.g.. Freedom's 
Daughter, New York, 1930. AATB 

CROZIER, ALFRED OWEN (Aug. 10, 1863- 
Sept. 26, 1939), lawyer and banker, was 
born in Grand Rapids, Mich., and lived 
there until 1909, when he moved to Cincin- 
nati. He was an active supporter of Theo- 
dore Roosevelt in the Bull Moose cam- 
paign of 1912. His death occurred at 
Harbor Springs, Mich. He wrote a number 
of technical works dealing with finance and 

international law and also published a 
novel, The Magnet; A Romance of the Bat- 
ties of Modern Giants, New York, 1908. 

1863-Jan. 1, 1952), state forester and edu- 
cator, was born in Carter County, Tenn. He 
earned his Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity in 1904. After serving as professor of 
Latin at Antioch College, he became a state 
forester at the Ohio Experiment Station, 
Wooster, in 1909. In 1912 he moved to 
Athens. He established a number of parks 
in southern Ohio. His writings on forestry 
include Constructive Forestry for the Pri- 
vate Owner, New York, 1926. 

1864-Dec. 7, 1918), was born in Zanes- 
ville, Muskingum County. She attended 
public and private schools in Wisconsin, 
Missouri, and Kentucky, and graduated 
from Putnam Seminary, Zanesville. She 
contributed verse and stories to magazines 
and also gave readings from her own works. 
She lived in Zanesville. Most of her writing 
is in Negro dialect. 
Lays of a Wandering Minstrel, Philadelphia, 

At the Big House Where Aunt Nancy and 

Aunt 'Phrony Held Forth on the Animal 

Folks, Indianapolis, [1904]. 
Banjo Talks, Indianapolis, [1905]. 

1874-March 2, 1933), clergyman, was born 
in Cincinnati, Hamilton County, the son of 
James Coe Culbertson (q.v.). After grad- 
uating from the University of Cincinnati in 
1895 and Columbus Law School in 1898, 
he earned a bachelor of divinity degree at 
the University of Chicago and in 1902 was 
ordained a Presbyterian minister. He served 
widely scattered pastorates throughout the 
United States. Among his writings is Evo- 
lution Helps Christianity . . . , [Chicago, 
1925]. WWW 1 

1882- ), lawyer and judge, was born in 
Havana. Huron County. He attended Milan 
schools, read law in Sandusky, and gradu- 
ated from the law school of Ohio State 
University in 1905. In the same year he 
began practicing in Sandusky and also be- 
came an editor on the staff of the Laning 
Law Book Company, Norwalk. He was a 
writer on the staff of the Lawyers' Co-oper- 
ating Publishing Company, Rochester, N. Y., 
1908-12. He resumed the practice of law 
at Loudonville in 1912. He has served as 


Cunningham, W. M. 

judge of the court of common pleas and 
now lives in Ashland. His writings include 
Medical Men and the Law . . . , Philadel- 
phia, 1913. WW 8 

1840-1908), physician, was born at Cul- 
bertson's Mills, Miami County. He entered 
the Civil War as a private, became a hos- 
pital steward, and was promoted to as- 
sistant surgeon. He served with the 5th 
O.V.I, and the 137th O.V.I. After the war 
he began practicing medicine in Cincin- 
nati, where he edited the Lancet and Clinic. 
In 1893 he was named to the faculty of 
Cincinnati College of Medicine and Sur- 

Luke: The Beloved Physician . . . , Cincin- 
nati, 1899. 

1883-Nov. 27, 1946), clergyman, was born 
at Hartville, Stark County. He graduated 
from Juniata College in 1908, Union Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1911. and Columbia 
University (Ph.D.) in 1912. A minister of 
the Disciples of Christ, he was dean of 
Hiram College, 1921-29, and pastor of 
Heights Christian Church in Cleveland, 
1930-45. His writings include Creative Re- 
ligious Literature; A New Literary Study 
of the Bible, New York, 1930. WWW 2 

CULLER, LUCY YEEND (Feb. 25, 1849- 
Oct. 10, 1924), was born in Cheltenham, 
England. When she was three, her family 
came to Claridon Township, Geauga 
County. She attended district schools until 
she was fifteen and then became a country 
schoolteacher. She entered Oberlin College 
and graduated in 1873. She afterward 
taught in the Cleveland public schools for 
four years. In 1877 she married Rev. Jacob 
H. Culler, a Lutheran minister. They lived 
in Williams County, Iowa, and Bucyrus, 
Wapakoneta, and Springfield. 
Europe, through a Woman's Eye, Phila- 
delphia, 1883. 
Violet, Burlington, Iowa, 1889. 
Lectures. Addresses, Dayton, 1905. 
A Retrospect and Other Poems, Dayton, 


(June 22, 1888- ), educator, was born 
in Linden, W. Va., but grew up in Ohio. 
He graduated from Muskingum College in 
1913, Drew Theological Seminary in 1915, 
and New York University (Ph.D.) in 1926. 
He was dean of Lebanon University, 1916- 
17, and taught English at several other in- 

stitutions before joining the staff of Texas 
Technical College in 1929. He has written 
educational articles and numerous mystery 
novels, some of them under the pen name 
Garth Hale, e.g., Murder at Deer Lick, New 
York, 1939. WW 30 

1884- ), industrial engineer, was born 
in Lafayette, Ind., and attended the public 
schools of Frankfort, Ind., and Bucyrus. He 
later lived in Cleveland and Canton. He has 
written a Presidential history which has 
been issued in several revised editions: 
Everything You Want to Know about the 
Presidents, [Cleveland, 1928]. 

), was born in Dayton, Montgomery 
County. After graduating from Ohio State 
University in 1931, she taught at Wilbur 
Wright High School, Dayton, until 1938, 
when she resigned to do free-lance writing. 
She has also done editorial work for Scott, 
Foresman Company, 1940-46, and Saalfield 
Publishing Company, 1946-47. In 1949 she 
married Lloyd E. Holmgren, a mining en- 
gineer, and until 1954 she lived in South 
America. She is now a resident of Portland, 
Oreg. She has published many articles and 
stories in children's magazines and more 
than twenty books, e.g., Paul Laurence 
Dunbar and His Song, New York, 1947. 


(March 23, 1881-Nov. 10, 1945), educator, 
was born in Lisbon, Columbiana County. 
He graduated from Roanoke College in 
1902 and the University of Pennsylvania 
(Ph.D.) in 1922. He taught at Wharton 
School of Finance, 1908-09 and 1917-21. 
He was engaged in ranching and real es- 
tate in British Columbia, 1909-17, and 
taught at a number of universities including 
New York University, 1921-24, University 
of Southern California, 1924-27, and the 
University of Georgia, 1931-33. He also 
was president of the California Stock Ex- 
change. He wrote a book to prove that a 
group of Freemasons headed by Francis 
Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays: The 
Tragedy of Francis Bacon, Prince of Eng- 
land . . . , Los Angeles, 1940. WW 21 


1829-Aug. 16, 1909), was born in Newark, 
Licking County. A merchant and insurance 
agent in Newark, he published several man- 
uals and handbooks on Freemasonry and 
a historical work: History of Freemasonry 
in Ohio from 1791 . . . , 3 vols., Cincin- 
nati, 1909-14. 

Curran, G. E. 


1892- ), was born in Zanesville, Mus- 
kingum County, where he attended St. 
Thomas school until he was fourteen. After 
learning telegraphy, he was employed by 
the Pennsylvania Railroad. His last known 
address was Los Angeles. His poems ap- 
peared in various periodicals, and he also 
published a collection: The Last Judgment, 
Zanesville, [1924]. 

26, 1946), was born in Norwalk, Huron 
County. Her husband, Charles C. Curran, 
was an artist, and she was for a number of 
years librarian at the National Academy of 
Design, New York City. She edited monthly 
books for art-lovers, 1908-10, and wrote a 
novel, A Seventh Daughter, Boston, 1904. 

1837-Nov. 11, 1927), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Skowhegan, Maine. He 
graduated from Bowdoin College in 1857 
and Andover Theological Seminary in 1862. 
Ordained a Congregational minister in 1862, 
he served churches in Massachusetts, 1862- 
81, and served on the faculty of Oberlin 
Theological Seminary, 1881-1907. 
The Life of Constans L. Goddell, D.D., 

New York, [1887]. 
Where Is Charley? 1905. 
Nine Great Preachers, Boston, 1912. 
The Present Day Problem of Crime, Boston, 

Biographical and Literary Studies, Boston, 

Robert Leighton, the Apostolic Anglican 

Prelate of Scotland; A Biographical 

Sketch, Oberlin, [1923]. 

CURRY, OTWAY (March 26, 1804-Feb. 17, 
1855), poet, was born in Greenfield, High- 
land County. In 1823 he went to Lebanon, 
where he learned the carpenter's trade, at 
which he worked until 1829. He was a 
farmer in Union County until 1839 and 
served in the legislature, 1836-37. He was 
associated with William Davis Gallagher 
(q.v.) in publishing the Hesperian in 1838. 
He began to study law in 1839, and with 
the exception of the years 1843-45, when 
he edited the Torch-Light at Xenia, and 
1853-54, when he edited the Scioto Gazette 
at Chillicothe, he practiced law until his 
death, which occurred at Marysville. In the 
summer of 1827 a number of poetical con- 
tributions signed "Abdullah" appeared in 
the newspapers of Cincinnati in quick suc- 
cession, which, according to William D. 
Gallagher, were so much superior to the 
ordinary run of such things as to excite 

general attention. Gallagher, enamored of 
one of the productions entitled "The Min- 
strel's Home," determined to find out the 
author if it were possible to do so. After 
a time he found "Abdullah" among a group 
of young carpenters engaged in building a 
business structure in Cincinnati; thus began 
a lifelong friendship between these distin- 
guished poets. 
The Lore of the Past, Cincinnati, 1838. 

1839-April 27, 1927), was born in Union 
County. He was the nephew of Otway 
Curry (q.v.). He entered Otterbein College 
in 1860, but withdrew in Jan., 1861, to 
study law. He served in the 1st Ohio Cav- 
alry until Dec. 30, 1864, when he was dis- 
charged for disability. He was a merchant 
in Union County until 1875, served three 
terms as county auditor, and held various 
state and county posts. He died in Colum- 
bus, where he lived in his old age. Besides 
the titles below, he published articles on 
historical and military subjects. His regi- 
mental history is highly praised by Ryan. 
War History of Union County . . . , Marys- 
ville, 1883. 
Four Years in the Saddle, History of the 
First Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Cavalry 
. . . , Columbus, 1898. 
History of Jerome Township, Union County 

. . . , Columbus, 1913. 
Ohio, the Buckeye State, Columbus, 1915. 
History of Union County . . . , Indianap- 
olis, 1915. 

CURTIS, ALVA (June 3, 1797-Oct, 1881), 
physician, was born in Columbia, N. H. He 
practiced medicine in Cincinnati and served 
as dean of the Physio-medical College 
Lectures on Midwifery . . . , Columbus, 

A Fair Examination and Criticism of All 
the Medical Systems in Vogue, Cincin- 
nati, 1855. 
The Provocation and the Reply . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1870. 
Lectures on the Philosophy of Language, 
of Grammar and Composition, Cincin- 
nati, 1874. 
The Phvsio-medical Family Book . . . , New 
York, 1875. 

CURTIS, ANNA LOUISA (Aug. 15, 1882- 
), was born in Waite Hill, Lake 
County. Although her family moved to 
New York City while she was a child, she 
spent her summer vacations with her 
grandparents in Ohio. She graduated from 
Swarthmore College in 1904. An original 


Curtiss, P. A. 

member of the Friends Service Committee, 
organized in 1917, she was active in its 
work. She was secretary of the Island Press, 
1940-56. She now lives in New York City. 
She has published many stories, poems, and 
articles in periodicals for young people, in- 
cluding a collection: Stories of the Under- 
ground Railroad, New York, 1941. 

1858-Sept. 19, 1934), educator, was born 
in Rome, N. Y. He graduated from Ham- 
ilton College in 1880 and Union Theological 
Seminary in 1883; he also studied for two 
years at University of Leipzig. Ordained a 
Presbyterian minister in 1883, he preached 
at Beckwith Memorial Church in Cleveland 
until 1888, when he joined the Western 
Reserve University faculty. Besides a num- 
ber of works in his professional field of 
philosophy, he wrote The Story of Snuff 
and Snuff Boxes, New York, 1935. 

1850-Oct. 5, 1911), journalist and world 
traveler, was born in Akron, Summit 
County. He graduated from Western Re- 
serve College in 1871. He was on the staff 
of the Chicago Inter-Ocean, 1873-87; he 
then became Washington correspondent of 
the Chicago Record, a connection which 
continued until the end of his days. He trav- 
eled through South America as special com- 
missioner of the United States and in 1889 
remained as the first director of the Bureau 
of American Republics. As director of the 
bureau he began publication of handbooks, 
several of which he wrote himself. Well 
launched on his career as a globe-trotter, 
for which he became best known, he re- 
signed from the bureau in 1893. His bril- 
liant letters describing important incidents 
and picturing foreign lands brought him 
wide recognition. He was a prime favorite 
in Chicago newspaper circles and a soft 
touch for the impecunious members of the 
fraternity. Eugene Field, who owed him 
money, once wrote in his column in the 
Chicago Daily News: "W. E. Curtis is in 
town to look after his permanent invest- 
ments." He died of apoplexy in Philadel- 

Tibbelses' Folks, Chicago, 1875. 

Zachariah Chandler, an Outline Sketch of 
His Life and Public Services, 1880. 

Children of the Sun, Chicago, 1883. 

A Summer Scamper along the Old Santa Fe 
Trail . . . , Chicago, 1883. 

The Capitals of Spanish America, New 
York, 1888. 

The Land of the Nihilist. Russia . . . , Chi- 
cago, 1888. 

Trade and Transportation between the 

United States and Spanish America, 

Washington, D. C, 1889. 
Handbook of the American Republics, 

Washington, D. C, 1890. 
Costa Rica, Washington, D. C, 1891. 
Ecuador, Washington, D. C, 1891. 
Guatemala, Washington, D. C, 1891. 
Venezuela — a Land Where It Is Always 

Summer, Washington, D. C, 1891. 
The United States and Foreign Powers, 

Meadville, Pa., 1892. 
The Relics of Columbus . . . , Washington, 

D. C, 1893. 
Venezuela . . . , New York, 1896. 
The Yankees of the East . . . , Chicago, 

Today in France and Germany, Chicago, 

Between the Andes and the Ocean . . . , 

Chicago, 1900. 
The True Thomas Jefferson, Philadelphia, 

Abraham Lincoln, Philadelphia, 1902. 
Denmark, Norway and Sweden, Akron, 

The True Abraham Lincoln, Philadelphia, 

The Turk and His Lost Provinces . . . , Chi- 
cago, 1903. 
To-day in Syria and Palestine, Chicago, 

Egypt, Burma and British Malaysia, Chi- 
cago, 1905. 
Modern India, Chicago, 1905. 
One Irish Summer, New York, 1909. 
Around the Black Sea . . . , New York, 

Letters on Canada, [n.p.], 1911. 
Turkestan; "The Heart of Asia," New York, 


CURTISS, GEORGE LEWIS (Nov. 21, 1835- 
March 30, 1898), clergyman, was born in 
Columbia. Lorain County. After graduating 
from Baldwin University in 1854, he taught 
mathematics at Moore's Hill College, Ind. 
He afterward served as pastor of various 
Methodist churches in Indiana. Besides the 
titles below, he published several textbooks 
in theology and church history. 
History of the Methodist Episcopal Church 

in Shelbyville . . . , Shelbyville, Ind., 

Tragic Trio, Indianapolis, 1882. 
Sketches from the Romance of American 

History, [Jeffersonville, Ind., 1886]. 
Arminianism in History . . . , Cincinnati, 


CURTISS, PHEBE A. (Aug. 2, 1856-Aug. 
23, 1936), was born in Cleveland, Cuya- 



hoga County. She graduated from Cleve- 
land Normal School and taught in the 
Cleveland public schools. After her mar- 
riage to Frank Curtiss in 1881, she lived in 
Painesville. She was superintendent of the 
Children's Division of the Ohio Sunday 
School Association. She died in Chicago. 
She published a number of programs and 
texts for use in Sunday schools and a pam- 
phlet on childhood: The Child You Used 
to Be, Cincinnati, [1916]. 

CURWEN, MASKELL E. (Feb. 9, 1825-July 
11, 1868), lawyer, was born near Villa- 
nova, Pa. After coming to Dayton in 1844, 
he was admitted to the Ohio bar and prac- 
ticed law in that city. He was also a part- 
time editor of the Dayton Transcript. In 
1850 he became professor of law at the 
University of Cincinnati and in 1858 was 
made dean of the law school. He published 
several legal works besides the title below. 
His history of Dayton is the first full-length 
history of the city; it was first written as an 
introduction to Odell's business directory. 
He died in London, England, while on a 
European trip intended to renew his health. 
A Sketch of the History of the City of 
Dayton, Dayton, 1850. 

1873-Dec. 3, 1953), was born near Goshen, 
Clermont County. He was educated in 
Springfield and worked on the editorial 
staffs of various Ohio newspapers until 
1907, when he moved to Chicago and be- 
came editor of the Black Diamond. He 
edited this magazine until 1918, operated a 
laboratory in Washington, D. C, and be- 
came a public speaker in behalf of the coal 
industry. In 1937 he became editor of the 
Retail Coalman. He wrote The Human 
Story of Coal, Washington, D. C, 1923. 
WW 16 

1869-Oct. 8, 1939), surgeon, was born in 
Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. He graduated 
from Yale University in 1891 and com- 
pleted his medical training at Harvard Uni- 
versity in 1895. He was a practicing sur- 
geon from 1895 to 1933 and also served 
on the faculties of Johns Hopkins, Harvard, 
and Yale. He died at New Haven Hospital 
and is buried in Lakeside Cemetery, Cleve- 
land. Besides writing a number of tech- 
nical medical works, he won the Pulitzer 
Prize for his biography, The Life of Sir Wil- 
liam Osier, 2 vols., Oxford, 1925. DAB 22 

CHILD (Jan. 13, 1889- ), was born in 

Oberlin, Lorain County. She graduated 
from Oberlin College in 1911. She now 
lives in Arlington, Va. She has published 
a number of novels, both as magazine se- 
rials and as books, e.g., The Other Brother, 
Boston, 1939. WW AW 1 

CUSHMAN, CORINNE. Pseud. See Metta V. 
F. Victor. 

1839-June 25, 1876), soldier, was born in 
New Rumley, Harrison County. He at- 
tended local schools until he was ten years 
old, after which he spent part of his time 
with his half-sister, Lydia Reed, in Monroe, 
Mich. At the age of seventeen he was ap- 
pointed to U. S. Military Academy, where 
he was graduated without distinction in 
1861. Despite his mediocre record at West 
Point, he attracted the attention of several 
generals, most notably George B. McClellan, 
rose rapidly in rank, and served with dis- 
tinction in numerous engagements. He was 
named major general of volunteers at the 
close of the Civil War. In 1866, after toy- 
ing with the idea of joining the army of 
Juarez in Mexico, he joined the 7th Cavalry 
as lieutenant colonel. His victory over 
Cheyennes at the Battle of Washita in 
1868 kept him in the public eye. He was 
stationed in Kentucky, 1871-73, and then 
was sent to the Dakota Territory. In 1874 
he led an exploring expedition through the 
Black Hills which resulted in miners flock- 
ing into the area and in the unrest among 
the Sioux which culminated at Little Big 
Horn two years later. Custer's testimony 
against Indian agents caused Grant to re- 
move him from his command, and he was 
restored just in time to join the expedition 
against the Sioux in May-June, 1876. The 
events of June 25 continue to be debated by 
military historians, but the annihilation of 
Custer and his entire force is one of the 
most familiar legends of American history. 
His only book, which first appeared in the 
Galaxy, sold widely and helped create the 
image of a flamboyant hero that still per- 
sists in the public mind. 
My Life on the Plains . . . , New York, 

CUTLER, CARROLL (Jan. 31, 1829-Jan. 24, 
1894), clergyman and educator, was born 
in Windham, N. H. He graduated from 
Yale University in 1854 and was licensed to 
preach in 1858. In 1860, after a year of 
study in Germany, he joined the faculty of 
Western Reserve College at Hudson. In 
1871 he became president of the college; 
in 1886, four years after the college had 


Dabney, C. W. 

been moved to Cleveland, he resigned, but 
continued to serve until 1888 and then 
taught for an additional year. After leaving 
Western Reserve, he taught at Negro col- 
leges in the South until his death. 
A History of Western Reserve College 

. . . , Cleveland, 1876. 
The Beginnings of Ethics, New York, 1889. 

CUTLER, JAMES ALBERT (Jan. 24, 1876- 
), educator, was born in Princeville, 
111. He graduated from the University of 
Colorado in 1900 and Yale University 
(Ph.D.) in 1903. He served on the sociology 
faculty of Western Reserve University, 1916— 
46. He wrote numerous articles and reviews 
and, with Maurice R. Davie, A Study in 
Professional Education at Western Reserve 
University . . . , Cleveland, [1930]. WW 30 

CUTLER, JERVIS (Sept. 19, 1768-June 25, 
1846), son of Rev. Manasseh Cutler (q.v.), 
secretary of the Ohio Company, was born 
in Martha's Vineyard, Mass. In his teens he 
was placed in Boston to acquire a mercan- 
tile education, but dissatisfied with a mer- 
chant's life, he soon gave it up and went to 
Europe, where he visited France and Den- 
mark. When the Ohio Company was or- 
ganized, Jervis' adventuring spirit was 
aroused and he joined the original party 
that left his father's parsonage at Ipswich to 
found a settlement at Marietta. As the boats 
carrying the settlers neared the confluence 
of the Muskingum and Ohio Rivers, young 
Jervis was the first to leap ashore. He spent 
most of the rest of his life in the Western 
country, so that he wrote from firsthand 
knowledge of the section and its inhabitants. 
In 1807 he was elected major in Colonel 
McArthur's Ohio regiment. When troops 
were wanted to take possession of Loui- 
siana, he was appointed captain and raised 
a full company of men with which in 1809 
he was ordered to New Orleans. In 1812 at 
New Orleans, probably while recuperating 
from a severe attack of yellow fever, he 
wrote his Topographical Description. In 
1823 he moved his family from Ohio to 

Nashville, Tenn., where he was an en- 
graver. Later he settled in Evansville, Ind., 
where his death occurred. He was the last 
survivor of the Ohio Company. 

Mary Hoge Bruce 
A Topographical Description of the State of 

Ohio, Indiana Territory, and Louisiana 

. . . , Boston, 1812. 

CUTLER, JULIA PERKINS (Jan. 24, 1814- 
Dec. 18, 1904), was born in Constitution, 
Washington County. In 1854 she moved to 
Marietta to live with her brother, William 
P. Cutler (July 12, 1812-April 11, 1889). 
In addition to the titles below, she pub- 
lished poems in various periodicals; and 
with her brother she edited the papers of 
her grandfather, Manasseh Cutler. 
The Founders of Ohio . . . , Cincinnati, 

Life, Journals and Correspondence of Ma- 
nasseh Cutler, 2 vols., Cincinnati, 1888. 
Life and Times of Ephraim Cutler . . . , 
Cincinnati, 1890. 

CUTLER, MANASSEH (May 13, 1742-July 
28, 1823), versatile Congregational clergy- 
man, who was instrumental in persuading 
Congress to make favorable terms for the 
land purchase of the Ohio Company, was 
in Ohio for only a year (1788-89). His 
most important publication from an Ohio 
viewpoint is An Explanation of the Map 
Which Delineates That Part of the Federal 
Lands, Comprehended between Pennsyl- 
vania West Line, the Rivers Ohio and 
Scioto, and Lake Erie . . . , Salem, [Mass.], 
1787. This important document, published 
anonymously, contains a description of the 
Ohio country. 

1, 1884), was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County, and spent his life in that city. His 
only publication was an account of his 
Civil War service. 

Our Battery; Or, the Journal of Company 
B, 1st O.V.A., Cleveland, 1864. 


1855-June 15, 1945), president of the Uni- 
versity of Cincinnati, 1904-20, was bora in 
Hampden-Sydney, Va. He graduated from 
Hampden-Sydney College in 1873 and the 
University of Gottingen (Ph.D.) in 1880. 

The Department of Agriculture published 
some of his addresses and reports before 
1901, and he wrote many articles, but his 
major work was Universal Education in the 
South, 2 vols., Chapel Hill, N. C, [1936]. 
WWW 2 

Dabney, W. P. 


1865-June 3, 1952), editor, was born in 
Richmond, Va., where his father, a former 
slave, was a successful caterer. He taught 
school for several years, attended Oberlin 
College, and arrived in Cincinnati in 1894. 
He operated a hotel for a time, was as- 
sistant city paymaster, 1897-1923, and 
edited the Union for nearly fifty years. 
He published Cincinnati's Colored Citizens; 
Historical, Sociological and Biographical, 
Cincinnati, [1926]. 


1856-March 9, 1922), was born in Morris- 
town, Belmont County. She graduated from 
Steubenville Seminary in 1873. In addition 
to the titles below, she wrote several plays 
that were produced but not published. She 
died in Pasadena, Calif. 
Mariposilla; A Novel, Chicago, 1895. 
The Broad Aisle; A Realistic Tale of Ohio, 

New York, [1899]. 
The Higher Court, Boston, [1911]. 
The Yellow Angel, Chicago, 1914. 

GODDARD (July 13, 1825-May 28, 1898), 
born in Gallipolis, Gallia County, was the 
daughter of Samuel F. Vinton, who rep- 
resented his district in Congress for more 
than twenty years. She attended the Convent 
of the Visitation, Georgetown, D. C, and 
when she reached maturity, became her 
father's hostess in Washington. In 1846 
she married Daniel C. Goddard of Zanes- 
ville. He died in 1862, and three years 
later she married the distinguished author- 
ity on naval ordnance, Admiral John A. 
Dahlgren. A scholarly and versatile writer, 
she edited her husband's Memoir of Ulric 
Dahlgren, wrote the preface to his Notes on 
Maritime and International Law, and pro- 
duced noteworthy translations of French 
and Spanish religious works. Her first book, 
a volume of poems and sketches published 
under the pen name Corinne, appeared in 
1859. Although she devoted her life in 
Washington to literature and religion, she 
managed to become an acknowledged social 
leader. Her Etiquette of Social Life in 
Washington, though not her most distin- 
guished literary production, was her most 
influential one, for it became the vade 
mecum of Washington society and ran 
through many editions. She founded the 
Washington Literary Society in 1873, and 
her home became a salon for a large circle 
of literary acquaintance. 
Idealities, Philadelphia, 1859. 
Thoughts on Female Suffrage . . . , Wash- 
ington, 1871. 

Etiquette of Social Life in Washington, 

Washington, 1873. 
South Sea Sketches . . . , Boston, 1881. 
Memoir of John A. Dahlgren . . . , Boston, 

South Mountain Magic . . . , Boston, 1882. 
A Washington Winter, Boston, 1883. 
The Lost Name; A Novelette, Boston, 1886. 
Divorced. A Novel, Chicago, 1887. 
Lights and Shadows of a Life; A Novel, 

Boston, 1887. 
Chim: His Washington Winter, New York, 

The Secret Directory . . . , Philadelphia, 

The Woodley Lane Ghost, and Other 

Stories, Philadelphia, 1899. 

Feb. 5, 1877), educator, was born in Co- 
shocton, Coshocton County, but spent most 
of his life in Indiana. He graduated from 
Indiana University in 1836. He was presi- 
dent of Indiana University, 1853-59. Be- 
sides the titles below, many of his speeches 
and sermons were published. 
The Powerful Pen and the Eloquent Tongue 

. . . , Bloomington, Ind., 1859. 
The Great Rebellion, Madison, Ind., 1862. 

DALE, CHRISTOPHER (Feb. 9, 1917- ), 
was born in Dayton, Montgomery County. 
After serving four years in the Marine 
Corps, he published a short book: Hypnosis 
Is Yours. Use It!, Dayton, 1944. 

DALE, EDGAR (April 27, 1900- ), edu- 
cator, was born in Benson, Minn., and has 
been a member of the department of educa- 
tion at Ohio State University since 1929. 
He has written a number of books on news- 
papers and motion pictures, e.g., The Con- 
tent of Motion Pictures, New York, 1935. 
WW 30 

1885- ), educator, born in Lynn, Mass., 
was on the faculty of Miami University, 
1928-37. He was afterward president of 
the University of Idaho, 1937-46, and 
comptroller of Reed College, 1946-50. He 
now lives in Santa Barbara, Calif. He has 
published a study of the fur trade: The Ash- 
ley-Smith Exploration, Cleveland, 1918. 
WW 29 

May 28, 1948), was born in New York 
City, the daughter of Caleb Van Hamm, 
a journalist of New York and Cincinnati. 
After her marriage she lived in Cincinnati, 
where she was active in cultural activities. 



She was killed in an automobile accident 
at the age of 54. She wrote several plays, 
e.g., The Girls' Finesse . . . , Franklin, 

DALE, SOPHIA DANA (Jan. 28, 1853-May 
1, 1932), was born in Marietta, Washington 
County, and spent her life in that commu- 
nity. She was active in the cultural life of 
Marietta, and her interest in local history is 
indicated by the pamphlet listed below. 
Historical, Picturesque and Appropriate 

Names for Streets and Public Properties, 

Marietta, 1897. 

DALES, GEORGE S. (June 29. 1879- ), 
jeweler, was born in Akron. Summit 
County. He attended Akron public schools 
and Buchtel College. He was a jeweler in 
Akron for many years; now retired, he 
spends his summers in Akron and his win- 
ters at Vero Beach, Fla. He has traveled 
widely and is an enthusiastic amateur 
photographer. His wife, Lotta E. Dales, 
edited notes from his travel diaries: Inti- 
mate Glimpses of Many Lands . . . , Akron, 

DALEY, EDITH (Jan. 1, 1876-Jan. 13, 
1948), librarian and journalist, was born 
in Fostoria, Seneca County. She worked on 
several newspapers and was city librarian, 
San Jose, Calif., 1922^3. Her short stories 
and poems appeared in various periodicals, 
and she published a volume of poetry: The 
Angel in the Sun . . . , San Jose, [1917]. 

DALLAS, RICHARD. Pseud. See Nathan W. 

DALTON, VAN RROADUS (July 25, 1885- 
), oral surgeon, was born in Burkesville, 
Ky. He graduated from the Ohio College 
of Dental Surgery, Cincinnati, in 1907 and 
the following year joined the faculty. He 
taught until 1917 and afterward practiced 
privately in Cincinnati. Besides numerous 
professional articles, he has published The 
Genesis of Dental Education in the United 
States, Cincinnati, 1946. WW 30 

1838-Jan. 29, 1924), was born in Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. His parents moved to Noble 
County in 1845. He served as a private in 
the 116th O.V.I, throughout the Civil War, 
and following his discharge he became a 
clerk in the Treasury Department in Wash- 
ington, D.C. He graduated from Colum- 
bian Law College in 1868 and afterward 

practiced law for over thirty years at Cald- 
well and served a number of terms in the 
Ohio General Assembly. He contributed 
many articles to leading newspapers over 
the signature "Private Dalzell." His death 
occurred in Washington, D.C. 
John Gray, of Mount Vernon . . . , Wash- 
ington, 1868. 
Private Dalzell, His Autobiography, Poems, 
and Comic War Papers . . . , Cincinnati, 


(1882-Feb. 24. 1930), was born in Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton County. Stricken with paraly- 
sis in 1912, he was an invalid for the re- 
mainder of his life. He published his poetry 
in several collections, e.g., Penciled Poems, 
Cincinnati, 1917. 

1879- ), journalist and educator, was 

born in Sharon, Noble County. He pub- 
lished a weekly newspaper there, edited 
newspapers in other communities, taught 
school, and for fifteen years was a junior 
high school principal in Huntington, W. 
Va. Now retired, he lives in Huntington. 
He has written a number of biographical 
and historical studies, and two historical 
novels, e.g., The West Virginian, New York, 

1867-Jan. 2, 1944), educator, was born in 
Dayton, Montgomery County. After gradu- 
ating from Princeton University in 1888, 
he taught at Princeton, served on the New 
Jersey Public Utility Commission, 1911-14, 
was a member of the Interstate Commerce 
Commission, 1914-23, and was on the 
Yale University faculty, 1923-40. Besides 
magazine articles, a finance textbook, and 
a memoir of Woodrow Wilson, he wrote 
American Railroads; Four Phases of Their 
History, Princeton, N. J., 1932. WWW 2 

DANNER, JOHN (March 10, 1823-April 12, 
1918), manufacturer, was born in Canton, 
Stark County. After several years as a mer- 
chant, he invented a revolving bookcase in 
1874. He organized a factory to produce 
these bookcases, which were used through- 
out the world. He was active in Canton 
civic affairs, and for several years before 
his death at 95 was the oldest citizen of the 
city. He published a large, useful volume 
of local history: Old Landmarks of Canton 
and Stark County . . . , Logansport, Ind., 
1904, some portions of which were written 
by Lewis Slusser (Jan. 21, 1820-Dec. 23, 
1892), a Canton physician. 



1880- ), educator, was born in New 
York City, taught German at Western Re- 
serve University, 1905-07, and headed the 
German department at Oberlin College, 
1927-35. He now lives in Berkeley, Calif. 
Besides numerous textbooks and profes- 
sional articles, he has published Germany 
Ten Years After, Boston, 1928. WW 26 

DARBY, WILLIAM (Aug. 14, 1775-Oct. 9, 
1854), geographer, born in eastern Pennsyl- 
vania, lived in Ohio for eighteen years, 
1781-99. His distinguished career as a sur- 
veyor, map-maker, and geographer, how- 
ever, has little relation to the Ohio country. 
He lived in Louisiana, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, and Washington, D. C. He published 
textbooks, gazetteers, and maps in addition 
to the titles listed below. 
A Geographical Description of the State of 

Louisiana . . . , Philadelphia, 1816. 
The Emigrant's Guide to the Western and 
Southwestern States and Territories . . . , 
New York, 1818. 
A Tour from the City of New-York, to 

Detroit . . . , New York, 1819. 
Memoir on the Geography, and Natural 
and Civil History of Florida . . . , Phila- 
delphia, 1821. 
Lectures on the Discovery of America . . . , 

Baltimore. 1828. 
View of the United States, Historical, Geo- 
graphical, and Statistical . . . , Philadel- 
phia, 1828. 
Mnemonika: Or, the Tablet of Memory 

. . . , Baltimore, 1829. 
The Northern Nations of Europe . . . , 

Chillicothe, 1841. 
Remarks on the Tendency of the Constitu- 
tion of the United States to Give Legis- 
lative Control to the President, [n.p., 

DARRAH, DAVID HARLEY (May 27, 1894- 
), foreign correspondent, was born in 
Loydsville, Belmont County, and was edu- 
cated at the University of Akron. After 
army service in France during World War 
I, he joined the Paris staff of the Chicago 
Tribune. In 1935 he was expelled from Italy 
by Mussolini; the following year he pub- 
lished a study of Italy under dictatorship: 
Hail Caesar, Boston, 1936. During World 
War II he was interned by the Germans, 
1942-44. WW 30 

13, 1889-Jan. 28, 1950), educator, was born 
near Mechanicsburg, Champaign County. A 
pioneer in educational radio, he founded the 
Ohio School of the Air in 1925 and con- 

ducted it until 1937. The history of the 
school is covered in Radio Trailblazing . . . , 
Columbus, [1940]. 

DARROW, CLARENCE (April 18, 1857- 
March 13, 1938), lawyer, was born in 
Kinsman, Trumbull County. In 1898 Brand 
Whitlock, then a young journalist undecided 
about following a career in politics or let- 
ters, wrote this revealing comment in a 
personal letter: 

Last January, when I was in Chicago for 
a day or two, I called upon my old friend 
Clarence Darrow, the lawyer of more than 
local fame. He is deeply interested in 
letters, and should have devoted himself 
to literature. . . . 

Nearly 25 years later Edgar Lee Masters, 
one-time law partner of the "Man from 
Kinsman," made allusion to the literary 
propensities of Darrow: 

He was always a poet too, 
And a poet is the barometer of the 

And a vicarious sufferer for all 

He was poet who found clay for 

his modeling 
In those who were martyred for 

For the weak, the despoiled. . . . 

Thus two established men of letters during 
two distinct epochs in American literature 
bore testimony to the creative talent of 
Clarence Darrow, the transplanted Ohioan 
who, while a successful attorney in the 
hectic Chicago of the 1880s — the seething 
town of Railroad Combine, Beef Trust, 
and Haymarket — revealed to a close friend 
a surprising dilemma: "The one thing I 
want most of all to be is a writer." True 
to his desire, the former Ashtabula lawyer 
late in the 1890s took some faltering steps 
in the ascent of Parnassus, and by 1905 
Darrow had published most of the literary 
work emanating from this initial creative 
impulse. His writings categorize themselves 
as criticism, A Persian Pearl: And Other 
Essays (1899); short stories, "Easy Lessons 
in Law," in the Chicago American (July- 
August, 1902): and novels. Farmington 
(1904) and An Eye for an Eye (1905). As 
a literary critic. Darrow reinforced the 
vigorous stances of his idol, Col. Robert 
Ingersoll. by singing the praises of Fitz- 
gerald. Burns, and Whitman — poets who 
throbbed as a "great universal heart" in 
sharp contrast to a sordid "commercial, 
money-getting age." The attorney also lined 
up behind William Dean Howells, his friend 
and fellow Ohioan, in the crusade for real- 


Darrow, C. 

ism in fiction and integrity in art; he be- 
lieved, too, with his beloved counselor John 
P. Altgeld (q.v.) that: 

The greatest artists of the world today are 
telling facts and painting scenes that 
cause humanity to stop and think and 
ask why one should be a master and an- 
other be a serf; why a portion of the 
world should toil and spin, should wear 
away its strength and life that the rest 
should live in idleness and ease. 

Thus Clarence Darrow embraced an aes- 
thetic that was solidly founded on ethical 
principles; the social content of literature, 
artistry based on the cult of love, and reality 
painted with the orientation of a congenital 
pessimist became the critical pivots in his 
creative system. And when William Ran- 
dolph Hearst invited this curious lawyer to 
contribute some fiction to the newly founded 
Chicago American, Darrow happily re- 
sponded with a series of bizarre tales ex- 
coriating contemporary jurisprudence and 
its inequities. The "Easy Lessons" to which 
Darrow's perhaps unsuspecting readers were 
introduced generally involved tales of help- 
less immigrants victimized by the "Doc- 
trine of Assumed Risk." Minorities, com- 
peting for jobs on the lowest levels in facto- 
ries and railroad yards, exposed themselves 
to unbelievable physical danger, encouraged 
by the penny-pinching negligence of ruth- 
less employers. Thus, when John Swanson 
loses his arm in a buzz saw that had no 
guard, and when Tony Salvador has his leg 
amputated by a train rolling through faulty 
signals, no compensation is owed the suf- 
fering families of these unfortunate laborers, 
who realized the dangers under which they 
worked but who, nevertheless, to avoid star- 
vation, continued "at their own risk" to 
hold such hazardous jobs. Indeed, Darrow, 
who was later to earn considerable fame as 
a labor lawyer, revealed clearly his pro- 
found sympathy for the workingman and 
his union even in these early sketches. Cor- 
poration lawyers, thoughtless magistrates, 
and general legal incompetence are pilloried 
in "Easy Lessons"; one aspect of Darrow's 
fiction, then, would link him with the Muck- 
rakers. Farmington might well have been 
given the subtitle "A Grotesque Idyl of 
Trumbull County," for in this nearly for- 
gotten novel Darrow dissects the Kinsman 
area of the "brown decades" during the 
post-Civil War period and in so doing con- 
tributes to American letters as poignant a 
"revolt from the village" document as An- 
derson's Winesburg, Ohio, or Whitlock's 
J. Hardin & Son. The 23 chapters of the 
novel recount the observations of one John 
Smith, a gentleman who wandered and 

blundered, so he tells, "in a zigzag path 
through childhood" within the "narrow 
shade of the stubborn little town" of Farm- 
ington. Quickly introduced into the real 
world of "selfishness and greed," Smith was 
at length initiated into the life of passive 
despair endured by his fellow townsfolk: 
All my life [the narrator records] I have 
been planning and hoping and thinking 
and dreaming and loitering and waiting. 
All my life I have been getting ready to 
begin to do something, something worth 
the while. I have been waiting for the 
summer and waiting for the fall; I have 
been waiting for the winter and waiting 
for the spring; waiting for the night and 
waiting for the morning; waiting and 
dawdling and dreaming, until the day 
is almost spent and the twilight close at 

Episodic in structure, Farmington also deals 
with "life and action, and boys and girls, 
and men and women," people Smith calls 
"the weird fantastic troop." Darrow gives 
detailed character analyses of various local 
isolatoes who, standing aside from the pass- 
ing parade of life, deliberately choose to 
inhabit a sphere not ruled by the ethical 
strictures imposed by the unyielding social 
dogma that epitomized life in Farmington. 
In short, Clarence Darrow — while he does 
intersperse pleasant accounts of baseball, 
holidays, and fishing — paints a grim picture 
of this nineteenth-century Buckeye "Gopher 
Prairie," a wasteland dominated by the 
specter of village puritanism. Darrow's next 
novel shifts in geography from the rural 
environs of northeastern Ohio to a jail in 
Chicago, where Jim Jackson, protagonist of 
An Eye for an Eye, awaits execution for 
the murder of his wife. The book is mainly 
polemical in nature and allows the lawyer 
to air his views on capital punishment and 
on social complicity: a society that toler- 
ates squalor and poverty will continue to 
spawn criminals which it must coldly exe- 
cute. Jackson, in telling his story, confesses 
to having struck and killed his wife during 
a frenzied moment when "If there'd been 
forty scaffolds right before my eyes I'd 
have brought down that poker just the 
same." This murderer, incapable of positive 
reflective action, was driven to his deed by 
the unseen forces in this "rudderless uni- 
verse"; irrational man, lacking personal 
agency, is marked as if by Election for his 
bitter destiny. Darrow points out that the 
doomed man possesses a tragic awareness 
both of his hopeless plight and of the stark 
altruism that humanity is bound together 
in a universal brotherhood of sin. With no 
subplots to hinder the action of the narra- 

Darrow, J. 


tive, An Eye for an Eye is a cogent em- 
bodiment of literary Darwinism. At this 
point in his glamorous career, Clarence 
Darrow was sidetracked almost permanently 
from pursuits literary, but he always re- 
mained an interested and able dabbler in 
letters. His writings belaboring prohibition, 
his essay explaining agnosticism, and his 
tracts legal and evolutionary appeared dur- 
ing the 1920s and early 1930s in the most 
popular periodicals of the day (Liberty, The 
Saturday Evening Post), as well as in the 
more esoteric and iconoclastic (The De- 
bunker, The American Mercury). In 
1932 he published his well-known auto- 
biography, The Story of My Life, a work as 
spellbinding as a panorama of newspaper 
headlines. Unfortunately, in this self-por- 
trait Darrow avoids mention of his literary 
ambitions and achievements. He does, how- 
ever, paint the picture of Kinsman with 
somewhat more roseate colors than he had 
utilized for Farmington, its fictional coun- 
terpart, some 25 years earlier. Rather than 
that contemporary criticism should dismiss 
Darrow as a literary indiscretion, an artless 
amateur, or a curious dilettante, historians 
of our letters should regard him as a minor 
American author whose nonacademic, un- 
disciplined critical and fictional broadsides, 
coupled with his national prestige, gave aid 
and sustenance to the literature of realism 
during the crucial years when it struggled 
for intellectual recognition. Although he has 
attained almost mythical stature as an 
American hero for his legal achievements, 
Clarence Darrow's contributions to the area 
of arts and letters are far from insignificant. 

Abe C. Ravitz 
A Persian Pearl: And Other Essays, East 

Aurora, N. Y., 1899. 
Realism in Literature and Art, Chicago, 

Resist Not Evil, Chicago, 1903. 
Farmington, Chicago, 1904. 
"The Open Shop," Chicago, 1904. 
An Eye for an Eye, New York, 1905. 
Crime; Its Cause and Treatment, New York, 

The Prohibition Mania . . . , New York, 

The Story of My Life, New York, 1932. 

DARROW, JASON (1787-March 31, 1868), 
was born in Connecticut. He is believed to 
have been an early member of the Shaker 
colony in Warren County, but to have left 
it in 1824, after which he lived east of 

The New Light on the Christian Church, 
Covington, Ky., 1846. 

DARSIE, CHARLES (Feb. 9, 1872-Sept. 23, 
1948), clergyman, was born in Warren, 
Trumbull County. A graduate of Bethany 
College, W. Va., he was ordained to the 
ministry of the Disciples of Christ Church. 
His Ohio pastorates included North Eaton, 
Collingwood, Paulding, Uhrichsville, and 
Cleveland. He died at Burton, Geauga 
County. He wrote several books on religion 
and family life and The Art of Winning 
Folks, St. Louis, 1922. 

DARST, LILLIE C. (1846-1883), was born 
in Circleville, Pickaway County, and at- 
tended the public schools of that commu- 
nity. In 1875 she was editor and owner of 
the Circleville Herald, and in 1881 she be- 
came engrossing clerk of the Ohio Senate. 
She published poems in magazines and 
newspapers which were collected in the 
posthumous volume The Chained Angel of 
the Afterthought and Other Poems, [Circle- 
ville], 1932. 

PHIQUEPAL (Sept. 6, 1795-Dec. 13, 1852), 
reformer, was born in Dundee, Scotland. 
In Cincinnati's Spring Grove Cemetery, a 
simple granite shaft marks the grave of 
Frances Wright Phiquepal DArusmont. Few 
people who visit the cemetery are aware 
that the monument marks the grave of one 
of the nineteenth-century's most brilliant 
women, Frances Wright. Lecturer, writer, 
and champion of the oppressed, she counted 
among her friends Jeremy Bentham, Thomas 
Jefferson, Robert Owen, and General Lafay- 
ette. Her parents were moderately wealthy 
but left her an orphan at an early age. 
Until she and her sister Camilla came into 
possession of the estate left by their parents, 
they made their home with their maternal 
grandfather, General Duncan Campbell of 
the British Army. In spite of the conserva- 
tive family surroundings, Frances early be- 
came a champion of liberal doctrine. This 
interest turned her attention to America, 
which she felt, as did other European lib- 
erals, to be the land of hope. Accordingly, 
Fanny and Camilla Wright set out in 1818 
for a visit to the New World, arriving in 
New York in September of that year. There 
they were received in the best social circles. 
An event of note during their New York 
stay was the production at the Park Theatre 
of Altdorf, a tragedy written by Fanny. In 
May, 1820, the Wright sisters returned to 
England, and Fanny began work on a book 
describing her American trip. In 1821 she 
published Views of Society and Manners in 
America. The book was widely read in Eu- 
rope and brought an invitation to the young 


Davidson, H. M. 

author to visit General Lafayette. A close 
friendship developed and when the elderly 
statesman revisited the United States in 1823, 
the Wright sisters followed and joined him. 
During his triumphal trip through the coun- 
try, the Wrights were often with him and 
never far behind. As a result of this trip, 
Frances Wright met several leading liberals 
including Robert Owen, who shortly after- 
ward founded New Harmony. Appalled by 
Negro slavery, Miss Wright conceived the 
idea of setting up a colony where slaves 
might earn their freedom. A site was pur- 
chased near the present city of Memphis, 
Tenn., and in 1827 the colony Nashoba was 
established. After two difficult years, like 
so many other Utopian ventures the project 
failed. After the failure of her colony, Miss 
Wright came to Cincinnati and in July, 
1828, delivered a series of lectures in the 
Hamilton County Court House. A number 
of years later, Miss Wright took up resi- 
dence in Cincinnati. In 1831 she had mar- 
ried a French physician, Guillaume Jervis 
Casimir Phiquepal DArusmont, whose 
adopted son had established himself as a 
brewer in Cincinnati. Here the husband 
settled down to write and manage his wife's 
business affairs. Frances found little time to 
spend at home but continued her lecture 
tours throughout the Eastern seaboard. 
Domestic life, often interrupted, finally 
came to a complete break in 1847. Resi- 
dence in Cincinnati had been broken by a 
period in Scotland and France, but in 1848 
Fanny returned to Cincinnati to spend the 
remainder of her days. In January of 1852, 
she broke her hip in a fall on the ice. From 
this accident she did not recover, but died 
Dec. 13, 1852. She was, as previously 
stated, buried in the Spring Grove Cemetery. 
A monument was raised on the grave by 
her daughter. On it is carved a bibliography 
of Mrs. DArusmont's published writings. 

Ernest I. Miller 
Altdorf, a Tragedy . . . , Philadelphia, 

Views of Society and Manners in America 

. . . , New York, 1821. 
A Few Days in Athens . . . , London, 1822. 
Course of Popular Lectures, New York, 

Fables, New York, 1830. 
Biography , Notes, and Political Letters . . . , 

2 vols, New York, 1844. 
England, the Civilizer . . . , London, 1848. 


1860-Oct. 12, 1941), attorney general of 
the United States, was born in Washington 
Court House, Fayette County, where he 
began the practice of law in 1881. He 

moved to Columbus in 1893 and in 1921 
was named attorney general by President 
Harding. A central figure in the Harding 
administration, he continued to serve after 
Harding's death but resigned under fire 
March 28, 1924. With the assistance of 
Thomas Dixon, he wrote his account of the 
Harding regime: The Inside Story of the 
Harding Tragedy, New York, 1932. WWW 

DAUGHTERS, CHARLES G. (Feb. 24, 1897- 
), born in Moore's Hill, Ind., moved 
to Milford, Clermont County, in 1906. He 
attended Milford public schools and Ohio 
State University, and taught school in Van 
Wert. He was employed by the Van Wert 
Manufacturers' Association, 1919-27, was 
associated with various manufacturing con- 
cerns, and headed the Small Business Re- 
search Bureau in Washington, D. C. He 
now lives in Washington, but Milford re- 
mains his legal residence. He has written 
many articles on business and economics 
and a book on chain stores: Wells of Dis- 
content . . . , New York, [1937]. 

LAND (April 29, 1867-June 5, 1944), was 
born in New Philadelphia, Tuscarawas 
County. She attended Oberlin College. She 
contributed serials and stories to St. Nich- 
olas and other magazines and lectured on 
literature and children. Among her books 
is The Gentle Interference of Bab, New 
York, 1912. WWW 2 

DAVEY, JOHN (June 6, 1846-Nov. 8, 1923), 
tree surgeon, was born in Somersetshire, 
England. He came to Warren in 1873 and 
moved to Kent in 1881. He lectured 
throughout the country on the preservation 
of trees. Besides technical books and articles 
on tree surgery, he published Gloryville or 
He II burg, Which?, [Akron], 1908. DAB 5 

DAVIDSON, HENRY M. (c.1839-1900), was 
born in Freedom, Portage County. In Au- 
gust, 1862, he enlisted in the 1st Ohio Light 
Artillery, and was discharged in July, 1865. 
His History of Battery A is a terse and ac- 
curate account of an organization that saw 
hard service throughout the war. His Four- 
teen Months in Southern Prisons is a su- 
perior account of his experiences as a 
prisoner in Danville, Va., and Anderson- 
ville, Ga. It was republished in 1890 as 
Experience in Rebel Prisons. After the Civil 
War he operated a drugstore in Ogdens- 
burg, N. Y., and he died in that commu- 

Fourteen Months in Southern Prisons . . . , 
Milwaukee, 1865. 

Davidson, W. L. 


History of Battery A, First Regiment of 
Ohio Vol. Light Artillery, Milwaukee, 

1853-Sept. 17, 1912), clergyman and lec- 
turer, was born in Woodsfield, Monroe 
County. He graduated from Scio College 
in 1870 and Drew Theological Seminary 
in 1876. He was ordained to the Methodist 
ministry in 1876, served various pastorates, 
1876-86, and was field agent of the Sun- 
day School Union, 1886-89. He was superin- 
tendent of several Chautauquas, 1887-1911; 
field agent of the Chautauqua Literary and 
Scientific Circle, 1895-1902; and manager 
of the National Chautauqua Bureau after 

Over the Sea; And What I Saw, Cincinnati, 

DAVIE, OLIVER (July 15, 1857-May 11, 
1911), naturalist and poet, was born in 
Xenia, Greene County. In 1860 his father 
moved to Columbus and opened a variety 
store. As a boy Oliver opened a shop above 
his father's store, dealing in Indian relics, 
mineral specimens, and curios. He studied 
taxidermy and published a useful manual 
on the art. He also wrote poetry and essays 
on nature. He was the subject of a poem 
by James Whitcomb Riley, "The Natural- 
The Naturalist's Manual . . . , Columbus, 

Methods in the Art of Taxidermy, Colum- 
bus, 1894. 
Reveries and Recollections of a Naturalist, 

Columbus, 1898. 
Odds and Ends of Prose and Verse, Colum- 
bus, 1902. 

1867-Dec, 1954), educator, was born in 
England. After graduating from Yale Uni- 
versity, he was a Congregational minister, 
1892-1900. He taught philosophy at Ohio 
State University, 1900-19, and at Colorado 
College, 1919-25, and wrote a textbook on 
logic and The Moral Life . . . , Baltimore, 
1909. WW 14 

DAVIES, JOHN T. (Aug. 14, 1869-June 22, 
1953), was born in Jackson County. He 
taught in Jackson schools before moving to 
Columbus, where he served for 35 years 
as an executive of a drug company. His 
home was in Worthington. He wrote verse 
as a hobby and published a collection of his 
poems: Golden Milestones, [Jackson, 1945]. 

DAVIS, ARTHUR NEWTON (Jan. 1, 1879- 
), dental surgeon, was born in Piqua, 
Miami County. He lived in Berlin, Ger- 
many, and practiced dentistry there, 1903- 
18. The Kaiser and his family were among 
his patients, and he wrote The Kaiser As 
I Know Him, New York, [1918]. He now 
lives in Los Angeles. WW 22 

1811-May 15, 1888), archaeologist, was 
born in Hillsboro, Highland County. As 
early as 1831, while attending Kenyon Col- 
lege, he became interested in the many In- 
dian mounds in the vicinity and commenced 
research upon them. The results were in- 
corporated in an oration, "The Antiquities 
of Ohio," given at the Kenyon graduation 
exercises, Sept. 4, 1833. He was "more in- 
fluenced and encouraged" to continue such 
studies by the interest expressed by Daniel 
Webster, who was visiting in the West in 
1833. Young Davis was presented to Web- 
ster in company with the Kenyon College 
president and, hearing Webster urge with 
great earnestness the importance of pre- 
serving these fast-disappearing monuments, 
"resolved to carry it out in the only prac- 
tical way which suggested itself to me, viz: 
By procuring accurate surveys of the vari- 
ous works and recording them with full 
descriptions of the same." Although gradua- 
tion from the Cincinnati Medical College 
(c.1838) and practice in Chillicothe inter- 
vened, he persisted in his resolve and to- 
gether with E. G. Squier (q.v. ) and at his 
own expense surveyed nearly one hundred 
groups of earthworks and opened two hun- 
dred mounds. The great resultant work by 
Squier and Davis, Ancient Monuments of 
the Mississippi Valley, was published by the 
Smithsonian Institution as Volume I of 
Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. 
A classic of American archaeology, it is 
today of decided value for its accurate sur- 
veys and descriptions of mounds long 
plowed under just as Webster had predicted. 
The book, according to A. Morlot, the Swiss 
archaeologist, is "as glorious a monument 
of American science, as Bunker's Hill is of 
American bravery." Squier, who monopo- 
lized most of the glory of this publication, 
went on to wider archaeological fields, leav- 
ing Davis with a collection of thousands of 
specimens to show for the $5000 he had 
expended in the explorations. His largest 
collection of mound relics was described by 
J. J. Ampere, whose trip to Ohio in 1851 
included visits to the mounds. Ampere 
saw Davis in New York for the express pur- 
pose of examining his collection and de- 
voted to it an enthusiastic chapter of his 


Dawes, C. G. 

book. Failing to interest the Smithsonian in 
the purchase of these artifacts, Davis sold 
a large collection of these items to the 
Blackmore Museum of Salisbury, England, 
and deposited a smaller collection in the 
American Museum of Natural History in 
New York City. He remained a doctor in 
Chillicothe until 1850, when he was called 
to teach at the New York Medical College, 
where he occupied the chair of materia 
medica and therapeutics till 1860. In 1854, 
he gave a course of lectures on archaeology 
at the Lowell Institute of Boston, later re- 
peating it in Brooklyn and New York. Like 
many people of devoted purpose, he was 
imposed upon easily, and he was virtually 
unrecognized for his archaeological en- 
deavors. Author of "Report of the Com- 
mittee on the Statistics of Calculous Disease 
in Ohio" (in the Transactions of the Ohio 
Medical Society, Columbus. 1850), he was 
also an editor of the American Medical 

Wyman W. Parker 
Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Val- 
ley, (with Ephraim G. Squier), [Wash- 
ington, 1848]. 
On Ethnological Research . . . , [Washing- 
ton, 1867]. 

DAVIS, HAROLD EUGENE (Dec. 3. 1902- 
), educator, was born in Girard, Trum- 
bull County. He graduated from Hiram 
College in 1924 and Western Reserve Uni- 
versity (Ph.D.) in 1933. From 1927 to 
1947 he was professor of history and polit- 
ical science at Hiram College; since 1947 
he has been on the faculty of American 
University, Washington, D. C. Besides text- 
books and professional articles, he has pub- 
lished Latin American Leaders, New York, 
1949. WW 30 

1849-Dec. 13, 1938), daughter of A. G. 
Riddle (q.v.), was born in Janesville, Wis. 
She lived in Cleveland and Toledo; her 
death occurred in the latter city. Besides 
the novel below, she published //; Sight of 
the Goddess in Lippincott's (1895). but it 
apparently was not issued as a book. 
Gilbert Elgar's Son, New York, 1890. 

DAMS, HARRY E. (Dec. 26. 1882-Feb. 4, 
1955), lawyer, was born in Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga County. A graduate of Hiram 
College and Western Reserve University, he 
practiced law in Cleveland and served in 
both houses of the state legislature. He 
wrote A History of Freemasonry among 
Negroes in America, [Cleveland?, 1946]. 

DAVIS, LEMUEL CLARKE (Sept. 25, 1835- 
Dec. 14, 1904), journalist, was born near 
Sandusky, Erie County. After a common 
school education, he became a reporter. He 
was editor of the Philadelphia Inquirer, 
1869-87, and of the Public Ledger after 
1887. Besides the novel below, he published 
a number of magazine articles. On March 
4, 1863, he married Rebecca Blaine Hard- 
ing, widely known as a writer of fiction; 
their son. Richard Harding Davis, was far 
better known than either of his parents as 
a novelist and journalist. 
A Stranded Ship: A Story of Sea and 
Shore, New York, 1869. 

DAVIS, LYMAN EDWYN (Dec. 28. 1854- 
Aug. 13, 1930), clergyman, was born in 
Perrysburg, Lucas County. After graduating 
from Adrian College in 1877, he was or- 
dained to the ministry of the Methodist 
Protestant Church. He served several pas- 
torates in New York and Pennsylvania, and 
was for many years editor of the Methodist 
Recorder. He wrote Democratic Methodism 
in America . . . , New York, [1921]. WWW 

DAVIS, THOMAS KIRBY (Feb. 11, 1826- 
Dec. 24, 1918), clergyman, was born in 
Chambersburg, Pa. He graduated from 
Yale University in 1845 and Princeton 
Theological Seminary in 1849. Ordained to 
the Presbyterian ministry, he served churches 
in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and California. 
While serving as librarian of University of 
Wooster, 1876-1904, he also served as pas- 
tor of eight Presbyterian churches in north 
central Ohio. He wrote for newspapers and 
religious periodicals throughout his min- 
isterial career. He published sermons, a 
family history and Mind and Spirit; A Study- 
in Psychology, Boston, 1914. OBB 

1832-Feb. 17, 1893), physician, was born 
in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. He gradu- 
ated from Ohio Wesleyan University in 
1852 and from Miami Medical College in 
1855. He served in the Civil War as sur- 
geon of the 137th O.V.I., and from 1873 
until his death he was on the faculty of 
Miami Medical College. Besides the title 
below, he published a number of medical 
papers and reports. 

Observations on Revaccination during the 
Epidemic of Smallpox in Cincinnati in 
November and December, 1875, Cincin- 
nati, 1876. 

DAWES, CHARLES GATES (Aug. 27, 1865- 
April 23, 1951), banker, diplomat, vice- 

Dawes, R. C. 


president of the United States, 1925-29, 
was born in Marietta, Washington County, 
the son of Gen. Rufus R. Dawes (q.v.). He 
graduated from Marietta College in 1884. 
He practiced law in Nebraska, 1887-94, and 
was comptroller of the currency during the 
McKinley administration. From 1902 to 
1921 he was president of the Central Trust 
Company of Illinois, which he had organ- 
ized. In World War I he was general pur- 
chasing agent for the A.E.F., and his color- 
ful testimony before a postwar Congression- 
al committee first brought him national 
prominence. He served as director of the 
budget, as chairman of the Reparations 
Commission, as vice-president, and as am- 
bassador to Great Britain, 1929-32. 
The Banking System of the United States 

. . . , Chicago, 1894. 
Essays and Speeches . . . , Boston, 1915. 
A Journal of the Great War, Boston, 1921. 
The First Year of the Budget of the United 

States, New York, 1923. 
Notes as Vice President, 1928-29, Boston, 

How Long Prosperity?, Chicago, 1937. 
Journal as Ambassador to Great Britain, 

New York, 1939. 
A Journal of Reparations, London, 1939. 
A Journal of the McKinley Years, (Bascom 

N. Timmons, ed.), Chicago, 1950. 

DAWES, RUFUS CUTLER (July 30, 1867- 
Jan. 8, 1940), was born in Marietta, Wash- 
ington County, the son of Gen. Rufus R. 
Dawes (q.v.) and the younger brother of 
Charles G. Dawes (q.v.). A graduate of 
Marietta College (1886), he went to Chi- 
cago in 1897, where he organized and man- 
aged various public utility companies. He 
was president of the Chicago World's Fair 
of 1933-34. He died in Evanston, 111., and 
was buried in Marietta. After World War 
I. he served as advisor to the committee 
which prepared a plan of reparations settle- 
ments and wrote The Dawes Plan in the 
Making, Indianapolis, [1925]. DAB 22 

DAWES, RUFUS R. (July 4, 1838-Aug. 1, 
1899), father of Charles G. and Rufus C. 
Dawes (qq.v.), was born in Malta, Morgan 
County. He spent his boyhood in Malta and 
Constitution. He studied at the University 
of Wisconsin, but spent his last two years 
at Marietta College, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1860. He was in Juneau County, 
Wis., when the Civil War began and organ- 
ized a company which was incorporated 
into the 6th Wisconsin, the regiment he 
commanded at Gettysburg. He was pro- 
moted to colonel and was breveted briga- 
dier general. After the war he was engaged 

in the lumber business in Marietta and 
served in Congress, 1880-82. 
Service with the Sixth Wisconsin Volunteers, 
Marietta, 1890. 

DAWSON, MOSES (1768-1844), professional 
Irishman and polemical writer, arrived in 
Philadelphia at the age of 49 from Belfast. 
He had left behind him two jail sentences 
and a reward for his arrest offered by the 
provost marshal of Glasgow, where he had 
sojourned for a time. In the United States 
his bellicose career, spent principally in 
Cincinnati, was to continue as he became a 
"Jackson Man" and the determined enemy 
of Charles Hammond (q.v.) and all Whigs. 
The son of a linen draper, he was born in 
the small port of Carrickfergus, in Northern 
Ireland, received a basic classical education 
in Belfast, and then followed his father's 
trade. But his real vocation was Irish inde- 
pendence, for which he barely escaped the 
gallows alongside other members of the 
United Irishmen. About 1817 Dawson came 
to Cincinnati and soon opened a Lancastrian 
school on Water Street, devoted to educa- 
tion divorced from religion. Within two 
years the school closed its doors, and Daw- 
son's rough-and-tumble newspaper career in 
Cincinnati opened up with his column in 
the Inquisitor and Cincinnati Advertiser. 
Shortly thereafter he became proprietor, 
and he remained with the paper, published 
under various titles, until old age brought 
his retirement in 1841. The Advertiser in 
those years became the sounding board for 
Dawson's prolific opinions on economic, 
political, social, and religious questions. In 
the first number of the paper under the new 
proprietor (Jan. 27, 1823) there appears an 
attack on John Quincy Adams. Why not? 
Dawson's creed and prophet were Democ- 
racy and Jackson, though with some later 
modification in regard to the voice of the 
people. The Monroe Doctrine, America 
free from European influence, secularized 
education, private enterprise (including 
privately owned city waterworks), abolition 
of public debt, encouragement of museums 
and theaters, the advancement of science, 
revolutionary patriots in Europe, the cele- 
bration of St. Patrick's Day in Cincinnati, 
a canal around the falls of the Ohio, and 
many another project and cause found 
eager champions in Dawson and his Adver- 
tiser. Dawson's admiration for William 
Henry Harrison dated from the Congres- 
sional election of 1822. By 1824 he had 
published his biography of Harrison. But 
admiration turned to opposition as Dawson 
saw, or thought he saw, less and less "Demo- 
cratic edge" on the old warrior. Clay, Web- 



ster ("the Yankee Crow"), John Q. Adams, 
and Harrison in politics were not Dawson's 
style. "When this old hat was new the 
people used to say, the best of all the demo- 
crats were Harrison and Clay." That they 
never were such was Dawson's eventual 
opinion. In the election of 1828 Jackson's 
candidacy was cried up by Dawson as edi- 
tor of The Friend of Reform and Corrup- 
tion's Adversary in bitter debate with Charles 
Hammond's Truth's Advocate and Anti-Jack- 
son Expositor. The fight was not in the 
genteel tradition on either side. Thereafter 
Hammond of the Gazette and Dawson of 
the Advertiser were in almost continual 
verbal warfare, until darkness intervened. 
In dress and manners Dawson's habits were 
simple republican (old style) like Benjamin 
Franklin's. He was solid, square-built, and 
florid; he wore an olive-green coat, nankeen 
pants, and broad-brimmed hat. A service- 
able cane completes the picture of what he 
wanted to be — an honest citizen with no 
airs. Thus he must have looked when, three 
years before his death, he sold his share of 
the paper and dismounted forever from 
the editorial tripod. 

Virginius C. Hall 
A Historical Narrative of the Civil and 
Military Services of Major-General Wil- 
liam H. Harrison . . . , Cincinnati, 1824. 
Sketches of the Life of Martin Van Buren 
. . . , Cincinnati, 1840. 

DAWSON, WILLIAM LEON (Feb. 20. 1873- 
April 30, 1928), clergyman and ornitholo- 
gist, was born in Leon, Iowa. He graduated 
from Oberlin College in 1897 and from the 
seminary in 1899. He was ordained to the 
Congregationalist ministry in 1899, and he 
served as pastor of North Church. Colum- 
bus, 1900-02. His death occurred in Cali- 
fornia. He wrote studies of bird life in 
several states, e.g., The Birds of Ohio, Co- 
lumbus, 1903. WWW 1 

DAY, ALBERT EDWARD (Nov. 18, 1884- 
), clergyman and lecturer, was born in 
Euphemia, Preble County. After graduating 
from Taylor University in 1904, he was or- 
dained as a Methodist minister and served 
churches in Bellefontaine, Cincinnati. Del- 
aware, and Canton. He also served churches 
in other states and lectured widely. He pub- 
lished several books on religious themes, 
e.g., Present Perils in Religion, New York, 
[1928]. WW 30 

DAY, HENRY NOBLE. See Joseph Badger. 

DAY, LEWIS W. (Dec. 1, 1839-March 16, 
1899), was born in Richland County. He 

enlisted in the 101st O.V.I, on Aug. 6, 1862, 
and was discharged in Dec, 1863, for dis- 
ability. He lived in Hillsdale, Mich., for a 
time after his discharge. He taught in the 
schools of Marion, Galion, and Cleveland. 
He was superintendent of schools in Can- 
ton at the time of his death. 
Story of the One Hundred and First Ohio 
Infantry . . . , Cleveland, 1894. 

DAY, SARAH J. (Nov. 5, 1860-May 11, 
1940), was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. In 1872 her family moved to 
Brooklyn, N. Y., and after 1907 she lived 
in Englewood, N. J. She graduated from 
Packer Collegiate Institute, Brooklyn, in 
1879. She won a prize at the Brooklyn In- 
stitute of Arts and Sciences for a poem, 
"Battle of Long Island," in 1913. The last 
title below is a biography of her father, 
Timothy C. Day. 
From Mayflowers to Mistletoe; A Year 

with the Flower Folk, New York, 1900. 
Fresh Fields and Legends Old and New, 

New York, 1909. 
Wayfarers and Wings, New York, 1924. 
The Man on a Hill Top, Philadelphia, 


DAY, STEPHEN A. (July 13, 1882-Jan. 5, 
1950), lawyer, was born in Canton, Stark 
County. He graduated from the University 
of Michigan in 1905, read law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1907. He practiced in 
Cleveland and Chicago and was a member 
of Congress, 1941-45. He wrote The Con- 
stitutionalist, Boston, [1936]. WWW 2 

DEAN, CORINNE, educator, was born in 
Toledo, Lucas County. After graduating 
from the University of Chicago, she stud- 
ied at the Sorbonne and at Columbia Uni- 
versity. She has taught in the schools of 
Puerto Rico, worked as a government trans- 
lator, and now lives in Brazil. She has pub- 
lished Cocoanut Suite; Stories of the West 
Indies, Boston, [1944]. 

1914- ), was born in Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton County. She graduated from Cincinnati 
Conservatory in 1935 and appeared for a 
time as a concert pianist. She abandoned 
music for literature and published several 
short stories in the late 1940s that were in- 
cluded in the annual collections of "best" 
stories. A careful craftsman with an experi- 
mental viewpoint toward her art, she turned 
to the novel after achieving success in the 
short story. Between 1948 and 1957 she 
published seven novels, receiving highest 
critical acclaim perhaps for Cannon Hill, 
her second, Boston, 1949. WW AW 1 



1835- ? ), was born in New Jersey but spent 
much of his life in Cincinnati, where he at- 
tended Woodward High School. He worked 
as a teacher and as a clerk, and also was 
a reporter for the Enquirer. Around 1883 
he moved to Chicago. The book listed be- 
low, an account of spectacular crimes in 
Cincinnati, was published under the pen 
name "An Old Citizen." 
Murder Will Out. The First Step in Crime 
Leads to the Gallows. The Horrors of the 
Queen City . . . , Cincinnati, 1867. 

DeCAMP, ELLIS O. (April 4, 1874-May 16. 
1938), was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. When he was three years old, his 
family moved to Hartwell, where he spent 
his boyhood. He graduated from Ohio Wes- 
leyan University in 1896, taught school for 
six years, and then joined the Williamson 
Heater Company, of which he was vice- 
president at the time of his death. A small 
volume of his verse, A Bouquet of Verse, 
Cincinnati, 1938, was published by his wife. 

De CAPITE, MICHAEL (April 13, 1915- 
Jan. 17, 1950), was born and reared in 
Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. He attended 
Cleveland schools and in 1938 graduated 
from Ohio University. He worked as a 
laborer and as a reporter, studied archi- 
tecture, served in the army during World 
War II, and was a press officer with the 
United Nations. His second novel, No 
Bright Banner, New York, [1944], deals 
with the son of an Italian immigrant grow- 
ing up on Cleveland's South Side and at- 
tending Claremont College, a school that 
somewhat resembles Ohio University. ANT 


(1873-June 1, 1954), was born in Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton County. If there were one 
word to describe her, it is "ardent." She 
loved her birthplace passionately and wrote 
about it often. She glowed with affection 
for her family, back to early ancestors, and 
for the friends of her childhood at "Rook- 
wood" on Grandin Road. Even against the 
pressure of public opinion, she championed 
her French intimates. For the land of her 
birth her patriotism never faltered. She 
adopted with equally warm embrace the 
country of her soldier-diplomat-banker hus- 
band, Count Aldebert de Chambrun. re- 
joicing that, as a direct descendant of Lafay- 
ette, he held American as well as French 
citizenship. They maintained close relation- 
ships with both countries. Most of the 
Countess's mature years were spent in 
France, but they returned to Cincinnati for 

their golden wedding. They chose to re- 
main in France through both World Wars. 
The Countess died there in 1954 and lies 
buried in French soil. If nothing great was 
ever achieved without enthusiasm, Clara de 
Chambrun's lifetime researches and writ- 
ings on Shakespeare can lay claim to great- 
ness. In the days of the Bacon-Shakespeare 
controversy she took up the cudgels for the 
Bard, and deep was her scorn for his 
doubters. She had learned to read from a 
Shakespeare picture book, and her love for 
the poet deepened with time. It led to years 
of research which produced some dozen 
works on him in both English and French, 
including a play and a fictionalized biog- 
raphy. Shakespeare, Actor-Poet (1927), pub- 
lished in both languages, brought her 
the Bordin Prize of the French Academy. 
Reviewing it in the New York Times, Rich- 
ard Le Gallienne pronounced the work "on 
the whole the most convincing and complete 
life of Shakespeare yet written." Because 
life seemed zestful to her, the Countess re- 
corded her experiences in detail. Two of 
her books. Sliadows like Myself (1936) and 
Shadows Lengthen . . . (1949), are auto- 
biographical. Two more, The Making of 
Nicholas Longworth (1933), a memoir of 
her brother, who served as Congressman 
and Speaker of the House, and Cincinnati: 
The Story of the Queen City (1939), are 
family books. In her eyes, Cincinnati was 
a Longworth city. Her personality shines 
out against a panorama of distinguished in- 
tellectuals, diplomats, and political, military, 
and social leaders in whose society she cir- 
culated. She was an aristocrat, with the 
strength and weakness which the label im- 
plies. During two World Wars in France 
she accepted hardship lightly, took daring 
chances, bowed down to no man, and re- 
garded physical fear, even the danger of 
death, as lese majesty. Toward humanity 
in the mass she was an onlooker. The sight 
of fleeing refugees crowding the roads with 
their meager belongings, children, old peo- 
ple, and animals evoked words of pity, but 
obviously no empathy: "Once agiin we had 
to face the heart-rending spectacle of flee- 
ing population. Except for this blot on the 
peaceful landscape, nothing more lovely 
could be imagined than the valley of 
Coulommiers wrapped in the fairy veils of 
a dewy September dawn." The education 
of Clara brings a groan of envy in this tele- 
vision era. Her grandfather, Joseph Long- 
worth, whose home the family shared, be- 
lieved that young people who live in the 
country learn more from nature than from 
academic instruction. He also held a theory 
that adults should never talk down to chil- 


De Ford 

dren. Walking through the beech woods on 
their estate, he recited Shakespeare to the 
four-year-old. From her mother she learned 
composition, arithmetic, and American his- 
tory. The wife of the French consul came 
to give language lessons. In the evening, 
around the library lamp, the children listened 
to readings from Dickens, Thackeray, Scott, 
and Pope's translations of the Iliad and the 
Odyssey. They were taken to the best plays 
and operas. In the little playhouse on the 
grounds they presented their own renditions 
of classical drama. Later, young Miss Long- 
worth attended a small private school. It 
was not until years after her marriage that 
the Countess was made to feel aware of 
the need for a formal degree. When the 
Count de Chambrun was serving as military 
attache at the French Embassy in Washing- 
ton, his intellectually eager wife spent much 
time at the Library of Congress. There she 
unearthed the translations of John Florio, 
which explained Shakespeare's knowledge 
of French and Italian source materials. "I 
worked hard over my discovery," she says, 
"thrilled that a girl from Cincinnati with 
little scholastic training and no university 
studies whatever had made it." For just this 
lack she was unable to attract the attention 
of either Shakespeare scholars or publishers. 
Eventually, her book was privately printed. 
As her studies into the sources of Shake- 
speare's work deepened, she determined to 
acquire a degree. At forty, she achieved the 
difficult Doctor of Letters at the Sorbonne. 
Friendship, according to the standards of 
Clara de Chambrun, demanded consistent 
loyalty against all odds. Since little-girl 
days she had been devoted to the family 
friend, William Howard Taft. She dedicated 
one of her early novels to him. Letters 
passed between them frequently. When 
Theodore Roosevelt took his Bull Moose 
followers out of President Taft's Republican 
Party organization, the Longworths were 
confronted with a dilemma: Nicholas Long- 
worth was married to Alice Roosevelt. 
Their decision, though difficult, was typical. 
Clara, and brother Nick as well, stood by 
their old friend, Taft, against Nick's father- 
in-law. It would have been unthinkable for 
the de Chambruns to leave France during 
wartime. By World War II the Count's 
military days were over and he headed the 
American Hospital. The Countess kept the 
American Library going. Under its sign 
hung the name "C. Longworth Chambrun, 
Doctor of the University of Paris." "This 
formula proved completely boche-proof," 
she said, until June, 1944, when the Gestapo 
took over and created trouble. They could 
not down the cocky little Cincinnatian. Be- 

cause of their broad affiliations, the de 
Chambruns were in a unique position to 
know what was going on on both sides. 
Their pro-Americanism and devotion to 
democratic France were not doubted. The 
marriage of their only son, Rene, to Josee 
Laval, daughter of Pierre Laval, premier 
during the occupation, placed them close to 
the workings of the Vichy Government. 
The Countess expressed bitterness at the 
distorted view which the U. S. Government 
representatives and press implanted concern- 
ing the officials who preferred to stay in 
France and try to keep the nation alive. At 
considerable length in Shadows Lengthen 
she explains the difficulties of the Vichy 
Government in its struggle to protect the 
French people and preserve an organization. 
"He [Marshal Petain] was there as Chief 
of State to maintain the dignity of France, 
leaving the interior government in the hands 
of one [Pierre Laval] who had given full 
proof of competence in many spheres, and 
who at the same time was the most con- 
vinced upholder of democratic institutions." 
She regarded Laval as a murdered martyr. 
"A complete revision of popular opinion 
will have to be made in order to approach 
historical truth," she concludes. Charac- 
teristically, the Countess took what action 
she could. Shortly before her death she 
made arrangements to have Laval's body 
exhumed from its potter's field grave and 
buried in the plot of Lafayette and de 
Chambrun. John Hollister, who knew the 
Countess, described her as "dynamic, with 
great dignity and poise and a good sense 
of humor!" "She rode her hobbies hard," 
he said. Though born a Protestant, she be- 
came a devout Catholic and tried to prove 
her beloved Shakespeare a Catholic, too. 
Iphigene Bettman 

1889- ), was born in Stewartsville, Mo. 
She attended the University of Washington 
and later taught in Washington elementary 
schools. She lived in Cincinnati from 1932 
to 1946, while her husband, Tarn Deering, 
was city recreation director. She now lives 
in Marysville, Wash., and teaches part time 
at Everett lunior College. Her writings in- 
clude a collection of poems: Stormy Petrel, 
Philadelphia, [1949]. 

1916- ), educator, was born in Youngs- 
town, Mahoning County. After graduating 
from Mount Holyoke College in 1936, she 
had intended to study law, the profession of 
her father, but she transferred her interest 
to literature and earned a doctorate from 



Yale University in 1942. She has taught at 
Barnard College, 1942-46, and since 1946 
at Goucher College. Her poems have ap- 
peared in various periodicals, and she has 
published three collections, e.g., The Return 
to Eden, [New York, 1940]. DAS 3 

May 14, 1907), clergyman, was born in 
Bavaria. He came to Michigan as a Lu- 
theran missionary in 1851, moved to Iowa in 
1853 after a doctrinal dispute, and with 
others organized the Evangelical Lutheran 
Synod of Iowa. He served as pastor of 
Lutheran churches in Toledo, 1865-70, and 
Defiance, 1870-89, though retaining his 
connection with the Iowa Synod. 
Geschichte der Evangel.-Luth. Synode von 

Iowa und Anderen Staaten . . . , Chicago, 


DeJEANS, ELIZABETH. Pseud. See Frances 
E. J. Budgett. 

DELAFIELD, JOHN, JR. (Oct. 12, 1812- 
1865), was born in Uxbridge, England. He 
was the son of an American father who, 
though held a prisoner throughout the War 
of 1812, had been permitted to carry on 
a lucrative banking business in London. 
The fortune so acquired was swept away in 
a financial crisis in 1819. It was then that 
the father's intimate friend, Washington 
Irving, wrote of the Delafields' experiences 
in that graceful story "The Wife," which 
appears in the Sketch Book. The family re- 
turned to New York in 1820, where Dela- 
field senior became cashier and president 
of the Phoenix Bank and was soon on his 
way to acquiring a second and much larger 
fortune. The Phoenix Bank was closely 
affiliated with a number of Midwestern 
banking institutions, one of which was the 
bank of Marietta, of which Arius Nye was 
cashier. Upon young Delafield's graduation 
from Columbia University in 1830, he served 
as librarian of the New York Historical 
Society for a time. In 1831 he was sent to 
Marietta, where he commenced the study 
of law under Nye. Shortly after his arrival 
in Marietta, an impressionable young 
woman — herself newly arrived from the 
East — described him as "the only dandy 
here ... an elegant young man from New 
York and an Episcopalian. He is studying 
law here and is a teacher of music at the 
Institute." He was admitted to the bar in 
1833, and on April 20, 1833, in partner- 
ship with Edward W. Nye, he bought the 
newspaper American Friend and Marietta 
Gazette. Two months later he married Edith 
Wallace, the niece of Judge Jacob Burnet 

(q.v. ). At this time the great Ohio land 
boom was at its peak. Eastern speculators 
were being showered with elegantly colored 
maps, pamphlets, and books descriptive of 
the various localities in which lands were 
being offered for sale. Out of this clutter of 
promotional literature a few items have 
survived to acquire some degree of respect 
as historical sources. Such a one is young 
Delafield's Brief Topographical Description 
of the County of Washington, State of Ohio, 
published in New York early in 1834. It 
was the first history of an Ohio county to 
be published. On Oct. 18, 1834, Dela- 
field announced his withdrawal from the 
editorial office of the Gazette and his elec- 
tion as cashier of the newly organized Clin- 
ton Bank in Columbus. In its early years 
the Clinton Bank was the only United States 
depository west of the Ohio River. It made 
the payments on such government works as 
the National Road, the mails, military posts, 
Indian annuities, and other governmental 
services. In guarded wagons, its deposits 
came from as far away as the land office 
in the village of Chicago. For a youngster 
of 22, it was a position of tremendous re- 
sponsibility, yet he seems to have been 
equal to it; letters from contemporary Mid- 
western bankers indicate that he had their 
respect and esteem. He resigned from the 
bank in 1838 to devote his time to the com- 
pletion of a work on archaeology. In 1837 
Delafield induced Jacob Burnet to begin 
writing a series of letters, in which the 
aged judge recounted his recollections of 
incidents relating to the early settlement 
of the Northwestern Territory. The series 
of seven leters, an important historical work, 
was published in Part Second, Volume I, 
of the Transactions of the Historical and 
Philosophical Society of Ohio in 1839. The 
result of Delafield's own archaeological re- 
search was published in 1839: The Ori°in of 
the Antiquities of America. The book was 
enthusiastically received by European as 
well as American reviewers. In the North 
American Review, John Gorham Palfrey 
said: "A quarto volume, from what when 
we studied geography, used to be known by 
the instructive name of the 'territory north- 
west of the Ohio,' is something to attract 
attention, and when we open it and find 
it printed in a style which emulates the 
London press, and is seldom even attempted 
in America, we turn to the title page again 
to see if we did not mistake its birthplace. 
That one of the community in that great 
pork-mart should write a book upon a 
subject requiring long study and deep 
thought, is to us a pleasing fact." Not the 
least impressive feature of the work was 


Denton, S. F. 

a folded color engraving of Mexican paint- 
ings eighteen feet in length, engraved from 
drawings by the versatile author. It was, so 
far as is known, Delafield's final literary 
effort. Early in the 1840s he removed to 
Memphis, Tenn., and became a partner in 
the law firm of Delafield and Massey. He 
gained considerable recognition throughout 
the Mississippi Valley as a specialist in land 
cases. He removed to St. Louis, Mo., in 
1849, but continued to maintain an office 
in Memphis. He died in Liverpool, Eng- 

Ernest J. Wessen 
A Brief Topograhpical [sic] Description of 
the County of Washington, in the State 
of Ohio, New York, 1834. 
An Inquiry into the Origin of the Antiqui- 
ties of America, Cincinnati, 1839. 

1899- ), was born in Hamilton, Butler 
County, attended schools there and in Cin- 
cinnati, and now lives in Plainfield, N. J. 
She traveled throughout the world with her 
parents, lived for a time in New York City, 
and then became a librarian in Plainfield. 
She has written many books for adults and 
for children and a volume of poems: Berries 
of the Bittersweet, Boston, 1924. WWAW 1 

DeLEEUW, CATEAU (Sept. 22, 1903- ), 
was born in Hamilton, Butler County. She 
studied painting in New York and Paris 
and has exhibited her work in various cities. 
She has illustrated a number of books 
written by her sister, Adele (q.v.), and they 
have collaborated on children's books. 
Sometimes using the pen names Jessica 
Lyon and Kay Hamilton, she has published 
a number of books in her own right, e.g., 
Love Is Where You Find It, Philadelphia, 
1947. WWAW 1 


(Sept. 13, 1853-Jan. 30, 1935), artist and 
author, was born in McConnelsville, Mor- 
gan County. He was artist and topographer 
with Major Powell's second expedition to 
explore the Colorado and Green Rivers and 
was a member of several other exploring 
expeditions to Alaska and Siberia, Iceland, 
the American Southwest, and South Amer- 
ica. He wrote a number of books, including 
studies of Fremont and Custer; but he is 
best known for two books about the Powell 
expedition: The Romance of the Colorado 
River . . . , New York, 1902, and A Canyon 
Voyage . . . , New York, 1908. DAB 21 

23, 1862-Dec. 17, 1919), clergyman, was 

born in Napoleon, Henry County. A gradu- 
ate of Northwestern University and Garrett 
Biblical Institute, he served as a Methodist 
minister in northwestern Indiana. He wrote 
It Is Not Lawful; A Romance, New York, 

DELP, IRWIN W. (Sept. 21, 1889- ), 
educator, was born in Dayton, Montgomery- 
County. After graduating from Miami Uni- 
versity, he entered the Canton school sys- 
tem, where he served in various administra- 
tive capacities until his retirement in 1949. 
He now lives in Canton. His writings in- 
clude The Santa Fe Trail to California . . . , 
Boston, 1933. 

DEMING, KIRK. Pseud. See Harry S. Drago. 

1869-April 9, 1949), Kentucky-born journal- 
ist, lived in Ohio for seven years, 1894- 
1901, while he edited the Warren Tribune. 
From 1910 until his death he lived in 
Cheyenne, Wyo. He published a number of 
books and pamphlets. Agnes W. Spring 
edited his Collected Writings and Addresses 
. . . , 4 vols., Glendale, Calif., 1946-47. 

DEMORET, ALFRED (Feb. 7, 1843-May 
21, 1931), was born in Butler County. He 
served as a private in the 93rd O.V.I, from 
Aug., 1862, to June, 1865. His regimental 
history was first published in the Venice 
Gazette and was then revised and pub- 
lished as a book. 

A Brief History of the Ninety-Third Regi- 
ment . . . , [Ross, 1898]. 

1859-May 28, 1947), journalist, was born 
in Chardon, Geauga County. At the age 
of seven he learned to set type in the of- 
fice of the Jeffersonian Democrat, published 
by his uncle, Julius O. Converse (q.v.). He 
edited the Geauga Leader at Burton, 1884— 
87, and from 1887 to 1902 worked on sev- 
eral Cleveland newspapers. He later edited 
the Ravenna Republican. His last years 
were spent in Chardon and Cleveland. His 
death occurred in Cleveland. 
The Early Poetical Works of Franklin E. 
Denton, Cleveland, 1883. 

1856-June 17, 1937), naturalist, son of 
William Denton (q.v.), was born in Day- 
ton, Montgomery County. He attended 
school in Massachusetts, and in 1880 he 
visited Nevada and California on his first 
collecting trip. In 1883 he went to Australia 

Denton, W. 


and New Guinea in search of specimens. He 
also worked in the Smithsonian Institution 
for several years. He perfected methods of 
mounting fish and butterflies and supplied 
specimens to museums throughout the coun- 
try. He died at Weston, Mass. 
Incidents of a Collector's Rambles in Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, and New Guinea, 
Boston, 1889. 
As Nature Shows Them: Moths and Butter- 
flies of the United States East of the 
Rocky Mountains . . . , 2 vols., Boston, 

DENTON, WILLIAM (Jan., 1823-1883), re- 
former, was born in Darlington. England. 
Soon after his conversion to Methodism at 
the age of sixteen, he was a popular lecturer 
on temperance. In 1848 he came to the 
United States. After spending a short time 
in Cincinnati, he went to Dayton, where he 
taught school and served as a principal. He 
married Elizabeth Foote of Cincinnati, who 
collaborated on the second book listed be- 
low. His interest in geology led him to 
adopt unpopular ideas regarding creation, 
and on a few of his lecture trips he was 
threatened with mob violence. His debate 
with James A. Garfield (q.v.) drew a large 
crowd. In the 1850s he moved to Massa- 
chusetts. He died in New Guinea while on 
a world speaking and exploring tour. 
Poems for Reformers, Dayton, 1856. 
The Soul of Things; Or, Psychometric Re- 
searches and Discoveries, Boston, 1863. 
Our Planet, Its Past and Future . . . , Bos- 
ton, [1868]. 
The Irreconcilable Records; Or, Genesis and 

Geology, Boston, 1870. 
Radical Discourses on Religious Subjects 

. . . , Boston. 1872. 
What Was He? Or, Jesus in the Light of 
the Nineteenth Century, Wellesley, Mass., 
Is Darwin Right? . . . , Wellesley, 1881. 

DENVER, DRAKE C. Pseud. See Nelson C. 


Dec. 7, 1847) and MARY CAROLINE DEN- 
VER (Feb. 8, 1821-Oct. 16, 1860), twin 
sisters, were born near Winchester, Va. 
When they were about ten years old, the 
family moved to a farm near Wilmington, 
Clinton County. Mary commenced writing 
poetry at the age of eleven, and Jane be- 
gan writing some years later. Identical twins 
of great beauty, their personal resemblance 
was extraordinary. Mary wrote rapidly, 
without effort, while Jane wrote with less 
ease but perhaps with more vigor of ex- 

pression. To both, their gift was a source 
of great happiness. Both died at Wilming- 
ton, and they are buried there. In 1875 
their distinguished brother, James W. Den- 
ver (q.v.), published their poems. 
Poems, New York, 1875. 

DENVER, JAMES WILLIAM (Oct. 23, 1817- 
Aug. 9, 1892), lawyer, was born in Win- 
chester, Va. His parents moved with their 
family to Wilmington, Clinton County, in 
1830. He graduated from Cincinnati Law 
School and was admitted to the bar in 
1844. He commenced practice at Xenia, 
where he also edited a newspaper, the 
Thomas Jefferson. He soon moved to Platte 
City, Mo., where he bought and edited the 
Platte Argus and practiced law, with a bit 
of schoolteaching on the side. He served in 
the Mexican War, and in 1850 he went to 
California and engaged in trading. An un- 
fortunate controversy with Edward Gilbert, 
editor of the Daily Aha California, resulted 
in a duel in which Gilbert was killed. Den- 
ver was elected without difficulty to the 
34th Congress, but in later years political 
adversaries made effective use of distorted 
versions of the duel. In Congress he pro- 
posed that three transcontinental railroads 
be built; though none was authorized, a 
continuing study of the subject made him 
one of the leading railroad attorneys in 
Washington in later years. In 1857 he was 
appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
by President Buchanan and went to the 
West to negotiate treaties with the Indians. 
Needing a strong arm in the turbulent Kan- 
sas Territory, Buchanan appointed him sec- 
retary of the Territory in Dec, 1857, and 
governor the following May. Having re- 
stored law and order, he returned to Wash- 
ington in 1859, where, in association with 
Albert Pike, he became active in prosecut- 
ing the claims of the Cherokee and Choctaw 
Indians. On the outbreak of the Civil War, 
he entered the Federal army and served 
two years with the rank of brigadier general. 
Resigning in the spring of 1863 he returned 
to Washington and reopened his offices. The 
fact that he was employed in the defense 
of the infamous Captain Henry Wirz, prison 
keeper at Andersonville, seems to have es- 
caped the attention of those Union veterans 
who endorsed him for the Presidency at the 
Soldiers' Convention in Cleveland in 18%. 
From 1860 until his death he maintained 
his legal residence at Wilmington, though 
he spent most of his time in Washington, 
where he served as attorney for a number 
of western railroads, specialized in the 
prosecution of Indian claims, and more 
particularly negotiated the famous and com- 



plex California land cases, on which he 
became an outstanding authority. His briefs, 
hundreds of which were printed, demon- 
strate tireless research and are of no little 
value to the historian. He was an unsuccess- 
ful candidate for Congress from Ohio in 
1870. At the Democratic conventions of 
1876 and 1884, he was mentioned in con- 
nection with the Democratic nomination 
for the Presidency, but rumors of his as- 
sociation with the Wirz case and the twisted 
versions of the duel with Gilbert presented 
hurdles which he could not hope to clear. 
Ernest J. Wessen 

DeQUILLE, DAN. Pseud. See William Wright. 

DeRAN, EDNA SMITH (Nov. 7, 1870-?), 
was born in Pyrmont, Montgomery County. 
She attended National Normal University, 
Lebanon, and Cincinnati Conservatory of 
Music. She lived in New Orleans, La., and 
Detroit, Mich. She is deceased, but the date 
of her death has not been learned. She 
published several collections of verse, e.g., 
Muted Melodies, Kalamazoo, Mich., 1926. 

DERBY, ROSWELL, JR. (Feb. 4, 1854-Oct. 
28, 1927), lawyer, was born in Fulton 
County. After reading law, he was admitted 
to the bar and practiced in Milan. He pub- 
lished Poems of Friendship, Love, and 
Hope, Boston, 1917. 


(1825-1887), clergyman, served a brief 
pastorate at Dover about 1847-48. He 
wrote The Life and Times of David Zeis- 
berger . . . , Philadelphia, 1871. 

DESSAR, LEO CHARLES (1847-1924), 
lawyer, was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. He was admitted to the Ohio bar 
and later practiced in New York City. 
A Royal Enchantress; The Romance of the 
Last Queen of the Berbers, New York, 


(March 4, 1881- ), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Louisville, Ky. He was 
ordained a Baptist minister in 1908 and 
served churches in Oberlin, 1908-11, Day- 
ton, 1912-15, and Galion, 1915-17. He 
earned an A.B. at Denison University in 
1917 and a Ph.D. from University of Chi- 
cago in 1922. From 1917 until his retire- 
ment in 1949, he was on the faculty of 
Denison University. He now lives in Dallas, 
Texas. His writings include The Negro 
Press in the United States, Chicago, [1922]. 
WW 26 

DEUTSCH, ALEX TOM, engineer, born in 
Vienna, Austria, lived in Cincinnati for 
fifteen years. He now lives in Washington, 
D. C. He has published technical books and 
papers and a collection of prose and poetry: 
Beach of Life . . . , Cincinnati, [1949]. 

DEUTSCH, GOTTHARD (Jan. 31, 1859- 

Oct. 14, 1921), educator, was born in 

Kanitz, Austria, and came to the United 

States in 1891 to join the faculty of Hebrew 

Union College. He spent the remainder of 

his life in Cincinnati. 

Die Symbolik in Cultus . . . , Briinn, 1886. 

Theory of Oral Tradition, 1895. 

Andere Zeiten . . . , Berlin, 1897. 

Philosophy of Jewish History, Cincinnati, 

Unlosbare Fesseln . . . , Frankfort, 1902. 

Four Epochs of Jewish History, 1905. 

Israel Bruna; An Historical Tragedy in 
Five Acts, Boston, 1908. 

The History of the Jews, New York, 1910. 

Der Glaube on Hobelspaene, 1915. 

Scrolls; Essays on Jewish History and Litera- 
ture . . . , 3 vols., Cincinnati, 1917-20. 

25, 1842-Jan. 14, 1923), was born in Athens, 
Athens County, and attended school in Lan- 
caster. He studied dentistry with his brother- 
in-law and, after the Civil War, settled in 
Zanesville to practice. He later dealt in 
real estate and lived in Washington, D. C, 
for several years but returned to Zanesville 
before his death. 

History of the Seventeenth Regiment, First 
Brigade, Third Division, Fourteenth 
Corps, Army of the Cumberland . . . , 
Zanesville, 1889. 

1892- ), was born in Miamisburg, Mont- 
gomery County. Though deaf since 1904 
and blind since 1932, he mastered the art 
of reading and writing Braille and has also 
made carpentry his hobby. Since 1941 he 
has lived in Dayton. He has published a 
volume of homespun verse: Everyday Poems 
in Everyday English, Miamisburg, 1937. 

DEVOL, GEORGE H. (Aug. 1, 1829-?), 
was born in Marietta, Washington County. 
In the preface to his book it is stated that 
"He [the author] belongs to the celebrated 
Devol family of Marietta." This is con- 
firmed by an inscription on the flyleaf of a 
copy of the book in the Stimson Collection, 
Marietta College Library, where Rodney M. 
Stimson (q.v.) wrote "Geoige H. Devol, 
the author of this 'work,' was born in Mari- 
etta, and was always, and is yet a 'bad egg.' 

De Weese 


His father, Barker Devol, was known to 
[me] many years as a quiet citizen of not 
bad reputation . . . this book is worthless, 
even as a record of Devol's worthless life 
and adventures." Devol's book is now a 
sought-after classic in its field. He was still 
living in 1889, but the exact date of his 
death has not been found. It is interesting to 
note that Devol may not be the only fa- 
mous double-dealer from Marietta to write 
of his skullduggery; it is probable that 
Jonathan Harrington Green (q.v.), "The 
Reformed Gambler," was also born in that 

Forty Years a Gambler on the Mississippi, 
Cincinnati, 1887. 

19, 1860-March 19, 1936), was born near 
Troy, Miami County. After graduating from 
high school in Dayton, he studied medicine 
for two years before turning to journalism. 
He was an editorial writer for the Chicago 
Times-Herald, 1894-1904, director of spe- 
cial publicity for the St. Louis Exposition, 
1904, and after 1906 director of publicity 
for the Shredded Wheat Company. 
The Young Man with Nothing but Brains, 

[n.p.], 1896. 
The Principles of Practical Publicity . . . , 

Buffalo, 1906. 
The Bend in the Road and How a Man 

of the City Found It, New York, 1913. 
Keeping a Dollar at Work . . . , [New 

York], 1915. 

DEXTER, CHARLES (Jan. 17, 1830-Sept. 
12, 1893), was born in Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton County, the son of an Englishman who 
operated a wholesale grocery and liquor 
business in the city. After graduating from 
Harvard University in 1851, he entered his 
father's business. The volume below consists 
partly of original verses and partly of trans- 
lations from German poetry. 
Versions and Idle Measures, Cincinnati, 

DEXTER, WILL. Pseud. See Oliver Coomes. 

DICE, CHARLES AMOS (Nov. 5, 1878- 
), educator, was born in Strasburg, 
Tuscarawas County. He graduated from 
Ohio Northern University in 1905, Drew 
Theological Seminary in 1908, and the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin (Ph.D.) in 1924. He 
served on the faculty of Ohio State Uni- 
versity, 1919-49, and since his retirement 
has continued to live in Columbus. He has 
published The Stock Market, London, Eng- 
land, 1926. WW 20 

Karl W.) (March 22, 1899- ), was born 
in Massillon, Stark County. She now lives 
in Cleveland, where she gives readings with 
musical background. She has written a story 
of an Alsatian boy living during World War 
II in an Ohio mining town: Kaleidoscope, 
Philadelphia, [1944]. 

DICK, SAMUEL MEDARY (April 4, 1857- 
March 5, 1938), clergyman, was born in 
Pickaway County. He graduated from Ohio 
Wesleyan University in 1887 and the Uni- 
versity of Michigan (Ph.D.) in 1891. After 
being ordained to the Methodist ministry 
in 1895, he served churches in New Eng- 
land and Minnesota and later lived in Pasa- 
dena, Calif. He patented various devices, 
including an instantaneous carbonator. Be- 
sides the titles below, he edited a collection 
of patriotic talks in 1895. 
The Principle of Synthetic Unity in Berke- 
ley and Kant, Lowell, Mass., 1898. 
Psychotherapy . . . , [Minneapolis, 1909]. 
Analysis and Interpretation of Old Age Re- 
volving Pensions as Outlined by F. E. 
Townsend, Chicago, 1934. 

1886- ), social worker and lawyer, was 
born in Versailles, Ind. He practiced law in 
Colorado, 1910-16, entered Y.M.C.A. and 
De Molay work, and came to Cincinnati 
in 1941 as associate director of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Family Relations and as 
a teacher at the University of Cincinnati. 
He has written numerous books on social 
problems, e.g., Growing into Manhood, 
New York, 1933. WW 30 

DICKEY, JAMES H. (1780-1856), clergy- 
man, was born in Virginia. He was licensed 
to preach by the Presbyterian Church in 
1808; served as a domestic missionary in 
Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio; and was 
pastor of South Salem Church, Ross County, 
1810-36. In 1837 he moved to Union Grove, 
111., where he spent the remainder of his 
life. Like his brother-in-law, Samuel Croth- 
ers (q.v.), he was an outspoken opponent 
of slavery. His book is a refutation of the 
Scriptural defense of slavery. 
A Review of a Summary of Biblical Anti- 
quities . . . , Ripley, 1834. 

23, 1835-March 7. 1925), clergyman, was 
born in Heath, Mass. He graduated from 
Amherst College in 1860 and Chicago Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1863. After serving 
several Congregational churches in Illinois, 
he came to Marietta in 1883 and remained 



an Ohio resident for the rest of his life. 
His History of Belpre was largely a repub- 
lication of material drawn from the works 
of Samuel Prescott Hildreth (q.v.). 
The First Church Organization in Marietta 

. . . , Columbus, 1888. 
A Century of Church Life, Marietta, 1896. 
A History of Belpre, Washington County, 

Ohio, Parkersburg, W. Va., [1920]. 

DICKINSON, EDWARD (Oct. 10, 1853-Jan. 
25, 1946), musician and educator, was born 
in West Springfield, Mass. He graduated 
from Amherst College in 1876 and studied 
music in Boston and Berlin. From 1893 to 
1922 he was a member of the Cberlin Col- 
lege faculty, and after his retirement he 
continued to live in Oberlin. He published 
several books on music, e.g., Music in the 
History of the Western Church . . . , New 
York, 1902. WWW 3 

1857-Oct. 23, 1927), army officer, was born 
in Dayton, Montgomery County. During 
World War I he commanded a division, a 
corps, and finally the Third Army. He re- 
tired as a major general in 1921. He wrote 
an account of military operations in France: 
The Great Crusade, [New York, 1927]. 
DAB 5 

DICKORE, MARIE (Aug. 15, 1883- ), 
was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 
She graduated from the University of Cin- 
cinnati in 1907 and has done graduate work 
in history at the University of Wisconsin 
and Ohio State University. She has written 
historical feature articles for the Times-Star 
and the Enquirer and books and pamphlets 
on historical subjects, e.g., The Order of 
the Purple Heart . . . , Cincinnati, 1943. 

c.1940), was born in Dayton, Montgomery 
County. He studied art in New York City 
and for more than twenty years was art 
director of Fox Films. His writings include 
a novel published posthumously: Death for 
the Corners, Boston, [1941]. 

DICUS, M. E. Pseud. See Charles Gatchell. 

DIEBOLD, JANET HART (July 8, 1917- 
), lawyer, was born in Cincinnati, Ham- 
ilton County. She graduated from Swarth- 
more College in 1937 and Duke University 
School of Law in 1954. Admitted to the 
bar in the District of Columbia in 1955, she 
is now an assistant counsel, Board of Gov- 
ernors, Federal Reserve System, and lives 
in Washington, D. C. She has been married 

twice, and as Janet Diebold published a 
novel about a young American girl study- 
ing in Denmark: Mandrake Root, New 
York, [1946]. Under her present name, 
Janet Hart Sylvester, she has published le- 
gal articles and some poems. 

DIEHL, HENRY ARCHER (Aug. 26, 1876- 
Nov. 1, 1952). educator, was born in West 
Farmington, Trumbull County. After at- 
tending Hiram College, he taught school in 
Trumbull and Mahoning Counties and for 
25 years was superintendent of West End 
schools in Ashtabula. He spent 36 years in 
educational work before retiring to become 
a public lecturer in Ohio and other states. 
He wrote epigrams, short stories, and 
poems which appeared in various magazines. 
One collection of his verse was published: 
Three Dozen Poems by the Way, Three 
Dozen Poems Sad and Gay, Cleveland, 

DIEHL, MICHAEL (1819-April 20, 1869), 
clergyman and educator, was born in 
Franklin County, Pa. In 1846 after his grad- 
uation from Gettysburg College and Semi- 
nary and his ordination as a Lutheran min- 
ister, he was called to Wittenberg College 
as professor of ancient languages. While 
teaching in Springfield, he served as pastor 
of several churches in the vicinity of the 
city. He retired from teaching in 1868 and 
died in Springfield the following year. 
Biography of Rev. Ezra Keller, D.D., 
Founder and First President of Witten- 
berg College, Springfield, 1859. 

DIETZ, DAVID HENRY (Oct. 6, 1897- 
), writer and lecturer on scientific sub- 
jects, was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. He graduated from Western Re- 
serve University in 1919. He has been on 
the editorial staff of the Cleveland Press 
since 1915, science editor for Scripps-How- 
ard newspapers since 1921, and lecturer at 
Western Reserve since 1927. He has written 
numerous articles and books since his first: 
The Story of Science, New York, [1931]. 
WW 30 

15, 1879-Jan. 31, 1951), clergyman, was 
born in Haysville, Ashland County. He 
graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University 
in 1902 and Drew Theological Seminary in 
1907. He served in various executive posi- 
tions in educational and missionary organi- 
zations of the Methodist Church. He died 
in Madison, N. J. He edited and wrote a 
number of books on the missionary move- 
ment, e.g., China and Japan?, New York, 
[1938]. WWW 3 



DILLON, JOHN BROWN (c.l807-Feb. 27, 
1879), journalist and historian, was born 
in Wellsburg, Va. Soon after his birth his 
parents moved to Belmont County, where 
he spent his boyhood. His father died in 
1816, and a year later the boy was ap- 
prenticed to the Wellsburg printer John 
Berry. In 1824 he went to Cincinnati, where 
he was employed as a printer, working for 
some time on the Cincinnati Gazette 
under his former Belmont County neigh- 
bor, the brilliant Charles Hammond 
(q.v.). Like so many other young Cincin- 
nati literateurs of that day, he read law in 
his spare time. His first published poem of 
which we have record, "The Burial of the 
Beautiful," appeared in the Gazette in 1826. 
He contributed to Timothy Flint's Western 
Review in 1827, and published "The Or- 
phan's Lament" in James Hall's Western 
Souvenir in 1829. During the rest of his 
stay, and for some years after leaving the 
city, he was a regular contributor to Cin- 
cinnati publications. In 1834 he went to 
Logansport, Ind., where with Stanislaus 
Lassell he founded the Canal Telegraph. He 
was admitted to the bar in Logansport. He 
had long been interested in local history, 
and within a year after his arrival in In- 
diana he had become a member of the 
newly organized Indiana Historical Society, 
an organization in which he served with 
distinction in various offices until the end of 
his days. While he was in Logansport, he 
began his projected History of Indiana, the 
first volume of which appeared in 1843. 
This scholarly and readable book was a 
commercial failure. Claiming without ap- 
parent justification that the text had been 
substantially revised, he permitted it to be 
reissued in 1859 with scanty material, sup- 
posedly bringing the history of the state 
down to 1859. He appears to have engaged 
but little in legal practice. After holding 
several minor state offices, he was appointed 
in 1863 as ex-officio Superintendent of Doc- 
uments and Librarian to the Department of 
the Interior in Washington, D. C. Under 
political pressure he resigned in 1871 to be- 
come Clerk to the Committee on Military 
Affairs in the House of Representatives. In 
1875 he moved to Indianapolis, where he 
remained until his death. His Oddities of 
Colonial Legislation was completed by Ben 
Douglass (q.v.) of Ohio. 

Ernest J. Wessen 
The History of Indiana, from Its Earliest 

Exploration by Europeans, to the Close 

of the Territorial Government in 1816 

. . . , Indianapolis, 1843. 
Notes on Historical Evidence in Reference 

to Adverse Theories of the Origin and 

Nature of the Government of the United 
States of America, New York, 1871. 

Oddities of Colonial Legislation in America 
. . . , Indianapolis, 1879. 

The National Decline of the Miumi In- 
dians, Indianapolis, 1897. 


1878- ), was born in Hicksville, De- 
fiance County. After graduating from the 
Cincinnati College of Music and studying 
abroad, he became a concert pianist and 
toured the United States. In 1904 he be- 
came a guard at the Art Institute of Chi- 
cago; now retired, he still lives in Chicago. 
He has written poetry since he was eleven 
years old and has donated manuscript vol- 
umes of verse to many libraries. He has 
also published several volumes, e.g., Seven 
Sonnets and Ode to the Merry Moment, 
[Chicago, 1916]. 

L.) (Sept. 26, 1896- ), was born in 
Brookings County, S. D., but has lived in 
Summit County for more than forty years. 
She has published poems in various maga- 
zines and newspapers, and one collection of 
her verse: Toward the Metal Sun, Boston, 


(Jan. 26, 1886- ), was born in Char- 
lottesville, Va. She was a social worker in 
the South for several years before mov- 
ing to Cleveland in 1923. She is married to 
Lewis L. Holladay. Under her maiden 
name, she published a volume of verse: 
Creeds and Byways, Boston, [1923]. 

DITTRICK, HOWARD (Feb. 14, 1877-July 
11, 1954), physician, born in St. Cath- 
erine's, Ontario, Canada, came to the 
United States in 1900. He studied medicine 
at the University of Toronto and Lakeside 
Hospital, Cleveland. He practiced in Cleve- 
land until 1943, and after his retirement 
he directed the editorial department of 
Cleveland Clinic. He was widely known as 
a writer of historical and medical articles 
and also published one book, Pioneer Med- 
icine in the Western Reserve, Cleveland, 
1932. WWW 3 

DIX, FRED KELLER (1891-Feb. 5, 1944), 
journalist, was born in Prospect, Marion 
County. He attended Prospect public 
schools, and in 1924 he bought the Pros- 
pect Monitor. He also broadcast programs 
over a Marion radio station. He published 
poems in various periodicals and a col- 
lection, Poems, Prospect, [1921]. 



DIXON, J. M. (c.1820-?), journalist, son of 
Jacob Dixon (q.v.), was born in southeast- 
ern Ohio. Between 1850 and 1867 he ap- 
parently served on the editorial staffs of 
several Iowa newspapers. He was associate 
editor of the Iowa State Register in Oct., 
1867, when he was stricken with blindness. 
Shortly afterward he returned to Harrison, 
Hamilton County, where he spent the rest 
of his life. 
The Valley of the Shadow: Comprising the 

Experiences of a Blind Ex-Editor, New 

York, 1868. 
Centennial History of Polk County, Iowa, 

Des Moines, 1876. 

DIXON, JACOB (May 20, 1793-Sept.. 1849), 
clergyman and physician, was born in Vir- 
ginia. In 1805 he moved with his family 
to Washington County. He became a Meth- 
odist minister in 1825 and served in various 
Ohio conferences until 1834, when he be- 
gan to practice medicine at Frankfort, Ross 
County. He practiced in that area until his 
death at Marshall. He published poems in 
the Western Christian Monitor, Chillicothe, 
and other periodicals. The volume below 
contains a four-part epic, "Divination Over- 

The Poetical Works of Jacob Dixon . . . , 
Columbus, 1833. 

DOAN, EDWARD NEWELL (Oct. 8, 1904- 
), educator, was born in West Carrollton, 
Montgomery County. A graduate of Ohio 
Wesleyan University in 1926, he has taught 
political science and journalism at several 
universities and now lives in Miamisburg. 
His interest in the Progressive movement 
led to his writing The La Follettes and the 
Wisconsin Idea, New York, 1947. 

DOAN, FRANK CARLETON (Feb. 13, 1877- 
May 14, 1927), clergyman and educator, 
was born in Nelsonville, Athens County. 
He graduated from Ohio State University 
in 1898 and Harvard University (Ph.D.) 
in 1904. He taught at Ohio University, 
1900-04, and Meadville Theological Semi- 
nary, Pa., 1904-14. After 1914 he served 
as pastor of Unitarian churches in New 
Jersey, Iowa, and New York. His writings 
include Religion and the Modern Mind 
. . . , Boston, 1909. WWW 1 

10, 1889-Oct. 20, 1960), economist, was born 
in Wilmington, Clinton County. He attended 
Wilmington College and Ohio Wesleyan 
University and did graduate work at sev- 
eral universities. He served as an econo- 

mist with several industrial firms and was 
also a member of many conferences on eco- 
nomic questions. He lived in New York City 
and wrote magazine articles and books on 
economic questions, e.g., The Anatomy of 
American V'ealth . . . , New York, 1940. 

30, 1908- ), was born in Barberton, Sum- 
mit County. She has lectured widely and is 
active in civic and cultural activities in 
Summit County. She has served in the state 
senate and has been mayor of Barberton 
since 1956. She has written an account of 
the Zoar community: Freedom's Will: The 
Society of Separatists of Zoar . . . , New 
York, 1947. 

DOBYNS, FLETCHER (1872-Dec. 13, 1942), 
lawyer, was born near Columbus, Franklin 
County. After graduating from Harvard 
University in 1898 and Northwestern Uni- 
versity Law School in 1901, he was ad- 
mitted to the Illinois bar and afterward 
practiced in Chicago. His writings include 
The Underworld of American Politics, New 
York, [1932]. WWW 2 

DODD, HENRY MARTYN (Aug. 6, 1839- 
June 28, 1925), clergyman, was born in 
Ridgeville, Lorain County. After graduating 
from Hamilton College in 1863, he taught 
school for four years. He graduated from 
the Theological Seminary, Auburn, N. Y., 
in 1870 and was ordained to the Presby- 
terian ministry in 1873. He served several 
churches in New York State, and after his 
retirement he lived at Clinton, N. Y. He 
wrote a family history, several books on 
religious themes, and a church history: Cen- 
tennial History of the Old Congregational 
Church, Windham, N. Y., 1903. WWW 1 

DODD, THOMAS J. (Aug. 4, 1837-?), born 
in Harper's Ferry, Va., came to Cincinnati 
in 1887 to establish Dodd Classical High 
School. A Methodist clergyman, he served 
several churches in Kentucky. He published 
Miracles: Were They, or Were They Not 
Performed by Jesus? . . . , Cincinnati, 

DODDS, SAMUEL (Feb. 28, 1858-Dec. 26, 
1947), educator, was born in Prospect, Pa. 
He graduated from Grove City College in 
1881 and Pittsburgh Theological Seminary 
in 1889. He joined the faculty of the Col- 
lege of Wooster in 1918 and lived in Ohio 
for the remainder of his life. He wrote 
Friendship's Meaning . . . , [Butler, Pa., 
1919]. WWW 2 

Dodge, H. J. 

DODGE, HOMER JOSEPH (June 1, 1891- 
May 3, 1960), journalist, was born in Au- 
burn Geauga County. In 1909 his family 
moved to Maryland, and soon afterward he 
became a reporter on the Washington Post. 
He also worked on the Washington Herald 
and was a correspondent for International 
News Service. In 1913 he founded Bank- 
ers' Information Service, and he also was 
a founder of Editorial Research Reports. 
One of the best-known figures in Washing- 
ton journalistic circles, he was a member 
of the National Press Club for fifty years. 
He wrote numerous magazine articles and 
one book: The Pursuit of a Whisper, [New 
York, 1925]. 

1823-Oct. 1, 1902), statistician, was born 
in New Boston, N. H. He lived in Spring- 
field between 1857 and 1861, while editing 
the American Ruralist, and wrote numerous 
articles and bulletins on agricultural sub- 
jects, and the book Red Men of the Ohio 
Valley . . . , Springfield, 1860. 

1892-Nov. 25, 1957), public relations ex- 
ecutive, was born in Auburn, Geauga 
County. He graduated from Oberlin College 
in 1915 and Columbia University (Ph.D.) 
in 1918. After serving as manager of the 
Industrial Bureau of the Merchants' As- 
sociation of New York, 1918-27, he was an 
executive of a number of companies and 
was a labor consultant with the Depart- 
ment of Commerce, 1946-53. He wrote a 
number of articles, pamphlets, and books 
on economics, labor, and public relations, 
e.g., Know Your Isms, New York, 1950. 
WWW 3 

DOERNENBURG, EMIL (April 28, 1880- 
March 20, 1935), educator, was born in 
Langenberg, Germany. He taught at Ohio 
University, 1911-17, the University of Penn- 
sylvania, 1917-30, and LaSalle College, 
1931-33. Besides textbooks and magazine 
articles, he wrote Sturm und Stille, [New 
York, 1916]. OBB 

DOERNER, CELIA (March 6, 1853-April 
18, 1918), educator, was born in Pomeroy, 
Meigs County. She taught at Hughes High 
School, Cincinnati, in the 1880s and 1890s. 
In 1904, because of ill health, she retired 
from teaching and moved to Daytona, Fla., 
and thence to Denver, Colo. From 1909 
until her death, she lived in Grant's Pass, 
Oreg. She compiled a textbook for the Ec- 
lectic Series in 1881, and wrote Little Rip- 
ples of Song, Boston, 1914. 


DOGGETT, HENRY S. (Oct. 15, 1837- 
c.1885), lawyer and educator, was born in 
Hillsboro, Highland County. After studying 
in Hillsboro Academy under Professor 
Isaac Sams, whose biography he later 
wrote, he read law and was admitted to the 
bar in 1858. He published the Hillsboro 
Gazette, 1861-62, was a war correspond- 
ent for a time, and in 1866 was made su- 
perintendent of Hillsboro schools. He died 
while traveling in the South. 
A Sketch of the Life and Professional Serv- 
ices of Isaac Sams . . . , Cincinnati, 1880. 

1864-Nov. 13, 1957), educator, was born 
in Manchester, Iowa. He graduated from 
Oberlin College in 1886 and was active in 
Y.M.C.A. work in Ohio until 1896, when 
he became president of International 
Y.M.C.A. College, Springfield, Mass., a 
position he held until 1936. He published, 
among other books, History of the Young 
Men's Christian Association, 2 vols., New 
York, 1896-1919. WW 25 

1870-Dec. 26, 1939), engineer and finan- 
cier, was born in Columbus, Franklin 
County. Beginning as an office boy in the 
Columbus Gas Company, he rose to chief 
engineer, and after he came to the atten- 
tion of New York bankers controlling the 
firm his rise was rapid. In 1905 he formed 
his own company to serve utility com- 
panies, and in 1910 he organized Cities 
Service. He wrote several technical papers, 
but his most characteristic writings are in a 
collection of his addresses and letters com- 
piled by Glenn Marston: Principles and 
Ideas for Doherty Men . . . , 6 vols., [New 
York], 1923. DAB 22 

1875-June 1, 1949), cartoonist on the 
Cleveland Plain Dealer, brother of Vic and 
William Donahey (qq.v.), was born in West 
Chester, Tuscarawas County. He attended 
the Cleveland School of Art. His books, 
which consist largely of drawings, include 
Romance of the Great Lakes, [Cleveland?, 
1936?]. WWW 2 


(Sept. 22, 1876- ), was born in New 
York City. She lived in Ohio, 1876-92 and 
1898-1914. From 1898 to 1905 she wrote 
for the Cleveland Plain Dealer. In 1905 she 
married William Donahey (q.v.). She now 
lives in Chicago. She has compiled a cook- 
book and written a number of stories for 
young people, e.g., Marty Lu, New York, 
1925. WWAW 1 


Donovan, J. W. 

DONAHEY, VIC (July 7, 1873-April 8, 
1946), political leader, brother of James 
and William Donahey (qq.v.), was born in 
West Chester, Tuscarawas County. After 
serving in various local and county offices, 
he was state auditor, 1912-20, served three 
terms as governor, 1922-28, and served in 
the U. S. Senate, 1935-41. His political 
views are expressed in The Beak and Claws 
of America, Waynesfield, [1931]. WWW 2 

DONAHEY, WILLIAM (Oct. 19, 1883- ), 
younger brother of Vic and James Donahey 
(qq.v.), was born in West Chester, Tus- 
carawas County. He studied at the Cleve- 
land School of Art and in 1903 began 
working on the Cleveland Plain Dealer. 
His characters the Teeny Weenies were 
enormously popular as a newspaper feature 
and as the subject of a series of books, e.g., 
Adventures of the Teeny Weenies, Chicago, 
[1920]. WW 20 


27, 1843-Nov. 18, 1898), lawyer, was born 
in Columbus, Franklin County. He attended 
Columbus public schools and Capital Uni- 
versity. In the Civil War he served with 
the 19th O.V.I, and the 199th Pa. V.I. He 
was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1867 and 
moved to Boise City, Idaho Territory, in 
1869. He held a number of official posts 
in Idaho before moving to Philadelphia in 
1875. He wrote several reports, most of 
them relating to land laws or Indian af- 
fairs. In 1879 he discovered many of 
George Catlin's Indian relics stored in Phil- 
adelphia; he catalogued them and published 
The George Catlin Indian Gallery in 1887. 
The book was sponsored by the Smith- 
sonian Institution and was printed by the 
Government Printing Office. A mass of 
manuscript relative to his six years in Idaho 
was edited by his son, Thomas B. Donald- 
son, and published in 1941. While living in 
Philadelphia he was a friend of Walt Whit- 
man and frequently called on Whitman at 
his home in Camden, N. J. He kept notes 
on their meetings, and his book contains 
many personal touches describing Whitman 
in his last years. In 1885 Donaldson raised 
money to buy Whitman a phaeton, which 
was manufactured especially for the poet 
in Columbus. 

Walt Whitman the Man, New York. 1896. 
The House in Which Thomas Jefferson 
Wrote the Declaration of Independence, 
Philadelphia, 1898. 
Idaho of Yesterday, (Thomas B. Donald- 
son, ed.), Caldwell, Idaho, 1941. 

DONAVIN, SIMPSON K. (1831-1902), jour- 
nalist, was born in Shippensburg, Pa. In 

1859 he was a reporter in Baltimore, Md., 
and was one of the first reporters to reach 
Harper's Ferry after John Brown's raid; 
he also was present at Brown's execution. 
In 1868 he came to Delaware, and he also 
lived in Columbus. In 1883 he was made 
editor of the Columbus Times. A friend of 
Samuel J. Tilden, he was active in Demo- 
cratic politics. Besides the title below, he 
wrote at least two magazine articles on 
John Brown that were also issued as pam- 
phlets. He died in Columbus. 
Where Will This Path Lead? . . . , Norwalk, 

DONEY, CARL GREGG (July 24, 1867-Nov. 
5, 1955), clergyman and educator, was born 
in Columbus, Franklin County. A graduate 
of Ohio State University (B.Sc, 1891; 
Ph.D., 1902), he was ordained to the 
Methodist ministry in 1893 and served 
churches in several Ohio communities and 
in Washington, D. C. He was president of 
West Virginia Wesleyan College, 1907-15, 
and of Willamette University, 1915-34. He 
wrote several books on religious themes, 
e.g., God Answers Prayer, New York, 
[1924]. WWW 3 


(c.1816-?), was born in Ohio. Left an 
orphan at an early age, he learned the 
printing trade in Cincinnati and in 1837 
became an itinerant printer and newspaper- 
man in the South. Returning to Cincinnati, 
he bought and edited the Daily Morning 
Message for a time and then moved to 
Lafayette, Ind., where he established a 
printing office and founded the Wabash 
Standard in 1845. The next year he was 
serving as clerk on the Ohio River steam- 
boat Ontario when that vessel was sent to 
the Gulf of Mexico to transfer troops from 
the Brazos to Matamoros. While a member 
of a small hunting party, he was captured 
by Mexican irregulars in Oct., 1846. He es- 
caped from the Mexicans and returned to 
Cincinnati in the spring of 1847. His ad- 
ventures in Mexico proved so successful 
that he employed several artists to paint a 
panorama of Mexico with which he toured 
the country lecturing to large audiences and 
selling many thousands of copies of his 
graphic narrative. 

Adventures in Mexico: Experiences during 
a Captivity of Seven Months in the In- 
terior . . . , Cincinnati, 1487 [1847]. 

DONOVAN, CORYDON. See Corydon Don- 

1839-June 17, 1933), lawyer and judge, 

Dornblaser, I. L. 


was born in Toledo, Lucas County. After 
attending Jonesville Academy, Hillsdale 
College, and Ohio School of Law, he was 
admitted to the bar in 1870. He practiced 
in Detroit and also served as circuit court 
judge, 1894-1912. He died in Detroit at 
the age of 94. Besides the title below, he 
published legal works and books on public 
Secrets of Success . . . , New York, [1887]. 

1882- ), missionary and teacher, was 
born in Wheeling. W. Va. She graduated 
from Wittenberg College and was a mis- 
sionary-teacher in China for sixteen years. 
Since retiring she has lived in Springfield. 
Under the pen name Irene LaWall, she 
published a study of youth under Hitler: 
Land That I Love, Columbus, 1945. 

27, 1841-Dec. 22, 1941), clergyman, born 
in Mackeyville, Pa., graduated from Wit- 
tenberg College in 1871 and from the Sem- 
inary in 1872. Ordained to the Lutheran 
ministry, he served churches in Lucas, 
1872-74, and Bucyrus, 1891-95, as well as 
in Illinois and Kansas. He served with the 
Pennsylvania Cavalry in the Civil War and 
later published his memoirs: Sabre Strokes 
of the Pennsylvania Dragoons . . . , Phila- 
delphia, 1884. 

Nostrand) (Aug. 27, 1893- ), photogra- 
pher, was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County, and later lived in Massillon. She 
learned the art of photography from her 
father, John Jacob Becker. A resident of 
New York City since 1933, she has ex- 
hibited photographs in many cities and has 
directed several documentary moving pic- 
tures. Her books include In a Blue Moon, 
New York, 1939. WW AW 1 

DORSEY, GEORGE AMOS (Feb. 6, 1868- 
March 29, 1931), anthropologist, was born 
in Hebron, Licking County. He graduated 
from Denison University in 1888 and Har- 
vard University (Ph.D.) in 1894. He was 
curator of the Field Museum of Natural 
History, Chicago, and was on the staff of 
Northwestern University and the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. Besides technical books 
and articles, he wrote several popular books 
on science, e.g., Why We Behave like Hu- 
man Beings, New York, 1925, and a novel, 
Young Low, New York, [1917]. DAB 21 

1944), was born near Bowling Green, 
Wood County. After attending a normal 

school in Michigan, she taught school in 
Warsaw, Ind., for a time before settling in 
Norwalk in 1875. A book about pioneers 
along the Portage River, which she had 
written in 1893, was published in 1938, 
when she was 97: Hoof-Beaten Trails, 
[Binghamton, N. Y., 1938]. 

1877-Feb. 13, 1951), clergyman, was born 
in Columbia City, Ind. After graduating 
from Wittenberg College in 1900 and 
Hamma Divinity School in 1903, he was 
ordained to the Lutheran ministry. He later 
became a Congregationalist, and in the last 
years of his ministry served nondenomina- 
tional churches. After completing his sem- 
inary training, he lived in Ohio for two pe- 
riods — as a Lutheran minister in Lancaster, 
1905-08, and as a Congregational minister 
in Akron, 1921-26. Perhaps the most pop- 
ular religious writer America has known, he 
consciously or unconsciously sensed the 
temper of the public mind and produced 
books that found millions of readers. His 
first writing was nonfiction that reflects dis- 
satisfaction with dogma and perhaps his 
own struggle on changing his affiliation, 
e.g.. Those Disturbing Miracles, New York, 
1927. In the late 1920s and early 1930s, he 
wrote several best-selling novels, e.g., Mag- 
nificent Obsession, New York, 1929. These 
he followed with historical novels dealing 
with Biblical times, e.g., The Robe, Bos- 
ton, 1942. WWW 3 

1858), was born in Onondaga County, 
N. Y. Her father moved to Lancaster, Fair- 
field County, where she met and married 
Richard Douglas, a lawyer of Chillicothe. 
The volume below was published under the 
pseudonym "A Lady." 

On the Conservative Elements of the Amer- 
ican Republic, Chillicothe, 1842. 

DOUGLASS, BEN (Aug. 13, 1836-July 24, 
1909), lawyer, was born in Plain Township, 
Wayne County. After attending Vermillion 
Institute, Hayesville, he went to Cleveland 
Law School, where he graduated in 1861. 
He practiced law in Wooster, served in the 
postmaster general's office, Washington, 
D. C, and edited the Jacksonian in Woos- 
ter. During the Presidential campaign of 
1868, he was sent to California and Nevada 
to speak in support of the Republican ticket. 
(On the second book listed below, his last 
name is spelled with one s.) 
History of Wayne County . . . , Indianap- 
olis, 1878. 
History of the Lawyers of Wayne County 
Ohio, from 1812 to 1900, Wooster, 1900. 


Doyle, E. A. 

1848-April 15, 1936), clergyman, was born 
in Seville, Medina County. After graduating 
from Oberlin College in 1870, he attended 
Yale Divinity School. He was ordained to 
the ministry, served churches in various 
states, and died at Lombard, 111. His writ- 
ings include Increasing Values in Jesus, Bos- 
ton, 1925. WWNAA 7 

DOWLER, BENNET (April 16, 1797-1879), 
physician, was born in Ohio. In 1854 he 
founded the Medical and Surgical Journal 
in New Orleans. He was noted for his 
experiments upon the human body soon 
after death. He wrote a number of medical 
articles and reports which are not listed be- 
Contributions to the Natural History of the 

Alligator . . . , New Orleans, 1846. 
Researches upon the Necropolis of New 

Orleans . . . , New Orleans, 1850. 
Experimental Researches, Illustrative of the 

Functional Oneness, Unity, and Diffusion 

of Nervous Action . . . , New Orleans, 

Contributions to Experimental Physiology 

. . . , New Orleans, 1852. 
Tableaux of New Orleans, [New Orleans, 

Tableaux of the Yellow Fever of 1853 . . . , 

New Orleans, 1854. 
Critical Researches in Medical Terminology 

. . . , [New Orleans, 1858?]. 

1849-1928), clergyman, was born in New 
York City, the son of a Baptist clergyman. 
After studying at the College of the City 
of New York, he abandoned plans for the 
ministry and entered business; a phrenolog- 
ical reading, however, convinced him that 
he should fulfill his parents' dreams. He 
completed his education at Colgate Univer- 
sity and Crozier Theological Seminary. 
After successful pastorates in New Jersey, 
Rhode Island, and Syracuse, N. Y., he was 
called to Euclid Avenue Baptist Church, 
Cleveland, where he served for twelve 
years. In 1895 he became an Episcopal 
priest and served churches in California 
and in Brooklyn, N. Y. Other than sermons 
his chief literary production was The 
Wreckers, which was written to refute the 
antilabor novel by John Hay (q.v.), The 
Breadwinners. Dowling's book is prolabor 
but idealistic and condescending. 
The Wreckers. A Social Study, Philadelphia, 

DOWLING, LEVI H. (May 18, 1844-Aug. 
13, 1911), clergyman, was born in Bell- 

ville, Richland County. A minister of the 
Disciples of Christ Church at the age of 
sixteen, he was a chaplain in the Civil War. 
After the war he practiced medicine and 
devoted himself to the cause of prohibition. 
He compiled song books and wrote at least 
one book: The Aquarian Gospel of Jesus 
the Christ . . . , Los Angeles, 1908. 

26, 1901- ), educator, born in South 
Norwalk, Conn., has been in the history de- 
partment, University of Toledo, since 1946. 
He graduated from Dartmouth College in 
1923 and Ohio State University (Ph.D.) in 
1929. He has written a number of books 
on Indians in Ohio and other historical sub- 
jects, e.g., Council Fires on the Upper Ohio 
. . . , [Pittsburgh], 1940. DAS 3 

1862-Sept. 18, 1948), educator, was born 
in Wooster, Wayne County, and graduated 
from University of Wooster in 1885. He 
taught at Macalester College, 1891-1912, 
and was also on the staff of Webb Pub- 
lishing Co., St. Paul, Minn. Besides a Latin 
textbook, he published a collection of 
poems: Stairways of the Years, Minneap- 
olis, 1946. 

DOWNING, LAURA CASE (July 26, 1843- 
Sept. 27, 1914), was born in Ohio, but 
spent much of her life in Phoenix, Ariz., 
where she served as a school principal and 
as a librarian and became a very popular 
clubwoman. She wrote Poem Pictures, Bos- 
ton, 1904. 

DOWNS, EDWARD (c.l829-March 15, 
1884), was born in Ohio, probably in Mus- 
kingum County. He enlisted as a captain in 
the 20th O.V.I, in Oct., 1861, was pro- 
moted to major, and was discharged be- 
cause of illness on April 1, 1864. After the 
war he was a minister in Iowa and Dakota 
Territory. His book, which is an account 
of C. L. Ruggles, a Northern agent, was 
republished as The Great American Scout 
and Spy in 1868 and as Perils of Scout 
Life in 1873. 

Four Years a Scout and Spy . . . , Zanes- 
ville, 1866. 

DOYLE, EDWIN ADAMS (Jan. 13, 1867- 
Nov. 26, 1941), was born in Winchester, 
Adams County, of a pioneer family. He at- 
tended school in Winchester and for a time 
edited the Winchester Visitor. His entire 
life was spent in his native community. 
Poems and Lyrics Relating to the Spanish 
and Cuban War, Winchester, 1898. 

Doyle, J. H. 

Phocion. A Dramatic Poem, and Other 
Poems, Winchester, 1910. 

Poems Descriptive, Narrative and Reflec- 
tive . . . , Winchester, 1915. 

Troezene: A Masque of the Gods . . . , Win- 
chester, 1916. 

War Pieces, Winchester, 1920. 

Mariana: A Monologue, Boston, 1935. 

Poems on Various Occasions, Boston, 1935. 

DOYLE, JOHN HARDY (April 23, 1844- 
March 24, 1919), lawyer and judge, was 
born in Perry County. He attended Denison 
University and was admitted to the bar in 
1865. He practiced law in Toledo and 
served as judge of common pleas court and 
of the state supreme court. He wrote A 
Story of Early Toledo . . . , Bowling Green, 
[1919]. WWW 1 

DOYLE, JOSEPH BEATTY (Sept. 10, 1849- 
Dec. 12, 1927), lawyer and journalist, was 
born in Steubenville, Jefferson County. He 
attended Iron City Commercial College, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., studied law, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1870. He became city 
editor of the Steubenville Daily News, 
Sept. 11, 1871, and remained with that pa- 
per and the Steubenville Herald as man- 
aging editor until 1905. He was also li- 
brarian of the Jefferson County Library. 
His writings on historical subjects include 
20th Century History of Steubenville and 
Jefferson County, Ohio, and Representative 
Citizens, Chicago, 1910. 

1888- ), was born in Toledo, Lucas 
County, where he attended public schools 
and the University of Toledo and for a time 
worked on a newspaper. He has lived for 
a number of years in White Plains, N. Y. 
He is a prolific author of adventure novels, 
most of them Western stories. Some indi- 
cation of his productivity can be found in 
the fact that in one year (1950) he pub- 
lished five novels: under the pen name of 
Will Ermine, Apache Crossing, My Gun Is 
My Law, and Watchdog of Thunder River, 
and under the pen name of Bliss Lomax, 
The Fight for the Sweetwater and The Law 
Busters. He has also used as pen names 
J. Wesley Putnam, Kirk Deming, Sinclair 
Drago, and Stewart Cross. 

DRAGO, SINCLAIR. Pseud. See Harry S. 

DRAKE, BENJAMIN (1795-April 1, 1841), 
was born in Mayslick, Ky. In 1814 he 
came to Cincinnati to work in a drugstore 
owned by his elder brother, Daniel (q.v.). 


He later was a partner in a dry goods store 
operated by his father, Isaac Drake, but 
financed by Daniel. He read law and after 
the store failed he began practicing in Cin- 
cinnati. He had already become known as a 
writer for his contributions to the Cincin- 
nati Literary Gazette. His "Bass-Island Cot- 
tage" in the first issue (Jan. 1, 1824) is the 
first Western short story. He helped estab- 
lish the Cincinnati Chronicle and Literary 
Gazette and edited it, 1826-34, with the as- 
sistance of E. D. Mansfield (q.v.). He also 
founded and edited The Western Agricul- 
turist in 1830. Cincinnati in 1826 was re- 
published in England and Germany and en- 
couraged emigration to Cincinnati. The 
pieces in Tales and Sketches of the Queen 
City describe frontier life in realistic, vivid 
detail and represent his major achievement 
as a pioneer regional writer. 
Cincinnati in 1826, (with E. D. Mansfield), 

Cincinnati, 1827. 
The Life and Adventures of Black Hawk 

. . . , Cincinnati, 1838. 
Tales and Sketches of the Queen City, Cin- 
cinnati, 1839. 
Sketches of the Civil and Military Services 
of William Henry Harrison, (with C. S. 
Todd), Cincinnati, 1840. 
Life of Tecumseh, and of His Brother the 
Prophet . . . , Cincinnati, 1841. 

181 1-April 1, 1892), son of Daniel Drake 
(q.v.), was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. From 1827 to 1830 he was a mid- 
shipman in the navy. He was admitted to 
the Ohio bar in 1833 and moved the fol- 
lowing year to St. Louis, Mo., where he 
practiced. He lived in Cincinnati again 
from 1847 to 1850. He was active in Mis- 
souri politics and was elected to the U. S. 
Senate in 1867, where he allied himself 
with extremists among the Radical Repub- 
licans. He resigned from the Senate in 1870 
to become chief justice of the U. S. Court 
of Claims, where he served until 1885. He 
published a number of separate speeches 
and a legal treatise and edited autobio- 
graphical letters written by his father: Pio- 
neer Life in Kentucky. 

Union and Anti-Slavery Speeches Delivered 
during the Rebellion, Cincinnati, 1864. 

DRAKE, DANIEL (Oct. 20, 1785-Nov. 5, 
1852), physician, author, educator, philan- 
thropist, and civic leader, was a native of 
New Jersey but, by adoption, an Ohioan. 
The second child of Isaac and Elizabeth 
(Shotwell) Drake, he was born on a farm 
now a part of Plainfield, N. J. When Daniel 
was less than three years of age, his father 


Drake, D. 

and his father's two brothers with their 
families moved to Kentucky. Here the 
Drakes founded the settlement of Mayslick. 
Their homes were one-room log cabins with 
single doors but without windows. Daniel's 
early schooling was desultory. He was 
taught in small, single-room log school- 
houses by itinerant and poorly trained 
teachers. At the age of fifteen with barely 
more than a smattering of reading, writing, 
and arithmetic, he was apprenticed as a stu- 
dent of medicine to Dr. William Goforth 
(1766-1817) of Cincinnati. Young Drake 
was indefatigable and possessed an eager 
mind with a retentive memory as is shown 
by progress so rapid that his preceptor, 
Dr. Goforth, took him into full partnership 
at the end of four years. It was then that 
Dr. Goforth gave his pupil a "diploma," the 
first issued west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tains, which attested to Drake's knowledge 
of "physics, surgery and midwifery." A year 
later (1805) Drake rode horseback over the 
mountains and on to Philadelphia, where 
he attended his first course of medical lec- 
tures at the University of Pennsylvania. Re- 
turning to Kentucky he practiced for a year 
at Mayslick near his father's home. Here he 
observed an epidemic, possibly typhoid 
fever, the report of which represented his 
first venture into the field of medical litera- 
ture: Some Account of the Epidemic Dis- 
eases Which Prevail at Mays-lick in Ken- 
tucky. In 1807, Drake moved to Cincinnati, 
which became his home for the remainder 
of his life. Although occupied with a large 
practice, he was constantly writing. The rar- 
est of his publications, Notices Concerning 
Cincinnati, published in 1810, dealt with 
the topography, meteorology, botany, and 
medical conditions found in the city and 
described for the first time a hitherto 
unknown local malady, "milk-sickness." 
This book contained the first comprehensive 
account of a Midwestern town and was 
also the first with a medical section to be 
published west of the Alleghenies. In 1812, 
Drake led in the establishment of a public 
library and of a Lancastrian seminary. He 
was also instrumental in forming the 
"School of Literature and Arts," before 
which he delivered the presidential address 
in 1814. This discourse, widely acclaimed, 
was reprinted in The National Intelligencer 
(Washington, D. C). Shortly before re- 
turning to Philadelphia in 1815, to attend 
a second course of lectures and to obtain 
his medical degree, he completed a book 
which gave him an international reputation: 
Natural and Statistical View, or Picture of 
Cincinnati and the Miami Country. When 
the medical department of Transylvania 

University at Lexington, Ky. — the first west 
of the Allegheny Mountains — opened in 
1817, Drake became professor of materia 
medica and medical botany. He remained in 
Lexington only one term. Returning to Cin- 
cinnati, he inaugurated courses of medical 
instruction which culminated in the incor- 
poration (1819) of the Medical College of 
Ohio, of which he was president. His im- 
portant Inaugural Discourse on Medical 
Education in 1820 received much laudatory 
comment and has been reprinted (1951). 
Dissension arose in the faculty, and Drake 
was expelled by vote of those who owed 
their positions to him. His description of 
these events, A Narrative of the Rise and 
Fall of the Medical College of Ohio (1822), 
is a much sought-after item of medical 
Americana. He taught at Transylvania Uni- 
versity from 1823 to 1827 and then re- 
turned to Cincinnati. Here, with Dr. Guy 
W. Wright (d. 1831) he established The 
Western Medical and Physical Journal, 
Original and Eclectic. In this journal were 
published his essays on medical education, 
which have been termed "far and away, 
the most important contributions ever made 
to the subject in this country." These es- 
says were first published in book form in 
1832 and were reprinted in 1952. Ever in- 
terested in the cause of temperance, Drake 
delivered the first of his published addresses 
on this subject in 1828: A Discourse on 
Intemperance . . . Before the Agricultural 
Society of Hamilton County. With the ap- 
pearance of cholera in many parts of the 
world in 1832, Drake began an exhaustive 
investigation of the disease. This study cul- 
minated in the publication of a book on the 
sub.'ect: A Practical Treatise on the History, 
Prevention, and Treatment of Epidemic 
Cholera (1832). At the 45th anniversary 
celebration of the founding of Cincinnati, 
held Dec. 26, 1833. Dr. Drake in response 
to a toast extolled the virtues of the buck- 
eye and wove the history of the Ohio Valley 
into his speech. He suggested that this was 
a suitable emblematic tree for the state, 
with the result that since that time Ohio 
has been termed "the Buckeye State." Space 
does not permit discussion of Dr. Drake's 
various professorships, but it is important 
to mention that he was the leader in the es- 
tablishment of the medical department of 
Cincinnati College (1835), which had the 
most distinguished faculty ever assembled 
in the West. At this time Drake's writings 
were almost entirely confined to pamphlets 
issued in reply to attacks made on him by 
his enemies in the Medical College of Ohio. 
He has been accused of quarrelsomeness, 
but no record can be found of any con- 

Drake, D. 


troversies in which he was the aggressor. 
Once attacked, however, he showed no 
quarter and argued so logically and often 
so persistently that he was almost invariably 
victorious. When the medical department of 
Cincinnati College closed in 1839 because 
of lack of endowment and hospital facili- 
ties, Drake accepted the Chair of Clinical 
Medicine and Pathological Anatomy in the 
Louisville Medical Institute, now the School 
of Medicine of the University of Louis- 
ville. This chair had been especially created 
in order to induce him to come to Louis- 
ville. Here he was happy lecturing to the 
largest classes of medical students that the 
West had known until then. His profes- 
sorial duties occupied about four months 
of the year, and the remainder was spent 
at his home in Cincinnati, where he was 
engaged in writing, or in travel throughout 
the Mississippi Valley for the purpose of 
collecting facts to be included in a monu- 
mental work on diseases of that region. 
Drake's three earliest contributions to med- 
ical literature constitute the germ plasm of 
his later impressive volumes. It is evident 
from the first announcement made in 1822 
of his projected work that it was based 
upon the broadest possible foundation, in- 
cluding sociological studies in relation to 
diseases as well as topographical, geolog- 
ical, meteorological, and botanical relation- 
ships. Despite wretched accommodations 
and modes of travel, "in skiffs, on rail 
roads, in stages, buggies, common wagons, 
on horse back, mule back and on foot, by 
day and by night . . . ," he covered fully 
30,000 miles in quest of information. We 
are fortunate in having accounts of many 
of the places visited, since Drake embodied 
some of his observations in editorials — 
"Traveling Memoranda," "Traveling Edito- 
rials" — which appeared in his medical jour- 
nal. His alertness to every phase of human 
activity is clearly revealed by these 25 let- 
ters. Although hurriedly written, their flow- 
ing style and clearness of presentation make 
them models. While busily engaged in pre- 
paring his book throughout the 1840s, 
Drake wrote many scientific papers and ad- 
dresses. During the winter of 1847 he wrote 
a series of ten letters for his children in 
which he graphically described his boyhood. 
With some deletions by his son, Charles 
D. Drake (q.v. ), these letters were pub- 
lished in Cincinnati in 1870 with the title 
Pioneer Life in Kentucky. These letters 
were reprinted in 1907. Re-edited from the 
original manuscript, they were again pub- 
lished under the previous title in 1948. 
Termed "the greatest of all Kentucky books," 
it is a vivid portrayal of family, farm, and 

social life in the frontier settlement of Mays- 
lick. Against the background of a "forest- 
born" democracy, we see, forged on the 
anvil of necessity, the earliest form of in- 
stitutions and traditions that we today take 
for granted. Had Daniel Drake written 
nothing else, his fame as a writer would be 
secure. On April 24, 1850, in Cincinnati, 
was published the first volume of a work 
which was to make the name of Daniel 
Drake immortal: A Systematic Treatise, His- 
torical, Etiological and Practical, on the 
Diseases of the Interior Valley of North 
America as They Appear in the Caucasian, 
African, Indian, and Esquimaux Varieties of 
Its Population. This book was immediately 
recognized as a classic, receiving enthusiastic 
reviews not only in the United States but 
also in England and on the Continent. Some 
of the contemporary opinions are as fol- 
lows; the book "belongs to the very high- 
est rank of our medical literature, and may 
probably come to be regarded as the most 
original work published in America"; "the 
contents of the book are so varied and ex- 
tensive as to defy analysis"; "the profes- 
sion are much indebted to Dr. Drake for 
his indefatigable exertions in producing a 
work of such magnitude and importance." 
Recently a distinguished medical historian 
(Garrison) stated that "there was nothing 
like this book in literature" and another 
equally famous medical historian (Sigerist) 
called it "one of the greatest masterpieces 
of medico-geographic research." The sec- 
ond volume was published posthumously in 
1854. Drake deplored slavery but at the 
same time strongly disapproved of the ac- 
tions of rabid abolitionists which he real- 
ized would lead to sectional strife if they 
continued. In an effort to alleviate the situa- 
tion, he wrote three letters on slavery which 
were published (April. 1851) in The Na- 
tional Intelligencer (Washington, D. C). 
In 1940 these remarkable letters were pub- 
lished in book form. The last book pub- 
lished during Drake's lifetime was Dis- 
courses Delivered by Appointment, before 
the Cincinnati Medical Library Association 
(Cincinnati, 1852). These essays furnish an 
interesting description of the physicians, 
medical conditions, and medical journalism 
found in early Cincinnati. Drake's total 
extant writings — books, essays, editorials, 
book reviews, etc. — amount to over 3,000 
items. Only major works are listed below. 
He continued to teach and to write until a 
few days before his death. During the fu- 
neral services in Cincinnati, Nov. 10, 1852. 
all stores were closed, the streets silent, and 
the mourners crowded into Christ Church, 
where the Rev. Dudley A. Tyng (1825-58) 


DuBois, C. G. 

closed his sermon with these words: "May 

God in mercy grant that this death we so 

much mourn may be the seed of Life to 

many souls; and that all who feel his loss 

may follow his example." 

Emmet Field Horine 

Notices Concerning Cincinnati, Cincinnati, 

Natural and Statistical View, or Picture of 
Cincinnati and the Miami Country . . . , 
Cincinnati. 1815. 

The People's Doctors; A Review by 'The 
People's Friend' . . . , Cincinnati. 1829. 

Practical Essays on Medical Education and 
the Medical Profession in the United 
States, Cincinnati. 1832. 

A Practical Treatise on the History, Pre- 
vention, and Treatment of Epidemic 
Cholera .... Cincinnati. 1832. 

Report on the Subject of the Education of 
the Blind . . . , Columbus. 1835. 

A Systematic Treatise, Historical, Etiologi- 
cal and Practical, on the Principal Dis- 
eases of the Interior Valley of North 
America .... New York. 1850. 

Discourses Delivered by Appointment be- 
fore the Cincinnati Medical Library As- 
sociation . . . , Cincinnati, 1852. 

A Systematic Treatise .... 2nd series, Phila- 
delphia, 1854. 

Pioneer Life in Kentucky, (Charles D. 
Drake, ed.), Cincinnati, 1870. 

). educator, was born in Columbus, 
Franklin County. After graduating from 
Normal School. Fredonia. N. Y.. she taught 
in the schools of Brooklyn, N. Y. Her writ- 
ings include Natalie and the Breusters, Bos- 
ton. [1931]. WWNAA 6 

DRAKE, WILLIAM A. (Dec. 9. 1899- ), 
was born in Dayton. Montgomery County. 
He has worked on various newspapers and 
was managing editor of Vanity Fair, 1922— 
24. He has also been a writer for various 
motion-picture companies in Hollywood and 
still lives there. He has translated numerous 
works by European authors and has written 
Contemporary European Writers, New 
York, 1928. WW 26 

1848-April 27. 1913). educator and prolific 
writer and lecturer on education, born in 
Westford, N. Y.. was superintendent of 
schools in Cleveland from 1892 to 1894. 
Several of his addresses delivered during 
this period were published. 

1851-Aug. 31, 1926), missionary, was born 

in Xenia, Greene County. He graduated 
from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1871 
and the School of Theology, Boston Uni- 
versity, in 1874. Immediately after his 
graduation he was sent to Mexico as a 
missionary. While on leave in 1877, he mar- 
ried Ada M. Combs of Clermont County. 
In 1887 he was sent to South America, 
where he lived until his retirement in 1924. 
His wife edited his letters from Mexico, 
adding some biographical notes: Thirteen 
Years in Mexico . . . , New York, [1915]. 
WWW 2 

DRENNAN, MARIE (Aug. 30, 1890-Nov. 4, 
1950). educator, was born in Swanton, Ful- 
ton County. After graduating from Ohio 
Wesleyan University in 1915, she began 
teaching school: she taught English at Ohio 
Wesleyan from 1917 until her death. She 
published poetry and a pageant, The Age of 
the Sun . . . , New York, 1928. BDCP 

DRUKKER. SARA TORIAS (July 31. 1852- 
March 4. 1914), born in New York City, 
lived in St. Louis. Mo., and Cincinnati for 
more than 25 years. She was active in civic 
affairs. Using the pen names Edwina Rowe 
and Alpha, she wrote for various periodi- 
cals. A selection of her writings was pub- 
lished by her four daughters: A Literary 
Find, Philadelphia, 1914. 

1851-Feb. 18. 1935). clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Madison County, Ind. 
In 1877 he graduated from Bonebrake 
Theological Seminary. Dayton, and in 1880 
he became a member of the faculty. He 
was also a trustee of the United Brethren 
Publishing House in Dayton. 
Life of Rev. Philip William Otterbein . . . , 

Dayton. 1884. 
Life of Bishop J. J. Glossbrenner . . . , Day- 
ton. 1889. 
Disciplines of the United Brethren in Christ, 

Dayton. 1895. 
Baptism, Its Place in the Church Visible 

.... Dayton. 1902. 
History of the City of Dayton and Mont- 
gomery County, 2 vols.. Chicago, 1909. 
Outlines of Doctrinal Theology . . . , Day- 
ton. 1914. 
History of the Church of the United 

Brethren in Christ, Dayton. 1924. 
Otterbein Birthday Book, Dayton, [?]. 


(c. 1855-191 1 ? ), anthropologist, was born 
in Zanesville. Muskingum County. She at- 
tended Putnam Female Seminary. Although 
she maintained a residence in Waterbury, 

DuBois, F. H. 


Conn., she spent most of her mature years 
in firsthand study of the Indians of Cali- 
fornia, from whom her manifest sympathy 
permitted her to learn things regarded as 
sacred and almost never communicated by 
them. She was one of the founders of the 
American Anthropological Association. A 
scholarly associate described her as an en- 
lightened amateur untainted by academic 
training, with instincts for strict scholarly 
accuracy. She was on the staff of Out West 
(Los Angeles) and was editor of the Asa 
Gray Bulletin, 1893-1900. 
Martha Corey; A Tale of the Salem Witch- 
craft, Chicago, 1890. 
Columbus and Beatriz: A Novel, Chicago, 

A Modern Pagan; A Novel, New York, 

A Soul in Bronze; A Novel of Southern 

California, Chicago, 1900. 
The Condition of the Mission Indians of 

Southern California, Philadelphia, 1901. 
The Religion of the Luiseho Indians of 

Southern California, Berkeley, Calif., 


Dubois, Frances hulme (Oct. 4, 1889- 

), was born in Madisonville, Hamilton 
County. After graduating from Madison- 
ville High School in 1906, she studied horti- 
culture and landscape design at the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati. She was an active partner 
in a landscape nursery business operated by 
her family and also wrote a weekly garden 
column for the Cincinnati Post for eighteen 
years. With Gertrude DuBois she wrote 
Peter and Penny Plant a Garden, New 
York, 1936. 

DUCDAME. Pseud. See Henry Hooper. 

21, 1870-Dec. 13, 1951), was born in 
Waverly, Pike County, the daughter of a 
Lutheran minister. She attended Waverly 
schools and after finishing high school 
taught in Pike County rural schools. In 
1900 she married James A. Duckworth, an 
Englishman. She lived in England for a 
time and later in Fort Thomas, Ky. While 
living in Fort Thomas, she was a member 
of the Cincinnati Woman's Press Club and 
other literary groups. She published a ro- 
mance in verse: The Love of Quintell . . . , 
Boston, 1922. 

1848-May, 1920), was born in Peninsula, 
Summit County, and attended the Episcopal 
Female Seminary in Granville. She served 

as organist of churches in Warren and 

Contributions to the Knowledge of the Sem- 
ites, [n.p.], 1893. 
Letters to Ruth, New York, [1896]. 
A Royal Journey, New York, 1901. 
"A Writer's Inkhorn," New York, 1910. 

DUFF, MRS. DAVID. See Ethel H. Miller. 

1872-Oct. 7, 1950), journalist, was born in 
Ashland, Ashland County. After attending 
Wittenberg College and Ohio Wesleyan 
University, he worked on newspapers in 
Galion, Mansfield, Cleveland, and Sandusky. 
He then bought a farm near Ashland and 
edited the Ashland Times-Gazette. Besides 
a play about Johnny Appleseed (1929), he 
wrote History of North Central Ohio . . . , 
Topeka, Kan., 1931. OBB 

in Washington Court House, Fayette 
County, and has spent her entire life in 
that community. For many years she as- 
sisted her father, James W. Duffee, in the 
operation of his store. She began writing 
poems and songs in 1917 and has since 
written more than 1,200 poems, which 
have appeared in various periodicals and 
anthologies. She has published several col- 
lections of verse, e.g., Poems That Are Real, 
That Appeal, That You Feel, [Washington 
Court House], 1917. BDCP 

DUFFY, HERBERT SMITH (Feb. 25, 1900- 
Dec. 29, 1956), lawyer, was born in New 
Lexington, Perry County, but grew up in 
Columbus. After serving in the Naval Air 
Service in World War I, he attended Ohio 
State University and Dartmouth College. 
He graduated from Harvard Law School 
in 1924 and began practice in Cleveland 
the same year. He served as attorney gen- 
eral of Ohio, 1937-39 and 1949-51. From 
1951 until his death he practiced in Colum- 
bus. He wrote a biography: William Howard 
Taft, New York, 1930. WWO 

DUKE, JOHN KLINE (Aug. 20, 1844-Nov. 
27, 1903), was born in Piketon, Pike 
County. During the Civil War he served in 
Company F, 53rd O.V.I. After the war he 
taught school in Illinois for a year, and in 
1866 he moved to Portsmouth, where he 
worked in the First National Bank and 
later was engaged in the insurance and real- 
estate business. 
History of the Fifty-Third Regiment Ohio 

Volunteer Infantry . . . , Portsmouth, 



Dunbar, P. L. 


(Aug. 11, 1855-June 21, 1939), was born 
in Findlay, Hancock County. She was mar- 
ried to P. C. Dukes and lived in Findlay. 
Her poems appeared in Christian Witness, 
the Findlay Morning Republican, and vari- 
ous other periodicals. She published a col- 
lection of verse: Sunlit Heights, Boston, 

DULAC, GEORGE. Pseud. See George Perk- 

DULL, PAUL PHELLIS (May 30, 1907- ), 
lawyer and judge, was born in Celina, 
Mercer County. He graduated from Ohio 
Wesleyan University in 1929, was in edu- 
cational work, 1931-33, and graduated 
from Ohio State University Law School in 
1937. He began practice in Celina in 1937, 
served in the U.S. Air Force, 1944-45, and 
has been judge of common pleas court, 
Mercer County, since 1947. He has pub- 
lished at least three collections of verse, 
e.g., Sprouts from a Small Potato, New 
York, [1940]. WWMW 6 

DULLES, FOSTER RHEA (Jan. 24, 1900- 
), educator, born in Englewood, N. J., 
has been a member of the Ohio State Uni- 
versity history faculty since 1941. He has 
written numerous professional articles, sev- 
eral books on American relations with the 
Orient, and Lowered Boats; A Chronicle 
of American Whaling, New York, [1923]. 
WW 30 

1895- ), educator, was born in King- 
ston, Ross County. He graduated from 
Baldwin-Wallace College in 1920 and the 
University of Michigan (Ph.D.) in 1929. 
He has been a member of the Michigan 
history faculty since 1930. He has pub- 
lished a history of the United States, profes- 
sional articles, and a collection of lectures 
first delivered at University College, Lon- 
don: Antislavery Origins of the Civil War 
in the United States, Ann Arbor, Mich., 
1939. WW 30 

1794-Jan. 2, 1857), the earliest native 
Ohioan whose writings have been preserved, 
was born in Waterford, Washington County. 
Her father was one of the first settlers at 
Marietta in 1788. The family returned to 
Rhode Island while she was a child. After 
the death of her father her mother remar- 
ried, and they moved to Saratoga County, 
N. Y., where she attended Milton Academy, 
taught school for several years, and mar- 

ried John Dumont in Aug., 1812. The fol- 
lowing October the young couple moved to 
Cincinnati, where they lived until March, 
1814, when they settled in Vevay, Ind. Mrs. 
Dumont resumed teaching in 1820; among 
her students were Edward and George C. 
Eggleston, both of whom paid her high 
tribute in their writings. Her literary repu- 
tation is based upon her short stories and 
poems, most of which were contributed to 
Cincinnati, periodicals — the Cincinnati Liter- 
ary Gazette, Cincinnati Mirror, Western 
Literary Journal, and Ladies' Repository. 
Her "Theodore Harland" was the prize- 
winning story in a contest conducted by the 
Cincinnati Chronicle in 1827. "Ashton 
Grey" and other short stories, contributed 
to the Western Literary Journal and the 
Ladies' Repository, were collected and pub- 
lished in 1856. No collection of her verse 
was ever published, though some of her 
poems achieved great popularity. 
Life Sketches from Common Paths: A Series 
of American Tales, New York, 1856. 

DUN, JOHN DAVIS (Oct. 10, 1891- ), 
journalist, was born in Columbus, Franklin 
County. In his early teens he joined the 
staff of the Columbus Citizen and worked 
on that newspaper while attending high 
school and Ohio State University. After 
graduating in 1914 he joined the Toledo 
Times and edited that newspaper, 1918-39. 
During World War II he was an ambulance 
driver in the American Field Service at- 
tached to the French Foreign Legion in 
North Africa. After his retirement he moved 
to Tucson, Ariz., and since 1950 he has 
lived in La Jolla, Calif. He published 
Eleven Stories . . . , East Aurora, N. Y., 
[1938]. WW 16 

1872-Feb. 10, 1906), poet, was born in 
Dayton, Montgomery County, and spent 
most of his short lifetime in that community. 
The first twenty years sped by for him much 
as for any boy, white or black, in a typical 
Midwestern small town. His first four adult 
years stretched out discouragingly as he 
struggled to make a living, find himself, 
realize his well-defined ideals and hopes 
and aims. The last ten saw recognition in 
good measure, but an uphill fight on a rocky 
road as he strove to keep mind and body 
fit for the steady and welcome market de- 
mand on his pen. From boyhood days he 
had the divine afflatus of the poet, the con- 
stant urge to find listeners to his message — 
all this alongside the mental reactions of 
his race. Early in his twenties he wrote to a 
friend, "I did once want to be a lawyer, 

Dunbar, P. L. 


but that ambition has long since died out 
before the all-absorbing desire to be a 
worthy singer of the songs of God and na- 
ture. To be able to interpret my own people 
through song and story, and to prove to 
them that after all we are more human than 
African." A singer first, he was an inter- 
preter of his people next — always a message- 
bearer, a poet, a creator in the Greek sense. 
I remember speaking to him once about the 
rhythm and cadence in one of his poems. 
Sharp and prompt came his comment: "Yes, 
all right, but I surely hope and trust you 
find it something more than just that!" A 
poet, no mere rhymester. Both of Paul L. 
Dunbar's parents had been slaves in Ken- 
tucky, owned by different masters. His fa- 
ther, Joshua, born in 1816, had escaped to 
Canada. He came back to enlist in 1863 in 
Company F, 55th Massachusetts; was dis- 
charged Oct. 28, 1863, because of injuries; 
re-enlisted Jan. 9, 1864, in the 5th Massa- 
chusetts Cavalry as a sergeant; and was 
discharged Oct. 31, 1865. He settled in 
Dayton, worked as a plasterer, and in 1871 
married Matilda J. Murphy (born Borton 
in 1845). Matilda had then two sons by an 
earlier marriage. She had come to Dayton 
to work as a laundress. Joshua entered the 
Soldiers' Home near Dayton in 1882 and 
died there Aug. 16, 1885. Matilda survived 
Paul, dying Feb. 24, 1934, in the home he 
had provided for her. Paul went through 
school in due course, graduating in 1891 
from Central High School. He wrote the 
class poem; was president of the boys' de- 
bating society, the Philomathean; and was 
editor of the High School Times, the stu- 
dents' monthly magazine. With high school 
days finished and no prospect of college, 
he spent his next four years in search of 
work. He worked as an elevator man in the 
Callahan office bulding and as a judge's 
messenger in the county court house. Day's 
work came first, of course, but with it then, 
as ever, was the constant drive for self- 
expression. Newspapers printed a poem now 
and then, but pay was scant. At his own 
expense he printed in Dayton a book of 
poems, Oak and Ivy, dated 1893 but off the 
press late in 1892. Thanks to the interest of 
Dayton friends he gave readings before such 
groups as the Western Association of 
Writers in Dayton and elsewhere in Ohio, 
Michigan, and Indiana. A Toledo friend 
not only arranged for readings in that city, 
but also helped print Majors and Minors, 
another collection of poems, in 1895. This 
friend gave a copy of the book to James 
A. Heme when he was playing in his Shore 
Acres in Toledo. Heme sent the copy to 
William Dean Howells. This kindly soul 

and acute critic, possibly mindful of his 
own days in Hamilton and Columbus, re- 
viewed the book in Harper's Weekly, 
June 27, 1896, warm in praise of "this un- 
known but not ungifted poet." Introduction 
like that brought prompt results, setting 
Dunbar for the rest of his life in the public 
eye with the natural satisfactions and 
troubles. Lyrics from Lowly Life came out 
in 1896 with an introduction by Howells. 
Chapman and Hall brought out an English 
edition in 1897. Demand for copy, prose 
or poetry, came quickly, with of course the 
drain on nerves and physique. Eighteen vol- 
umes of poetry and fiction came from his 
pen before death laid its hand on him. Six 
volumes were published after his death. 
Hundreds of separate poems, short stories, 
and articles stand to his credit. His songs 
were set to music; his contributions to dra- 
matic sketches and similar pieces number 
several score. After 1896 he lived mainly 
in New York and Washington, D. C, the 
latter residence beginning with his appoint- 
ment Sept. 20, 1897, to the staff of the 
Library of Congress, where he served as 
reading room assistant and stack deck at- 
tendant until 1898. On March 6, 1898, he 
married in New York City Alice Ruth 
Moore of New Orleans and Boston. They 
separated in 1902. Early in the 1900s tuber- 
culosis set in. He vainly hunted for relief 
in the Catskills, in the Rockies, and else- 
where — all to no avail. He spent his last 
three years with his mother in Dayton in 
the house he had bought at 219 North Sum- 
mit Street. Three years after his death, on 
the anniversary of his birth, his grave in 
Woodland Cemetery was marked by a gran- 
ite memorial set there by public subscrip- 
tion led by the Dunbar Memorial Associa- 
tion. His home was bought by the State of 
Ohio in 1936 as a historical memorial, and 
since then it has been maintained and ad- 
ministered by the Ohio State Historical So- 
ciety and has been kept in much the same 
condition as when the poet died. Paul L. 
Dunbar stood about five feet, nine inches 
tall. Rather slight, he weighed perhaps 140 
pounds. He had a nervous and responsive 
temperament, was kindly in nature, quick 
to anger or to pleasure, but held no resent- 
ments. Heights of joy alternated with depths 
of despondency. Hungry for friends, he de- 
lighted in companionship. He might have 
agreed that in the abstract a peaceful soli- 
tude invited poetic joy, but he would never 
have thought of seeking that solitude as a 
pioneer in unexplored territory. Thoroughly 
happy in urban life and sights and sounds, 
he was an equally keen observer and de- 
lighter in all forms of outdoor life and 



scenery at a comfortable distance. Once he 
said he would like to be a farmer, but his 
was certainly not the temperament for the 
routine and exacting demands on the pa- 
tience and persistence of the farmer. His 
poetry is essentially of his own day and 
generation. It is sentimental, rhymed, emo- 
tional but never mawkish. It would find no 
place in our present annual "Poetry 
Awards." He was none the less a poet first 
and foremost, a Negro poet, eager to set 
forth the varied emotions of his race. In 
that respect he is unquestionably the first 
of our Negro writers as to the time he 
played his role, also the first with any ap- 
preciable output of lasting literary quality. 
Aside from race or color it is Time that 
will settle his place in our American litera- 

Harry M. Lydenberg 
Lyrics of Lowly Life, New York. 1896. 
Folks from Dixie, New York, 1898. 
The Uncalled, a Novel, New York, 1898. 
Lyrics of the Hearthside, New York, 1899. 
Poems of Cabin and Field . . . , New York, 

The Love of Landry, New York, [1900]. 
The Strength of Gideon, and Other Stories, 

New York, 1900. 
Uncle Eph's Christmas; A One Act Negro 

Musical Sketch, [n.p.], 1900. 
Candle-Lightin' Time, New York, 1901. 
The Fanatics, New York, 1901. 
The Sport of the Gods, New York, 1902. 
In Old Plantation Days, New York, 1903. 
Lyrics of Love and Laughter, New York, 

When Malindy Sings, New York, 1903. 
The Heart of Happy Hollow, New York, 

Li 1 1 Gal, New York, 1904. 
Howdy, Honey, Howdy, New York, 1905. 
Lyrics of Sunshine and Shadow, New York, 

Joggin' Erlong, New York, 1906. 
The Life and Works of Paul Laurence Dun- 
bar . . . , (Lida Keck Wiggins, ed.), 

Naperville, 111., [1907]. 
The Complete Poems . . . , New York, 

Speakin' o' Christmas, and Other Christmas 

and Special Poems, New York, 1914. 

DUNBAR, SEYMOUR (1866-April 18. 1947), 
was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. 
After attending high school in Terre Haute. 
Ind., he worked on the Cincinnati Post and 
newspapers in St. Louis and New York 
City. He soon retired from journalism, 
however, to devote himself to historical re- 
search. In 1921 he identified the Fort Sutter 
papers covering the Bear Flag revolt in 

1846; he edited them in 39 volumes. He 
spent more than twenty years on his monu- 
mental work, A History of Travel in Amer- 
ica ..., A vols., Indianapolis, [1915]. 

DUNCAN, JOHN ALLISON (Dec. 20, 1903- 
), lawyer, was born in Cleveland, Cuya- 
hoga County. He graduated from Princeton 
University in 1925 and Western Reserve 
Law School in 1929. He has since practiced 
in Cleveland. He wrote, illustrated, and 
published privately a collection of legal 
oddities: In the Name of the Law!, [Cleve- 
land, 1937]. 

DUNCAN, JOHN BROWN (Jan. 16, 1883- 
Dec. 26, 1945), born in Brigdon, Ontario, 
Canada, was reared in Detroit. He lived in 
Toledo, 1942—45, while working with the 
procurement division of the Air Force; dur- 
ing his Ohio residence he published a novel: 
Heather Heritage, New York, [1943]. 

1896- ), was born in Celina, Mercer 
County. He graduated from Hiram College 
in 1918. He served in Tibet as a missionary, 
1921-34, and was a member of the second 
Brooke Dolan expedition to eastern Tibet, 
1934-36. Now a resident of Alexandria, 
Va., he has served various governmental 
agencies as a consultant on the Far East 
and was stationed in Japan, 1947-51 and 
1955. He has written articles and books on 
Tibet, e.g., The Mountain of Silver Snow, 
Cincinnati, [1929]. 

DUNCAN, NORMAN (July 2, 1871-Oct. 18, 

1916), author of children's stories and 
travel books, was born in Brantford, On- 
tario, Canada, and spent his last years in 
Willoughby, Lake County. He is best known 
for Doctor Luke of the Labrador, [New 
York, 1904]. WWW 1 


(Oct. 29, 1869-Aug. 2. 1945), clergyman, 
was born in New Brunswick, Canada. He 
came to the United States in 1887, was or- 
dained to the Methodist ministry in 1900, 
and. after serving churches in various states, 
became pastor of Lakewood Methodist 
Church, Cleveland, in 1931. He was an 
Ohio resident for the remainder of his life. 
He published sermons and The Preacher 
and Politics . . . , New York, [1930]. WWW 

30, 1820-Oct. 6, 1850), was born in Jeffer- 
son County. On March 24, 1849, the Steu- 
benville Company, a hopeful band of sixty 



persons, set out for the Promised Land in 
California. At the Kansas River the large 
company broke up into groups of ten, and 
Dundass with a few companions went on 
independently from this point. There were 
no particularly dramatic adventures, and 
perhaps their desperate stages of a few 
miles a day — from one waterhole to the 
next — were commonplace experiences, but 
nowhere are such experiences recorded with 
greater fidelity than in Dundass' very full 
journal, which he kept from day to day. 
Arriving in California and finding little 
gold, he moved on to San Francisco, Nov. 
15, 1849, where he became Inspector of the 
Port, at which point his journal ends. He 
died in Buffalo, N. Y. 

Journal of Samuel Rutherford Dundass . . . , 
Steubenville, 1857. 

19, 1891-Feb. 22, 1959), clergyman, lec- 
turer, and art collector, was born in Chi- 
cago, 111. He attended Yale University, 
Oberlin College, and the University of Chi- 
cago. Except for an interval devoted to 
graduate study, he was pastor of Park Con- 
gregational Church, Toledo, 1928-52, and 
after his retirement he continued to live in 
that city. He published Christianity in a 
World of Science, New York, 1930. 

DUNLAP, E. K. (1853-1885), was born in 
Cedarville, Greene County, and attended 
school there. As a young man he went to 
California, where he lived until 1884, when 
he returned to Cedarville. He died the fol- 
lowing year and is buried in Cincinnati. 
His only known publication is an account of 
the vicissitudes of a legless veteran. It was 
published in pamphlet form by a G.A.R. 
Corporal John, [San Jose, Calif.?, 1879?]. 

), journalist and diplomat, was born in 
Toledo, Lucas County. His family moved to 
St. Paul, Minn., around 1890. He graduated 
from Princeton University in 1912. After 
several years in editorial work, he entered 
the diplomatic service and between 1915 
and 1942 served in American consulates in 
various cities. He now lives in Dell Rapids, 
S. Dak. He has published numerous articles, 
has also lectured on Norse civilization, the 
subject of his book Stories of the Vikings, 
Indianapolis, [1923]. WW 26 

1793-Dec. 1, 1881), lawyer, was born in 
Cincinnati, Hamilton County, but lived in 

Lebanon, Warren County, from 1797 until 
his death. Interested in local history, he 
wrote articles for the Western Star and 
other newspapers. 

History of the Miami Baptist Association 
. . . , Cincinnati, 1869. 

DUNLEVY, JOHN (1769-Sept. 16, 1826), 
clergyman, was born near Winchester, Va. 
His parents moved to Washington, Pa., in 
the same year. He went to Kentucky, where 
he taught school and was ordained to the 
Presbyterian ministry in 1797. In 1800 he 
became minister of the Presbyterian Church 
at Eagle Creek, Adams County. After he 
was converted to Shakerism by Richard 
McNemar (q.v.) in 1806, most of his con- 
gregation followed him into the Shaker 
faith. He died at West Union, Ind., while 
visiting the Shaker community there. 
A Manifesto, or a Declaration of the Doc- 
trines and Practice of the Church of 
Christ, Pleasant Hill, Ky., 1818. 

DUNN, WALDO HILARY (Oct. 4, 1882- 
), educator, was born in Rutland, 
Meigs County. He graduated from Yale 
University in 1906. From 1907 to 1934 he 
was a member of the English department, 
College of Wooster, and from 1934 to 
1952 he was on the faculty of Scripps Col- 
lege, Claremont, Calif. His residence now 
is Wooster. He has written a number of 
biographies and scholarly studies, and The 
Vanished Empire, a Tale of the Mound 
Builders, Cincinnati, 1904. WW 30 

DUNNE, GERALD W. E. (Nov. 9, 1886- 
Jan. 29, 1953), clergyman, was born in 
Lima, Allen County. After graduating from 
the University of Dayton in 1916 and 

Mount St. Mary's of the West Seminary, 
Cincinnati, in 1922, he was ordained to the 
Roman Catholic priesthood. He was a 
teacher at Central Catholic High School, 
Toledo, 1923-52. He published four books 
of verse, e.g., Songsmith, Toledo, 1935. 
CWW 9 

DUNTON, JAMES GERALD (Nov. 10. 1899- 
), was born in Circleville, Pickaway 
County. He was an ambulance driver in 
World War I and graduated from Harvard 
University in 1923. He taught school for 
a time, then did editorial work and free- 
lance writing. He served in the army, 1942- 
55, and since 1957 has been Director of 
Office of Public Services, Department of 
Defense. He has published numerous ar- 
ticles and books, including a novel, Wild 
Asses, Boston, [1925]. WW 28 


Dykstra, C. A. 

DURHAM, E. SAMUEL (Aug. 3, 1853-July 
30, 1944), was born near Newtown, Hamil- 
ton County. He was employed in Cincin- 
nati as a streetcar conductor and was active 
in the I.O.O.F. lodge. The volume below 
was prepared at the request of his family. 
He died in Cincinnati. 

The Pioneer Settlers of the Lower Little 
Miami Valley, [n.p., 1897?]. 

DUSTIN, CHARLES. Pseud. See John U. 

1818-Jan. 30, 1884), physician and lec- 
turer, was born in Durham, N. Y. He was 
educated in the school of Benjamin Romaine, 
where Washington Irving had also been a 
pupil. In 1839 he was granted an M.D. de- 
gree by the New York College of Physiol- 
ogy and Surgery. After practicing in New 
York and Pennsylvania, he accepted the 
chair of Principles and Practices of Medi- 
cine at Charity Hospital Medical School, 
Cleveland. He taught and practiced medi- 
cine in Cleveland for the remainder of his 
life. He was a prolific writer on medical 
subjects. He also wrote and lectured on 
abolition of slavery and on temperance. 
Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Its Pathology, Na- 
ture, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prognosis, 
Causes, Hygiene, and Medical Treatment, 
Philadelphia, 1875. 
Sparks from the Forge of a Rough Thinker, 

Cleveland, 1880. 
Two Voyages to Europe, Cleveland, 1884. 

20, 1861-May 9, 1951), educator, was 
born in Indianapolis, Ind. He graduated 
from DePauw University in 1888 and the 
School of Theology, Boston University, in 
1889. He studied in Germany, 1890-92, and 
after three years at DePauw he joined the 
faculty of Ohio Wesleyan University. After 
his retirement he continued to live in Del- 
aware until his death. He wrote Great 
Thinkers; The Quest of Life for its Mean- 
ing, New York, 1937. WW 21 

1880-Dec. 25, 1956), book designer, was 
born in Martinsville, Clinton County. After 
studying art in Chicago, he settled in Hing- 
ham, Mass., which remained his home for 
the rest of his life. Until the end of the 
1920s he worked mostly in advertising. He 
began designing books for Alfred A. Knopf, 
Inc., and was also associated with Mergen- 
thaler Linotype Company. A prolific pam- 
phleteer, he wrote many discussions of ad- 
vertising and typography, some under the 

pen name Hermann Piiterschein, e.g., Par- 
aphs, New York, 1928. WWW 3 

1876- ), was born in Marietta, Wash- 
ington County. She graduated from Mari- 
etta College in 1899. In 1915 she moved to 
California, where her residence now is El 
Cajon. She wrote stories for Harper's and 
published Davie and Elizabeth, Wonderful 
Adventures, New York, 1908. 

DYER, ADA MAY (Mrs. Amos) (April 18, 
1876- ), educator, was born in Winter- 
port, Maine. In 1915 she came to Colum- 
bus, where she taught in public schools and 
conducted a piano school. She is still living 
in Columbus. Besides composing music, she 
has published a volume of poems: Echoes 
from Forestside, Columbus, [1949]. 

DYER, JOHN LEWIS (March 16, 1812- 
June 16, 1901), clergyman, was born in 
Franklin County. After being converted to 
Methodism in 1830, he became a zealous 
religious worker. He began preaching in 
Wisconsin in 1849. One of the last of the 
great circuit riders of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, he became an integral part 
of the westward-moving frontier. The year 
1861 found him at Denver, determined to 
go to the mining camps in the mountains. 
Oro, Buckskin Joe, Fairplay, Cache Creek, 
California Gulch — no camp was too rough 
or too remote for Dyer. He earned his living 
carrying the mails across the mountains, 
often traveling on a pair of homemade skis 
which he called snowshoes. He labored for 
many years, extending his circuit into New 
Mexico. His Snow-shoe Itinerant is an un- 
pretentious, factual account of his experi- 
ences. After retiring in 1889, he lived with 
his daughter, Mrs. Abbie Streeter, in Den- 
ver until his death. He was affectionately 
known as "Father Dyer" in the rough min- 
ing camps of Colorado. 
The Snow-shoe Itinerant. An Autobiography 
. . . , Cincinnati, 1891. 

25, 1883-May 6, 1950), educator, was born 
in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County. After 
graduating from the University of Iowa in 
1903, he did graduate work at the Univer- 
sity of Chicago. He taught at Ohio State 
University, 1907-09, and the University of 
Kansas, 1909-18. He was executive secre- 
tary of the Cleveland Civic League, 1918— 
20, held similar posts in other cities, and 
was city manager of Cincinnati, 1930-37. 
He was president of the University of Wis- 
consin, 1937-45, and provost of the Uni- 

Dykstra, G. O. 


versity of California, 1945-50. Several of 
his addresses were published separately, and 
he also wrote a pamphlet, Lip Service or 
Civil Service?, [Chicago], 1936. WWW 3 

1906- ), educator, was born in Allegan, 
Mich., and was educated at the University 

of Michigan. He practiced law in Cleveland, 
1930-35, and was a member of the faculty 
at Ohio University, 1936-50. Since 1950 
he has been professor of business law at 
the University of Michigan. He has pub- 
lished textbooks and articles, e.g., A Be- 
lated Rebuttal on Russia, Allegan, Mich., 
[1928]. WW 28 


1895- ), clergyman, was born in Cam- 
bridge. Guernsey County, the son of a 
Presbyterian minister. After graduating 
from Ohio State University in 1916, he 
was ordained to the Methodist ministry; he 
has preached in British Columbia and 
California and is now a pastor in Pittsburgh. 
Pa. He has published an autobiographical 
volume: Laughing into Glory, New York, 

EAKES, MILDRED (Jan. 13, 1894- ), 
educator, was born in Oxford, Ga. She 
graduated from LaGrange College in 1913 
and Cincinnati Conservatory of Music in 
1926. She was a music supervisor, choir 
director, and organist in the South until 
1925, when she moved to Cincinnati, where 
she served on the Conservatory faculty. In 
1951 she retired, and she now lives in De- 
catur, Ga. She has published a collection 
of poems: Women Are That Way, New 
York, [1950]. 

EALY, LAWRENCE ORR (Sept. 17, 1915- 
), lawyer and educator, was born in 
Ocean City, N. J., but his family moved to 
Steubenville in 1920. He graduated from 
Temple University in 1934 and the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania (LL.B.. 1937; 
Ph.D., 1947). He practiced law in Steuben- 
ville, 1937-40, served in the navy during 
World War II, has taught at Temple and 
Rutgers Universities, and is now provost of 
Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Gen- 
eva, N. Y. He has written several articles 
on Latin America and a historical novel: 
Under the Puppet's Crown, Boston, 1939. 
DAS 3 

EARHART, WILL (April 1, 1871-April 23, 
1960), educator, was born in Franklin, 
Warren County. He taught music in Rich- 
mond, Ind., 1900-12. and was director of 
music in the schools of Pittsburgh. Pa., 
1912-40. He also lectured at the Univer- 

sity of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Institute of 
Technology. His death occurred in Port- 
land. Oreg. He wrote many articles on 
music education, textbooks, and several 
books on music, e.g.. Music to the Listening 
Ear, New York, [1932]. DAS 2 


1854-Feb. 14, 1931), lawyer, was born in 
Woodstock, Champaign County. He attend- 
ed school in Union County, studied lan- 
guages, and read law. After teaching school 
from 1872 to 1883, he began the practice 
of law, and lived in Ottawa. He published 
Eastman's Poems, Original and Translated, 
Toledo, 1902. OBB 

EASTMAN, FRED (July 11, 1886- ), 
clergyman, was born in Lima, Allen County. 
After graduating from University of 
Wooster in 1908 and Union Theological 
Seminary in 1911, he was ordained to the 
Presbyterian ministry. He served a church 
in Locust Valley, N. Y., 1912-17, and was 
in educational and editorial work for the 
American Red Cross and the Presbyterian 
Church, 1917-26. His writings include nu- 
merous magazine articles, plays, pageants 
(some published under the pen name Richard 
Morse), and Unfinished Business of the 
Presbyterian Church in America, [Phila- 
delphia, 1921]. WW 30 

EASTMAN, LINDA ANNE (July 17. 1867- 
), librarian, was born in Oberlin, Lor- 
ain County, and attended Oberlin College. 
She taught in the Cleveland schools, 1885- 
92, and joined the staff of the Cleveland 
Public Library in 1892. Except for a year 
at the Dayton Public Library (1895-96), 
she remained on the Cleveland library staff 
until her retirement in 1938. She was head 
librarian, 1918-38. Besides professional ar- 
ticles, she published Portrait of a Librarian. 
William Howard Brett, Chicago, 1940. WW 


Edgerton, James A. 

EATON, JEANNETTE (Nov. 30, 1886- ), 
was born in Columbus, Franklin County. 
She graduated from Vassar College and 
did graduate work at Ohio State University, 
earning an M.A. degree in 1911. She has 
worked on nation-wide educational sur- 
veys and has written for several major 
magazines. She has published a number of 
books, largely biographies for young 
readers, e.g., Young Lafayette, New York, 
1932. WW AW 1 

EATON, JOHN (Dec. 5, 1829-Feb. 9, 1906), 
clergyman and educator, born in Sutton, 
N. H., lived in Ohio about ten years. After 
graduating from Dartmouth in 1854, he 
was principal of Ward School, Cleveland, 
1854-56, and superintendent of schools in 
Toledo, 1856-59. In 1861 he became chap- 
lain of the 27th O.V.I., and the following 
year General Grant directed him to organ- 
ize freed Negroes. After the war he found- 
ed the Memphis Post in 1865, worked with 
the Freedmen's Bureau, and in 1870 be- 
came Commissioner of the Bureau of Edu- 
cation in Washington, D. C. He returned to 
Ohio to serve as president of Marietta Col- 
lege, 1886-91. His death occurred in Wash- 
ington, D. C. Several of his addresses were 
published as pamphlets, and he also wrote 
Grant, Lincoln and the Freedmen . . . , 
New York, 1907. WWW 1 

EBERLE, EDITH (Oct. 29, 1889- ), was 
born in West Unity, Williams County; she 
has also lived in Toledo and Cleveland. 
After graduating from Transylvania Col- 
lege in 1914, she taught school for three 
years, was a missionary in the Philippines, 
1917-23, and was an executive of the 
United Christian Missionary Society, 1923- 
57. In 1953 she married Rev. Cyrus M. 
Yocum, who died in 1958. She now lives in 
Indianapolis, Ind. She has published many 
pamphlets and magazine articles and at 
least three books, e.g., Palm Tree and 
Pine; Stories of the Philippine Islands, Cin- 
cinnati, [1927]. 

phine P. E. Gill. 

ECKSTEIN, GUSTAV (Oct. 26, 1890- ), 
physiologist, was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. He earned a D.D.S. de- 
gree at the University of Cincinnati in 1911, 
practiced dentistry for several years, and 
earned an M.D. in 1924. In 1922 he was 
made a member of the University of Cin- 
cinnati faculty. A close friend of Alexander 
Woollcott, he was the basis for one of the 
minor characters in The Man Who Came 

to Dinner. Eckstein has published studies 
of animals, a novel, and several plays. He 
has traveled often in Europe and Japan 
and wrote a biography of the Japanese bac- 
teriologist, Hideyo Noguchi: Noguchi, New 
York, 1931. WW 28 

ECLAIR, LYDEN. Pseud. See Henry L. Flash. 

EDDY, THOMAS MEARS (Sept. 7, 1823- 
Oct. 7, 1874), clergyman, was born in New- 
ton, Hamilton County. He was educated in 
the seminary, Greensborough, Ind., and 
from 1842 to 1853 was a Methodist circuit 
rider in Indiana. He held pastorates in Illi- 
nois, Maryland, and Washington, D. C, 
and edited the Northeastern Christian Ad- 
vocate in Chicago. He published a number 
of speeches and sermons. His death oc- 
curred in New York City. 
The Patriotism of Illinois . . . , 2 vols., 
Chicago, 1865-66. 

EDGAR, JOHN FARIS (Oct. 29, 1814- 
Aug. 15, 1905), was born in Dayton, Mont- 
gomery County. A building contractor by 
profession, he was also superintendent of 
Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad. His 
only book is a study of early Dayton. He 
died in Philadelphia. 

Pioneer Life in Dayton and Vicinity, 1796- 
1840, Dayton, 1896. 

1869-Dec. 3, 1938), journalist, was born in 
Plattsville, Shelby County. He graduated 
from National Normal University, Lebanon, 
in 1887 and also studied at Marietta Col- 
lege. He edited county and state papers for 
several years, was on the editorial staff of 
the Denver News, 1899-1903, and was af- 
filiated with the American Press Associa- 
tion for a number of years. He was the 
Prohibition Party nominee for vice-presi- 
dent of the United States in 1928. His death 
occurred in Alexandria, Va. 
Poems, Marietta, [1889]. 
A Better Day, Lincoln, Neb., [1891]. 
Populist Handbook for Nebraska, Denver, 

Songs of the People, Denver, 1895. 
Voices of the Morning, Chicago, 1898. 
Glimpses of the Real, Denver, 1903. 
In the Gardens of God, New York, 1904. 
History of New Thought, New York, 1917. 
My Personal Adventures in Truth, Holyoke, 

Mass., 1919. 
The Philosophy of Jesus, the Basis of a 

New Reformation, Boston, [1928]. 
Invading the Invisible, Washington, D. C, 


Edgerton, Jesse 


EDGERTON, JESSE (July 12, 1845-1929), 
Quaker poet, was born near Barnesville, 
Belmont County, the youngest of fifteen 
children. Like his brothers and sisters, he 
was active in the Society of Friends through- 
out his life. For a number of years he was 
a harness maker and manager of a handle 
factory in Columbiana. From 1901 to 1905 
he was superintendent of Friends Boarding 
School at Barnesville and from 1905 until 
his death he lived at Damascus. 
Why Am I a Friend?, Salem, 1893. 
A Brook by the Way, Damascus, 1913. 
Militarism, the Curse of the Nations, Da- 
mascus, 1915. 

EDGERTON, WALTER (Oct., 1806-1879), 
was born in Ohio, but in 1829 moved to 
Henry County, Ind., where he farmed and 
taught school. He was an active abolitionist 
and opposed changes in the Quaker faith 
and practice. He died in Minneapolis, Minn. 
A Brief Review of Certain Phrenological 
Works of O. S. Fowler, Newport, Ind., 
A History of the Separation in Indiana 
Yearly Meeting of Friends; Which Took 
Place in the Winter of 1842 and 1843 on 
the Anti-Slavery Question . . . , Cincin- 
nati 1856. 
Modern Quakerism Examined . . . , Indian- 
apolis, 1876. 

EDWARDS, DONALD EARL (Feb. 7, 1916- 
), was born in East Liberty, Logan 
County. He served in the army in World 
War II and afterward lived in Marion and 
Gambier. His last address in Ohioana files 
(1951) was Columbus. His poems have ap- 
peared in various periodicals and he has 
published a collection: Who Walks with 
Dreams, Dallas, Texas, [1947]. 

Metta V. F. Victor. 

EDWARDS, SAMUEL E. (March 22, 1810- 
1895), was born in Armstrong County, Pa. 
In 1812 his parents came to Washington 
County, and soon afterward they moved to 
Cincinnati. From boyhood he hunted bear 
and deer and was widely known for his 
hunting exploits, especially in the Maumee 
Valley. He lived in Napoleon, Henry 
County, where he reared eighteen children. 
Despite the protests of his first wife, who 
was a Lutheran, he became a Campbellite, 
and in 1855 he became a medium despite 
the objections of his minister; but he later 
gave up spiritualism. His autobiography is 
somewhat rare and is a valuable account of 
the Ohio frontier. 

The Ohio Hunter; Or, a Brief Sketch of 
Samuel E. Edwards, the Great Bear and 
Deer Hunter of the State of Ohio, Battle 
Creek, Mich., 1866. 

EELLS, HASTINGS (June 9, 1895- ), 
educator, was born in Absecon, N. J., and 
has been a member of the history depart- 
ment at Ohio Wesleyan University since 
1925. He has published textbooks, articles, 
and Martin Bucer, New Haven, 1931. WW 

EFFLER, LOUIS ROBERT (Dec. 9, 1888- 
), physician, was born in Toledo, 
Lucas County. He practiced medicine in 
Toledo and still lives in that city. A prolific 
writer, he has published many articles and 
books on medical and historical topics. He 
has also published a number of travel book- 
lets, e.g., My Flight to Hopi-Land . . . , 
[Toledo, 1941]. 

1832), was born in Middlefield, Mass. He 
came to Aurora, Portage County, in 1807 
and spent the rest of his life in that com- 
munity. A former Revolutionary War sol- 
dier, he is the probable author of the book 
below, although it may have been written 
by his son and namesake. The book was 
announced for three volumes, but only the 
first was published. 

An American Field of Mars . . . , Cleve- 
land, 1839. 

ELAM, CHARLES MILTON (July 10, 1882- 
Nov. 7, 1944), was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. He was employed by the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, 1919-32, 
and also operated the Open Sesame Press, 
which published his own poems and those 
of other writers. His published works in- 
clude a pamphlet, The Case for an A Priori 
Language, Cincinnati, [1932]. 

1895- ), Catholic priest and educator, 
was born in Brooklyn, N. Y., and has lived 
in Ohio at several times since graduating 
from the University of Dayton in 1915. He 
taught at the University of Dayton Prepara- 
tory School, 1918-21, was professor of 
philosophy, University of Dayton, 1926-28 
and 1947-48, was principal of Purcell High 
School, Cincinnati, 1928-31, and served as 
president of University of Dayton, 1938- 
44. Since 1948 he has been Provincial Su- 
perior, Society of Mary, Province of Cin- 
cinnati. He has written a number of reli- 
gious articles and books, e.g., Prayer in a 
Modern Age, Ozone Park, N. Y., 1941. 
WW 30 


Elliott, C. B. 

14, 1910- ), was born in Dayton, Mont- 
gomery County. After graduating from 
Steele High School, Dayton, she attended 
Ohio State University and the Dayton Art 
Institute and worked as a fashion designer 
in Dayton and Cincinnati. She was married 
to Harry C. Eldridge, Jr., of Franklin, now 
deceased; now Mrs. Burr Sutter, she lives 
in Phoenix, Ariz. She has been a columnist 
for the Franklin Chronicle, the Dayton 
Journal-Herald, and the Arizonian, pub- 
lished in Scottsdale, Ariz. She was on the 
staff of Arizona Highways Magazine, 195 1— 
56, and also produced a television show in 
Phoenix. She has written several plays, e.g., 
Holiday House! . . . , Franklin, [1938]. 

ELDRIDGE, ETHEL JONES (June 20, 1880- 
), was born in Tampa, Fla. After her 
marriage to Harry C. Eldridge (q.v.), pub- 
lisher of Franklin, she made her home in 
that community. Now an invalid she still 
lives in Franklin. She adapted Chinese sto- 
ries for American children and also wrote 
Children's Pantomimes for Special Days, 
Franklin, 1936. 

1872-Sept. 12, 1946), publisher, was born 
in Franklin, Warren County. He established 
the Eldridge Entertainment House, which 
published songs, plays, and operettas, most 
of them intended for performance by 
schools and churches. He died in Franklin. 
Some of the entertainments he published 
were written by himself, e.g., Billy Brown's 
Christmas Stunt . . . , Franklin, 1934. 

ELLARD, HARRY G. (Dec. 12, 1864-Jan. 
2, 1913), was born in Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton County. As a boy he suffered from in- 
cipient tuberculosis, and his parents sent 
him to live in the West for several years. 
He recovered his health and later played on 
one of the early Cincinnati R.ed Stockings 
baseball teams. His father, who operated a 
sporting goods store, was one of the organ- 
izers of the team. He wrote a valuable his- 
tory of the Cincinnati baseball club and 
also traveled widely in Europe, South Amer- 
ica, and Asia. Besides the titles below, he 
published considerable poetry in periodicals 
under the pen names the Poet Lariat and 
the Cowboy Poet. 
Ranch Tales of the Rockies, Canon City, 

Colo., 1899. 
Baseball in Cincinnati; A Histoiy, Cincin- 
nati, 1908. 

ELLARD, VIRGINIA G. (Jan. 22, 1839-Oct. 
14, 1912), was born in Cincinnati, Hamil- 
ton County. Her husband operated a sport- 

ing goods store; and her son, Harry G. El- 
lard (q.v.), was a baseball star and author 
of a history of the Cincinnati Reds. Mrs. 
Ellard was active in Cincinnati organiza- 
tions and wrote a number of poems, espe- 
cially sonnets, many of which were pub- 
lished in the Cincinnati Commercial Tri- 
bune and some of which were collected in 
the second book below. 
Grandma's Christmas Day, Cincinnati, 

The Unity of Life and Spirit, New York, 


ELLIOTT, BLANCHE (1890-Oct. 1, 1959), 
educator, was born in Mill Creek Town- 
ship, Coshocton County. A graduate of 
Kent State University, she taught in the 
Coshocton schools for thirty years before 
retiring in 1942. She published poems in 
various periodicals and also wrote a book 
for young readers: Timothy Titus, New 
York, 1937. 

ELLIOTT, CHARLES (May 16, 1792-Jan. 
8, 1869), Methodist clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Ireland. Soon after com- 
ing to America in 1814 he was preaching in 
Ohio. In 1822 he was missionary to the 
Wyandots. After a number of years in 
Pennsylvania, he returned to Ohio and was 
presiding elder of the Dayton District, 
1850-51. In his last years he was president 
of Iowa Wesleyan University. He wrote a 
vigorous anti-Catholic polemic: Delineation 
of Roman Catholicism . . . , 2 vols., New 
York, 1841, and several books opposing 
slavery, e.g., The Bible and Slavery . . . , 
Cincinnati, 1859. 

1861-Sept. 18, 1935), lawyer, was born in 
Morgan County. He attended district schools 
and spent a year in the preparatory depart- 
ment of Marietta College. When his family 
moved to Iowa, he attended the law school 
of the University of Iowa and graduated in 
1881. While practicing law in Minneapolis, 
he did graduate work at the University of 
Minnesota, wrote a dissertation on Ameri- 
can policy regarding fisheries that attracted 
wide attention, and in 1888 was awarded 
the first Ph.D. granted by the university. 
He filled various judicial posts and from 
1910 to 1912 was a member of the Philip- 
pine Commission. From 1913 until his 
death, he practiced law in Minneapolis. He 
published a number of legal works and two 
books on the Philippines: The Philippines 
to the End of the Military Regime . . . , 
Indianapolis, [1917] and The Philippines to 
the End of the Commission Government 
. . . , Indianapolis, [1917]. DAB 21 

Elliott, F. R. 


1817-Jan. 10, 1878), horticulturist, was 
born in Guilford, Conn., and in 1844 
moved to Cleveland, where he spent the re- 
mainder of his life. He wrote numerous 
articles for horticultural periodicals. 
Elliott's Fruit Book . . . , New York, 1854. 
Popular Deciduous Evergreen Trees and 

Shrubs . . . , New York, 1868. 
Hand-book for Fruit Growers . . . , Roches- 
ter, N. Y., 1876. 
Hand Book for Practical Landscape Gar- 
dening . . . , Rochester, N. Y., 1877. 

ELLIOTT, GEORGE (Dec. 14, 1851-Nov. 
2, 1930), clergyman, was born in Licking 
County. After attending Otterbein Univer- 
sity, he graduated from Cornell College, 
Iowa, in 1872. He served as pastor of 
Methodist churches in Maryland, Pennsyl- 
vania, and Michigan, and was for some 
time editor of the Methodist Review. He 
spent his last years in New York City. 
The Abiding Sabbath, [New York], 1884. 
The Beauty of Jesus, Cincinnati, 1904. 
Biblical Criticism and Preaching, New York, 

The Christmas Canticles, New York, 1922. 

1882-June 27, 1951), educator, was born 
in St. Clairsville, Belmont County. He grad- 
uated from Ohio Wesleyan University in 
1905, Drew Theological Seminary in 1911, 
and Yale University (Ph.D.) in 1940. He 
held various administrative positions in the 
Methodist Church, 1905-10, was in 
Y.M.C.A. work, 1910-25, and taught at 
Drew Seminary, 1921-23, and Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, 1922-50. He died in 
Rhinebeck, N. Y. He published numerous 
articles and books on religion and psychol- 
ogy, e.g., How Jesus Met Life Questions, 
New York, 1920. WWW 3 

ELLIOTT, HENRY WOOD (Nov. 13, 1846- 
May 25, 1930), artist and naturalist, was 
born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, the 
son of Franklin R. Elliott (q.v. ). He was 
educated in Cleveland schools. In 1862 he 
became private secretary to Joseph Henry, 
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution; 
he was associated with the Smithsonian as 
an artist and explorer for the rest of his 
life. He was a member of the Western 
Union Telegraph Expedition to Alaska, 
1865-67. He was sent to the Seal Islands 
of Alaska by the Treasury Department in 
1872-74 and in 1880; and he drew up the 
1905 treaty regarding fur seals. He wrote 
several monographs and magazine articles. 
Our Arctic Province, Alaska and the Seal 
Islands, New York, 1886. 

1837-Aug. 4, 1916), was born in Butler 
County. His family moved to Indianapolis, 
Ind., when he was thirteen, and he spent 
the remainder of his life in Indiana. He 
served in the Civil War and was one of 
the survivors of the sinking of the Sultana 
near Memphis, Tenn., in April of 1865, an 
experience he described in his only pub- 
lication: The Sultana Disaster, Indianapolis. 
1913. IATB 


(Jan. 6, 1842-April 18, 1928), missionary, 
born in Detroit, Mich., came to Cincinnati 
in the late 1850s to study law and was ad- 
mitted to the Ohio bar in 1861. He served 
throughout the Civil War with the 5th 
O.V.I. In 1867 he was converted to Catho- 
licism, and in 1872 he was ordained a priest. 
He wrote numerous devotional books and 
biographies, e.g., Life of Father Hecker, 
New York, 1891. 

ELLIS, ALSTON (Jan. 26, 1847-Nov. 14, 
1920), educator, was born in Kenton County, 
Ky., and was educated at Miami University. 
He taught in the public schools of Ken- 
tucky and was superintendent of schools in 
Hamilton, 1871-79, and Sandusky, 1880- 
87. After some years in Colorado, he was 
named president of Ohio University in 1901 
and served in that capacity until his death. 
Some Phases of Popular Education, [n.p., 

ELLIS, EDGAR WILLIAM (Jan. 29, 1864- 
? ), was born in West Sonora, Preble County. 
He held various offices in the Knights of 
Pythias and was a clerk in the Department 
of State, Columbus. He wrote Just a Bit 
of Verse, [Columbus, 1931]. 

1840-June 20, 1916), was born in Geneva, 
Ashtabula County, and spent part of his 
boyhood in the town of Ashtabula. He at- 
tended the State Normal School of New 
Jersey, began teaching when in his teens, 
and in his early thirties was superintendent 
of schools in Trenton, N. J. After 1876 he 
devoted himself to writing. He lived in 
Upper Montclair, N. J. He wrote for so 
many publishers under such a variety of 
pen names that a complete bibliography of 
his work is probably impossible, but he 
undoubtedly deserves to be designated as 
Ohio's most prolific writer. He turned out 
well over 200 adventure novels, biographies, 
and textbooks. Some idea of his productivity 
may be gained from a list of his publica- 
tions in a single year (1893): Across Texas, 
The Campers Out, The Great Berwyck Bank 



Robbery, Lena-Wingo, The Mohawk, The 
River Fugitives, The Third Man. Through 
Apache Land, and The Wilderness Fugi- 
tives. Among his many pen names were the 
following: Capt. J. F. C. Adams, Boynton 
Belknap, M.D.. J. G. Bethune, Capt. Latham 
C. Carleton, Frank Faulkner, Col. H. R. 
Gordon, Capt. R. M. Hawthorne, Lieut. 
Ned Hunter, Lieut. R. H. Jayne, Charles E. 
LaSalle. Seward D. Lisle. E. S. St. Max. 
Capt. H. R. Millbank. Billex Muller, Lieut. 
J. H. Randolph, Seelin Robins, and Emerson 

ELLIS, JOHN (Aug. 26. 1812-1894), clergy- 
man, was born in Albany County, N. Y. 
He became affiliated with the New York 
Christian Conference and began to preach 
around 1832. In 1852 he brought his family 
to Enon, Clark County. With Ohio as his 
headquarters he became a traveling minister 
and preached extensively in Texas and else- 
where in the West. His last years were 
spent in Yellow Springs. His autobiography 
was prepared for publication by his wife. 
Autobiography and Poems of Eld. John 
Ellis .... Springfield, 1895. 

ELLISTON, GEORGE (Mrs. Augustus T. 
Coleman) (1883-Oct. 6, 1946). poet, was 
born in Mt. Sterling. Ky.. but attended high 
school in Cincinnati and spent the remainder 
of her life in that city. While still in her 
teens she began working as a reporter; in 
1909 she became society editor of the Times- 
Star, and she remained on the staff until her 
death. She published poems in numerous 
periodicals: many of them were set to music 
and translated into several languages. She 
published a number of collections under 
her maiden name. e.g.. Everxdax Poems, 
Cincinnati, [1921]. WWW 2 

12, 1874), publisher, was born in Concord, 
Conn. In 1818 his father brought his family 
to Wheeling. Va.. and in 1827 came to 
Newark, where he lived until his death in 
1865. The first book to bear the imprint 
of B. F. Ells was The Dialogue Grammar; 
Or, Book Instructor to Teach the Science 
of English Grammar without a Teacher 
. . . , South Hanover. Ind. Printed at the 
Hanover College Press. 1834. The preface 
is dated New Lexington, Dec. 1, 1834. 
New Lexington lies about 25 miles south 
of Newark in an adjoining county. No resi- 
dential connection of any sort can be veri- 
fied with either New Lexington or Hanover. 
Ells was neither a student nor a teacher at 
Hanover; that he was a Presbyterian is his 
only possible connection with the college. 

One other book, History of the Romish 
Inquisition, Compiled from Various Authors, 
was issued with a Hanover imprint in 1835. 
Besides his individual imprints and a brief 
connection with his brother, G. W. Ells, 
the following firm names appear on the 
record: Ells & Strong, Ells & McGregor, 
Ells & Claflin, Ells. Claflin & Co., L. F. 
Clafiin & Co., More, Clarke & Co., Osborn 
& Ells, Ells, Marquis & Co., Burrows & 
Ells — in all, eleven combinations in 33 
years. At the end of such a record, it is 
difficult to decide whether to list him as 
an author, an editor, a compiler, an artist 
with scissors and paste, a publisher, or a 
promoter. He was all of these, yet died 
without reaping renown or financial security. 
Only the rarity of the little books that bear 
his name on their title pages arouses our 
interest. Though his early school readers 
were of the time of McGuffey, it is for 
publishing interest rather than for subject 
matter, style, or originality that these im- 
prints are collected. Appropriating and 
adapting the brain children of other men — 
snatches here and snatches there — was at 
most a venial sin in a day when copyright 
meant little; but we note that Ells was 
usually careful to avail himself of what 
small protection he could obtain by copy- 
righting materials in his own name. In 
1835 appeared a somewhat abbreviated 
edition of the Dialogue Grammar, published 
in Dayton by B. F. Ells and E. M. Strong. 
Thereafter until his death, Ells was a resi- 
dent of Dayton. From cemetery records, 
old bill heads, newspaper advertisements, 
reminiscences of a lady who lived in the 
former Ells home around 1870, and county 
court records, a fragmentary story can be 
pieced together showing the alternate prog- 
ress and mortgage-ridden difficulties of a 
man whose memory lacks even a gravestone 
reminder. A reported gift to Dayton still 
exists on Euclid Avenue between Third and 
Fifth Streets, a tiny green strip of park, 
but it does not bear his name and there 
is no absolute proof that it was his dona- 
tion. Of his publications, eighteen were 
schoolbooks — grammars, readers, spellers, 
arithmetic and algebra texts. Ninety were 
gav. tiny toy books of different sizes, 
priced from one to ten cents: only 34 of 
these toy books have been located. Ells' re- 
maining publications were of great variety 
— historical, biographical, practical, and de- 
votional: compilations of tales and songs 
and recipes. His final imprint was a Dayton 
city directory for 1856. The last years of 
Ells' life were darkened by financial worries. 
During the 1850s there was a wild flurry of 
dealing in real estate on the west side of 



Dayton, in which Ells and his various 
partners engaged in buying and subdividing 
land. Apparently, many titles were trans- 
ferred without clearing previous mortgages. 
A crazy, wildcat situation developed which 
was bound to collapse. Ells gave numerous 
mortgages between 1847 and 1858; in 1858 
the record stops, apparently because there 
was nothing more to mortgage. The final 
showdowns came in 1863 and 1864, when 
there were numerous court sales of his 
land and printing equipment. Ells died sud- 
denly while attending church with one of 
his adopted daughters. The neighbors said 
he was "very strict, a very religious man, 
somewhat irascible." The newspaper obituary 
stated, "He was a very peculiar man in 
many respects. At one time he had accumu- 
lated considerable property, but he was 
unfortunate, and during the last years of 
his life was in reduced circumstances. He 
was regarded as a man of exemplary moral 
character." The record of the final sale of 
his personal property in April, 1874, in 
Montgomery County probate court is a sad 
one. The total amount received from the 
sale of pamphlets, unbound books, and 
other effects was $130.14; the expenses of 
probate were $125.42, leaving proceeds of 
$4.72 to turn over to the heirs. 

William Hamilton 

ELSER, DONALD (Jan. 15, 1915- ), edu- 
cator, was born in North Lima, Mahoning 
County. A graduate of Youngstown Uni- 
versity, he has done graduate work at sev- 
eral universities. Before joining the Air 
Corps in World War II, he taught in the 
schools of Mahoning and Trumbull Coun- 
ties. He has been a member of the English 
Department, Youngstown University, since 
1948. He has written a number of plays, 
e.g., Special Guest, Evanston, 111., 1948. 

Jan. 29, 1954), educator, was born in 
Muskingum County. After attending Ohio 
State University, he graduated from Thiel 
College in 1886 and Lutheran Theological 
Seminary, Philadelphia, in 1889. He served 
several Lutheran churches in Pennsylvania, 
taught at Ohio University and New York 
University, and was president of Thiel Col- 
lege, 1916-21. He died in Plainfield, N. J. 
Besides the books below, he wrote several 
widely used history textbooks, notably Mod- 
ern Times and the Living Past (1921), 
which sold over a million copies. 
The Story of a Great General, Ulysses S. 

Grant, Philadelphia, [1899]. 
The Story of a Noble Woman, Frances E. 

Willard, Philadelphia, [1899]. 

The Story of a Wonderful Hunter, Daniel 
Boone, Philadelphia, [1899]. 

The Story of "Old Hickory," Andrew Jack- 
son, Philadelphia, [1899]. 

Through the Years with Our Constitution, 
Boston, [1937]. 

ELWELL, JOHN JOHNSON (June 22, 1820- 
March 13, 1900), physician and lawyer, 
was born near Warren, Trumbull County. 
He attended Western Reserve University 
and graduated from Cleveland Medical Col- 
lege in 1846. He also studied law and was 
admitted to the Ohio bar in 1854. His 
pioneer work on malpractice established 
him as an authority on medical jurisprudence. 
He served in the Civil War as a quarter- 
master, rising to the brevet rank of briga- 
dier general. After the war he practiced 
law in Cleveland. He wrote numerous 

A Medico-Legal Treatise on Malpractice 
and Medical Evidence . . . , New York, 

ELY, CHARLES ARTHUR (May 2, 1829- 
Sept. 30, 1864), was born in Elyria, Lorain 
County. He was educated by private tutors. 
A chronic disease of his eyes prevented him 
from attending college. Upon the death of 
his father, Heman Ely, the founder of 
Elyria, he traveled extensively in Europe 
and became interested in breeding Devon 
cattle. He imported the first herd of this 
breed into Lorain County in 1855. On the 
advice of his physician he set out on a 
world tour in 1858. Arranging to send a 
herd of his prize Devons overland to San 
Francisco, he set out for the same point 
via the Cape of Good Hope and China. He 
had so timed the departure of his herd that 
he and his cattle arrived in San Francisco 
within a few weeks of each other. In Cali- 
fornia, where he arrived in Aug., 1858, he 
wrote a series of articles for the Alta Cali- 
fornia and delivered a series of scientific 
lectures to the students of California Col- 
lege at Oakland. He returned to Elyria in 
Oct. 3, 1860. A chronic illness rendered him 
an invalid for the rest of his days. His 
death occurred in Columbus. 
Science the True Basis of Education . . . , 
San Francisco, 1860. 

EMENY, BROOKS (July 29, 1901- ), edu- 
cator, was born in Salem, Columbiana 
County. He graduated from Princeton Uni- 
versity in 1924, studied international law 
in European universities as a Carnegie fel- 
low, 1924-27, was on the Yale faculty, 
1927-31, and taught at Western Reserve 
University, 1935-47. He has published nu- 



merous magazine articles and several books 
on international politics, e.g., Mainsprings 
of World Politics . . . , New York, 1943. 
WW 30 

EMERSON, JOHN (May 29, 1874-March 
8, 1956), actor and playwright, was born 
in Sandusky, Erie County. He studied at 
Oberlin College, Western Reserve Univer- 
sity, and University of Chicago. He was 
general stage director for Charles Frohman, 
1910-14, and afterward wrote and produced 
motion pictures for Paramount, Metro- 
Goldwyn-Mayer, and other companies. On 
June 15, 1919, he married Anita Loos, 
author of Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. They 
collaborated on two books about motion 
pictures and a number of movies and plays, 
e.g., The Whole Town's Talking . . . , New 
York, 1925. WWW 3 

EMERSON, MRS. M. FARLEY (?-?), truc- 
ulent advocate of women's rights, was born 
in Ohio, judging from the very little that is 
known about her career. She lectured at 
Eaton on "the rights of man and the duties 
of woman" on April 3, 1855. In the broad- 
side advertising that lecture, a number of 
testimonials from Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
and Iowa newspapers appear, indicating that 
she had been lecturing in the area for a 
number of years. In her book, which con- 
tains not a little libelous matter directed 
largely against Kentucky, Ohio, western 
Virginia, and western Pennsylvania hotel 
and tavern owners, she mentions her Ohio 
relatives. Because of a long list of Ohio 
correspondents found in her possession by 
Southern authorities, she was suspected of 
being an antislavery agitator. Her book ap- 
peared under the pen name "An American 

Woman in America: Her Character and 
Position as Indicated by Newspaper Edi- 
torials, and Sustained by American Social 
Life, Cincinnati, 1857. 

1860-March 13, 1927), educator, was born 
in Iowa. He graduated from Grinnell Col- 
lege in 1882, taught school for several years, 
and began graduate study at Cornell Uni- 
versity, where he received his Ph.D. in 1891. 
He was professor of English at Western 
Reserve University, 1896-1927. He died in 
Ocala, Fla., where he was recuperating 
from a physical breakdown. Highly respected 
in the world of philological and literary 
scholarship, he published textbooks, editions 
of Gibbon and Chaucer, and many valuable 
articles and monographs. 
The History of the English Language, New 
York, 1894. 

A Brief History of the English Language, 
New York, 1896. 

An Outline History of the English Language, 
New York, 1906. 

Chaucer: Essays and Studies; A Selection 
from the Writings of Oliver Farrar Emer- 
son, Cleveland, 1929. 

1925- ), born in Watertown, N. Y., came 
to Columbus in 1942. He graduated from 
Ohio State University in 1948, was a direc- 
tor of Golden Goose Press, and presented 
a poetry program over WOSU, the Ohio 
State University radio station. He now lives 
in Sausalito, Calif. He has published fiction 
and poetry in national magazines and sev- 
eral collections of poems, e.g., The Central 
Thread, Philadelphia, [1947]. 

Jan., 1891), was born in Marietta, Wash- 
ington County. He graduated from Ohio 
University in 1833 and taught at Marietta 
College and in Kentucky and Illinois for a 
time. Returning to Ohio in 1839, he studied 
law, was admitted to the bar in 1841, and 
opened an office in Cincinnati. He began 
contributing verse to the Herald of Truth 
in 1847. 
Occasional Thoughts in Verse, Springfield, 

Rhymes of Culture, Movement and Repose, 

Cincinnati, 1874. 
History and Incidents of Indian Corn and 

Its Culture . . . , Cincinnati, 1878. 

EMMITT, JAMES (Nov. 6, 1806-1895), was 
born in Armstrong County, Pa. After com- 
ing to southern Ohio as a boy, he worked 
as a farmhand, blacksmith, and teamster. 
In 1828 he began operating a grocery store 
in Waverly, and three years later he was 
made postmaster. He prospered and ex- 
tended his interests gradually so that in 
his later years he owned a bank, a store, 
a sawmill and grist mill, a distillery, and 
a furniture factory in Waverly, and also 
owned considerable property in Chillicothe 
and in Iowa and Missouri. He served in the 
state senate, 1867-70. During a tour of 
Europe, 1865-66, he purchased many statues 
and paintings for his mansion in Waverly. 
His memoirs were prepared with the as- 
sistance of M. J. Carrigan of Chillicothe. 
Life and Reminiscences of Hon. James 
Emmitt as Revised by Himself, Chillicothe, 

ENGLE, TRALL (Aug. 15, 1881- ), 
farmer, was born near Ohio City, Van Wert 
County. He attended Van Wert schools, and 



after teaching for nine years he operated 
a farm near Van Wert. He now lives in 
Lima. He has published poems, which are 
described as "interpretations of revelations," 
e.g., Self Beautiful, Van Wert, 1930. 

April 27, 1934), German-born Franciscan 
missionary to the Indians and author of 
several historical studies of the Catholic 
Church in the Southwest, attended school 
and seminary in Cincinnati, while his parents 
lived in Covington, Ky. After his ordina- 
tion he was in Cleveland for two brief peri- 
ods (1879; 1890-92). His books include 
The Franciscans in California, Harbor 
Springs, Mich., 1897. 

ENGLEMAN, JAMES OZRO (Sept. 13, 1873- 
Sept. 15, 1943), educator, was born in 
Jeffersonville, Ind. After teaching in sev- 
eral Indiana schools, he attended Indiana 
University. He was a school superintendent 
in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Indiana, did 
graduate work at Ohio State University, 
1927-28, and was president of Kent State 
University, 1928-38. He died while on a 
fishing trip at Middle Bass Island, Lake 
Erie. He wrote several textbooks and 
Moral Education in School and Home, Chi- 
cago, 1918. WWW 2 

1833-Aug. 1, 1916), was born in New 
Jersey. He served as a Union soldier during 
the Civil War and subsequently filled a 
pastorate in Xenia. He also worked as a 
carpenter and contractor. He moved to 
Clermont County, where he lived near 
Felicity. His volume about Fort Ancient is 
in verse. His Origin and End of Civil Gov- 
ernment was inspired by an encounter be- 
tween Henry Eckerle, a white man, and 
Lewis Clay, a Negro policeman. 
Poems, Xenia, 1888. 

Fort Ancient in Warren County, Ohio, Day- 
ton, 1889. 
The Origin and End of Civil Government, 
[Xenia, 1892]. 

ENN, C. C. Pseud. See C. C. Neibling. 

1, 1898- ), clergyman, born in Marcus, 
Iowa, was a Presbyterian missionary in 
China and Siam, 1924-29. In 1930 he be- 
came minister of First Presbyterian Church, 
Huron. He now lives in Whittier, Calif. He 
presents dramatic impersonations of Biblical 
characters in costume and has published / 
Am: A Series of Bible Autobiographies, 
Huron, 1939. 

EPP, PETER (1894-Jan. 10, 1959), edu- 
cator, was born in Petershagen, Russia, the 
son of Dutch colonists. Educated in Rus- 
sia, Germany, and Switzerland, he taught 
in Russia for twelve years before coming 
to the United States in 1924. He taught 
German and Russian at Bluffton College, 
1924-34, and Ohio State University, 1934- 
51. His writings include Eine Mutter, Bluff- 
ton, 1932. 

EPPSE, MERL R. (Jan. 17, 1893- ), edu- 
cator, was born near Greenville, Darke 
County, and lived in Ohio until he was 
twenty years old. He returned to Ohio to 
teach in 1919 and was a clerk in the Co- 
lumbus Post Office, 1920-24. He graduated 
from Drake University in 1927 and in 1928 
joined the faculty of Tennessee State Uni- 
versity, where he is now chairman of the 
department of history and geography. He 
has written several books on race relations 
and Negro history, e.g., The Negro, Too, 
in American History, Chicago, 1938. DAS 3 


ERDMANN, MYRTLE HILL (July 27, 1872- 
July 14, 1949), was born in Chillicothe, 
Ross County. She was married to Frank R. 
Erdmann of that community. Active in Chil- 
licothe musical activities, she published 
verse in various periodicals. She died in 
Boston, but is buried in Chillicothe. She 
published a collection: Mother's Book of 
Verse, Columbus, [1941]. 

ERMINE, WILL. Pseud. See Harry S. Drago. 

ERRETT, ISAAC (Jan. 2, 1820-Dec. 19, 
1888), clergyman, was born in New York 
City, the son of an Irish immigrant, Henry 
Errett, a convert to the Disciples of Christ, 
who died in 1825. In 1832 Isaac's mother, 
who had remarried, took her family to Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. Young Isaac worked on a farm, 
in a bookshop, and in a printing office; he 
studied at night to gain an education. In 
1840 he began preaching in Pittsburgh. 
After three years there, he served Ohio 
churches at New Lisbon, North Bloomfield, 
and Warren. In 1849 he was one of the 
founders of Western Reserve Eclectic In- 
stitute, which became Hiram College eight- 
een years later. He opposed slavery at a 
time when many members of his faith were 
opposed to war, and when the Civil War 
began he sought a colonel's commission. 
Meanwhile, in 1856 he had moved to Michi- 
gan with a group of Disciples who were in 
the lumber business. He spent eight years 
there, organizing new churches and preach- 


Evans, D. L. 

ing widely. After two years in Chicago he 
came to Cleveland, where he edited the 
newly established Christian Standard. In 
1868 he was named the first president of 
Alliance College, but he resigned the fol- 
lowing year because college administration 
interfered with his editorial duties. In 1869 
the Standard offices were moved to Cincin- 
nati. As an editor Errett was a spokesman 
for the liberal wing of the Disciples church. 
He favored interdenominational co-opera- 
tion and active missionary efforts. He de- 
voted considerable time to missionary or- 
ganizations. On controversial questions within 
the church, he was usually aligned with 
James A. Garfield (q.v.). He was chosen 
to preach Garfield's funeral sermon in Cleve- 
land in Sept., 1881. Besides the titles below, 
he published sermons and addresses and 
also edited the writings of George Edward 

Modern Spiritualism Compared with Chris- 
tianity, a Debate between Joel Tiffany, 
Esq., of Painesville and Rev. Isaac Er- 
rett of Warren, Warren, 1855. 
A Brief View of Missions: Ancient and 

Modern, 1857. 
First Principles . . . , Cincinnati, [1868?]. 
Walks about Jerusalem: A Search after the 
Landmarks of Primitive Christianity, Cin- 
cinnati, 1871. 
Talks to Bereans, Cincinnati, 1872. 
Letters to a Young Christian, Cincinnati, 

Evenings with the Bible, Old Testament 

Studies, 3 vols., Cincinnati, 1884-89. 
Why Am I a Christian?, Cincinnati, 1889. 
Our Position: A Brief Statement of the Dis- 
tinctive Features of the Plea for Reforma- 
tion Urged by the People Known as Dis- 
ciples of Christ, Cincinnati, [188?]. 
Linsey-Woolsey and Other Addresses, Cin- 
cinnati, 1893. 
The Querists' Drawer, a Discussion of Dif- 
ficult Subjects and Passages of the Scrip- 
tures . . . , (Z. T. Sweeney, ed.), Cincin- 
nati, [1910]. 

1906- ), was born in Steubenville, Jeffer- 
son County. She attended Ohio State Uni- 
versity and has held a variety of positions 
— as an advertising writer, a hotel manager, 
and a medical clerk in Baltimore. In 1957 
she collaborated with Patrick Dennis in 
writing The Pink Hotel; she has also written 
at least two other books, e.g., Miss Pettin- 
ger's Niece, New York, 1949. 

ESPY, JAMES POLLARD (May 9, 1785- 
Jan. 24, 1860), meteorologist, born in Penn- 
sylvania, studied law and taught school in 

Xenia from 1808 to 1812. He published 
numerous reports and articles and a book: 
Philosophy of Storms, Boston, 1841. As a 
government meteorologist, he lived in 
Washington, D. C, but his death occurred 
in Cincinnati. 

ESTEVEN, JOHN. Pseud. See Samuel Shella- 

ETAN, RAYMOND. Pseud. See Nathan R. 

1887-Dec. 17, 1945), educator, born in 
Columbia, Mo., served on the sociology fac- 
ulty of the University of Cincinnati, 1921— 
45. He died in Florida while on sick leave 
from the university. He published profes- 
sional articles and textbooks, but his best- 
known publication contained the life story 
of a convict, Charles L. Clark, and an anal- 
ysis by Professor Eubank: Lockstep and 
Corridor . . . , Cincinnati, [1927]. 

EULALIE. Pseud. See Mary Eulalie F. Shan- 

EUSTIS, HELEN (Dec. 31, 1916- ), was 
born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County. She 
attended Hillsdale School and Smith Col- 
lege, where she graduated in 1938. She now 
lives in New York City. She has published 
numerous articles and short stories in na- 
tional magazines. Her first novel was a 
psychological thriller with its setting on the 
campus of a women's college: The Hori- 
zontal Man, New York, [1946]. 

EVANGELINE. See Evangeline Ink. 

EVANS, BERGEN (Sept. 19, 1904- ), edu- 
cator, was born in Franklin, Warren 
County. He graduated from Miami Univer- 
sity in 1924, was a Rhodes scholar from 
1928 to 1931, and earned his doctorate 
from Harvard University in 1932. He has 
been on the English faculty of Northwest- 
ern University since 1932. He has pub- 
lished many articles in national magazines 
and is widely known as a moderator of 
various television programs. Among his 
books is The Natural History of Nonsense, 
New York, 1946. WW 30 

EVANS, DANIEL LUTHER (April 2, 1895- 
), educator, was born in Columbus, 
Franklin County. He graduated from Ohio 
State University (A.B., 1917; Ph.D., 1923), 
served in the Medical Department in 
World War I, and has been a member of 
the Ohio State philosophy faculty since 

Evans, F. N. 


1922. His writings include numerous pro- 
fessional articles and New Realism and Old 
Reality . . . , Princeton, N. J., 1928. WW 28 

1881-Nov. 30, 1946), landscape architect, 
was born in Youngstown, Mahoning 
County. He studied at Harvard University 
and in Germany. He practiced in Cleveland, 
1910-14, was on the faculty of University 
of Illinois, 1914—20, and was city land- 
scape architect of Sacramento, Calif., from 
1920 until his death. He lectured on garden 
design and wrote Town Improvement . . . , 
New York, 1919. WWW 2 

EVANS, JOHN (March 9, 1814-July 3, 
1897), was born in Waynesville, Warren 
County. After graduating from Lynn Med- 
ical College, Cincinnati, he began the prac- 
tice of medicine. A year later he moved to 
Indiana, where he led the movement to es- 
tablish a state hospital for the insane and 
in 1845 became its first superintendent. 
Three years later he resigned to accept a 
professorship of obstetrics at Rush Medical 
College, Chicago. Although he gained prom- 
inence at Rush and served as one of the 
editors of the Northwestern Medical and 
Surgical Journal, his rapidly expanding busi- 
ness interests led him to give up his pro- 
fession in 1859. He was one of the found- 
ers of Northwestern University and resided 
in the suburb later named for him, Evans- 
ton. On March 26, 1862, President Lincoln 
appointed him territorial governor of Colo- 
rado. His summary treatment of the Chey- 
enne Indians achieved its purpose but 
brought him under considerable criticism, 
which resulted in his writing the Reply, one 
of the rarest of all Western books, and his 
only known publication aside from medi- 
cal articles and official documents. He re- 
signed the governorship in 1865. As a 
philanthropist, real-estate operator, and rail- 
road builder, he became the outstanding fig- 
ure in the young state. When he died, Colo- 
rado honored him with a state funeral. 
Reply of Governor Evans, of the Territory 
of Colorado, to That Part Referring to 
Him, of the Report of "The Committee 
on the Conduct of the War," Headed 
"Massacre of Cheyenne Indians," Den- 
ver, 1865. 

EVANS, LAWRENCE ROYD (Feb. 3, 1870- 
Oct. 30, 1928), lawyer, was born in Rad- 
nor, Delaware County, but spent little of 
his life in Ohio. When he was a year old, 
his parents moved to Noblesville, Ind., 
where he grew up. After serving on the 
faculty of Tufts College, 1900-12, he stud- 

ied law at Harvard University. He pub- 
lished handbooks on American government 
and important legal case books. He was 
state librarian of Massachusetts, 1917-19, 
and counselor of the Brazilian Embassy in 
Washington, D. C, 1919-28. Besides his 
scholarly and legal works, he published a 
biography: Samuel W. McCall, Governor of 
Massachusetts, Boston, 1916. DAB 6 

EVANS, LLWELLYN IOAN (June 27, 1833- 
July 25, 1892), clergyman and educator, 
was born in Wales. He came to America in 
1850 and for a short time lived in Newark, 
where his father was a minister. He went 
to Wisconsin, where he graduated from 
Racine College in 1856. The next year he 
came to Cincinnati to attend Lane Semi- 
nary. He graduated in 1860, was pastor of 
Lane Seminary Church, 1860-63, and 
served on the seminary faculty, 1863-92. 
A few months before his death he resigned 
to join the faculty of Bala Theological 
Seminary, Wales. Besides the title below, 
he published sermons and Biblical commen- 

Poems, Addresses and Essays, New York, 

EVANS, NELSON WILEY (June 4, 1842- 
May 27, 1913), lawyer, was born in Sar- 
dinia, Brown County. He attended Miami 
University from Jan., 1861, to June, 1863, 
and after a brief tour of duty with the 
129th O.V.I., he returned to Miami and 
graduated in 1864, after which he became 
assistant adjutant of the 173rd O.V.I. After 
being discharged as a captain in 1865, he 
entered the Cincinnati Law School. Ad- 
mitted to the Ohio bar in April, 1866, he 
practiced in Portsmouth. 
A History of Adams County . . . , (with 
Emmons B. Stivers), West Union, 1900. 
A History of Scioto County . . . , Ports- 
mouth," 1903. 
A History of Taxation in Ohio . . . , Cin- 
cinnati, 1906. 
A Model Constitution for the State of Ohio, 

[Portsmouth?], 1912. 
The Federal Constitution of 1797 Rewritten 
According to the Ideas of Alexander 
Hamilton . . . , Columbus, [1913]. 

R.) (March 2, 1909- ), was born in Day- 
ton, Montgomery County, and still lives in 
that city. She graduated from Miami Jacobs 
Business College and has attended the Uni- 
versity of Dayton and Miami University. 
Her poems have appeared in many national 
magazines and in anthologies, and she has 
published a collection of verse which won 



the American Weave Award for 1946: When 
March Sets Free the River . . . , Cleve- 
land, 1946. 

EVANS, WILL (June 27, 1910- ), was born 
in Parkersburg, W. Va., and has lived most 
of his life in Jackson County. He attended 
Rio Grande College and now operates a 
farm near Oak Hill. His poems have ap- 
peared in many magazines and newspapers, 
and he has published one collection: The 
Bitter Bread, New York, [1947]. 

EVANS, WILLIAM R. (Jan. 24, 1845-Sept. 
23, 1913), clergyman, was born in Gallia 
County. He was admitted to the Presby- 
terian ministry in 1876. For the rest of his 
life he operated a farm near Peniel and 
preached on the circuit of Welsh churches 
in Gallia and Jackson Counties. He wrote 
many articles and letters, both in English 
and in Welsh, for magazines and news- 

Welshmen as Civil, Political and Moral 
Factors in the Formation and Develop- 
ment of the United States Republic, Utica, 
N. Y., 1894. 
Autobiography of Rev. W. R. Evans . . . , 
Columbus, 1913. 

1895- ), was born in Knoxville, Tenn. 
She came to Ohio with her parents at the 
age of sixteen. She studied at Columbus 
Academy of Fine Arts. Her husband, Wil- 
liam S. Evatt, is a lawyer in Columbus; 
their residence is Worthington. She has 
written a number of mysteries for children, 
most of them laid in the French-Canadian 
Indian country of Canada. She has illus- 
trated all of her books. She published many 
poems and stories for children before pub- 
lishing her first book: The Red Canoe, In- 
dianapolis, [1940]. WW AW 1 

EVENS, JOSEPH (March 8, 1765-Feb. 7, 
1849), was born in New Jersey. He was a 
pioneer settler in Clearcreek Township, 
Warren County. He spent much of his life 
fighting for constitutional reform. His first 
pamphlet was printed by Looker, Palmer & 
Reynolds, in Cincinnati in 1816; no copy 
is known to exist. His last effort was pub- 
lished when he was 83 and appears to have 
received considerable editorial notice. 
Propositions Respecting Government, Cin- 
cinnati, 1816. 
New Mode of Petitioning, Instructing Our 
Representatives, or Voting for Proposi- 
tions to Become Law, Warren County, 
A New Mode of Government, Wherein the 

People Would Govern Themselves by 
Laws, Originating with Individuals in the 
Form of Bills . . . , [Warren County], 

EVERETT, HOMER (Jan. 30, 1813-June 
22, 1888), was born near Milan, Erie 
County. After attending school at Lower 
Sandusky, he read law and was admitted to 
the Ohio bar in 1841. He practiced for sev- 
eral years and operated a farm near Fre- 
mont, Sandusky County. He was postmaster 
at Lower Sandusky, was mayor of Fre- 
mont, was county sheriff and county au- 
ditor, and served as state senator, 1867-71. 
He died at Osborne, Kan., while visiting a 

The History of Sandusky County . . . , 
Fremont, 1878. 

EVERS, CHARLES W. (July 22, 1837-July 
29, 1909), journalist, was born in Milton- 
ville, Wood County. After working as a 
carpenter and teaching school, he entered 
Oberlin College, but gave up his studies to 
enlist in the 2nd Kentucky Infantry. He was 
captured, imprisoned, and after his exchange 
was discharged in 1864. On his return to 
Wood County he was elected sheriff. In 
1870 he founded the News at Bowling 
Green, a paper later merged with the Sen- 
tinel. He published Adventures of Alf Wil- 
son by John A. Wilson (q.v.) in his news- 
paper and wrote the introduction to the 
printed volume. He died in Toledo. A vol- 
ume of local history was completed after 
his death by F. J. Oblinger: Many Inci- 
dents and Reminiscences of the Early His- 
tory of Wood County . . . , Bowling Green, 

22, 1887- ), was born in Vermilion, 
Erie County. She attended Oberlin College, 
Cleveland School of Art, and Western Re- 
serve University. Her husband, Howard 
Farrar Everson, was born Feb. 10, 1888, in 
Brighton, Lorain County. They now live 
near Wellington. They have collaborated on 
several books for young readers, e.g., The 
Secret Cave, New York, [1930]. 

ence M. Everson. 

1895-Sept. 13, 1953), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton 
County. He graduated from Wabash Col- 
lege in 1919 and Yale Divinity School in 
1922. He was pastor of Walnut Hills 
Church, Cincinnati, 1924-37 and 1946-53, 



president of Marietta College, 1937-42, and 
executive secretary of Cincinnati Council of 
Churches, 1942-46. His writings include 
The Evolution of an Old New England 
Church . . . , East Haven, Conn., 1924. 
WWW 3 

EVERTS, ORPHEUS (Dec. 18, 1826-June 
19, 1903), physician, was born in Salem, 
Ind. He studied medicine under his father 
and received his degree from the Medical 
College of Indiana in 1846. He began to 
practice in St. Charles, 111., devoting his 
spare time to editing a country newspaper. 
For a time he served as registrar of the 
U. S. Land Office at Hudson, Wis. During 
the Civil War he was surgeon of the 20th 
Regiment of Indiana Volunteers. Afterward 
he returned to his practice, giving special 
attention to psychiatry and neuropathology. 
He was appointed superintendent of the In- 
diana Hospital for the Insane in 1868. In 
1880 he assumed the management of the 
Cincinnati Sanitarium and remained its head 
until his death. He was an alienist of great 
ability and had a vast reputation as an ex- 
pert in medico-legal cases. He was called 
in the trial of Charles J. Guiteau, the mur- 
derer of President Garfield. His death oc- 
curred in Cincinnati. 
O-Na-We-Quah, and Other Poems, LaPorte, 

Ind., 1856. 
The Spectral Bride and Other Poems, La- 
Porte, Ind., 1857. 
Giles & Co.; Or, Views and Interviews Con- 
cerning Civilization, Indianapolis, 1878. 
Constancy, a Midsummer Night's Idyl, In- 
dianapolis, 1881. 
What Shall We Do for the Drunkard? 

. . . , Cincinnati, 1883. 
Facts and Fancies (Light and Heavy). A 

Metrical Melange, Cincinnati, 1896. 
The Cliffords; Or, "Almost Persuaded," 

Cincinnati, 1898. 
Lost Poet, Cincinnati, 1901. 
Insanity and the Insane, [Cincinnati?, 1902]. 

EWART, FRANK CARMAN (Sept. 4, 1871- 
Sept. 28, 1942), educator, was born in 
Marietta, Washington County. He gradu- 
ated from Denison University in 1892 and 
did graduate work at the University of Chi- 
cago and in Europe and Cuba. He taught 
at Granville Academy, 1893-95, Denison 
University, 1896-97, Kalamazoo College, 
1897-99, and Colgate University, 1899- 
1939. He annotated Rostand's L'Aiglon. 
His death occurred in Hamilton, N. Y. He 
wrote Cuba y las Costumbres Cubanas, Bos- 
ton, [1919]. WWNAA 7 

EWING, ELMORE ELLIS (Feb. 16, 1840- 
Oct. 20, 1900), was born in Ewington, Gal- 

lia County. He entered Ohio University in 

1860, but two years later he enlisted as a 
private in the 91st O.V.I. He was discharged 
Dec. 4, 1864, on account of wounds and 
settled in Portsmouth, where he became a 
merchant and lived until 1895, when he 
moved to the Pacific coast. His death oc- 
curred in San Francisco. 

The Story of the Ninety-first . . . , Ports- 
mouth, 1868. 

Bugles and Bells, or Stories Told Again 
. . . , Cincinnati, 1899. 

EWING, HUGH BOYLE (Oct. 31, 1826- 
June 30, 1905), was born in Lancaster, 
Fairfield County. He attended the U. S. Mil- 
itary Academy, but did not graduate. In 
the gold rush of 1849 he made his way to 
California via New Orleans, Texas, and 
Mexico. He was ordered by his father, 
Thomas Ewing, then Secretary of the In- 
terior, to join an expedition to rescue emi- 
grants trapped in the high Sierras. He be- 
gan the practice of law in St. Louis in 
1856 and then moved to Leavenworth, 
Kan., to practice with his younger brother 
Thomas, his foster-brother William Tecum- 
seh Sherman (q.v.), and Dan McCook. In 
1858 he returned to Ohio to take charge of 
his father's saltworks. He was commis- 
sioned in the Ohio Volunteers on May 6, 

1861, and served brilliantly throughout the 
war. He was breveted major general March 
13, 1865, for "meritorious services" and 
was discharged a year later. He served as 
U. S. Minister to Holland, 1866-70, and 
practiced law in Washington, D. C, until 
1874, when he retired and returned to Ohio. 
His death occurred in Lancaster. Besides the 
titles below he published numerous maga- 
zine articles and stories. 

A Castle in the Air, New York, 1888. 
The Black List; A Tale of Early California, 
New York, 1893. 

EWING, MAX ANDERSON (April 7, 1903- 
June 16, 1934), was born in Pioneer, Wil- 
liams County. While attending the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, 1920-23, he was music 
critic for the Ann Arbor Times-News. He 
studied piano in New York, 1924-27, and 
afterward lived in Europe. His residence 
abroad furnished the background for a 
novel, Going Somewhere, New York, 1933. 

EWING, THOMAS (May 21, 1862-Dec. 7, 
1942), lawyer, was born in Leavenworth, 
Kan., of a family distinguished in Ohio his- 
tory. His grandfather had been a Senator 
from Ohio and a cabinet officer under three 
Presidents; his father distinguished himself 
in the Civil War and served in Congress as 


Fairchild, L. 

a Representative from Ohio, 1877-81. The 
third Thomas lived in Lancaster, 1870-81; 
during this period he studied for two years 
at University of Wooster. When his father 
moved to New York City to practice law, 
he accompanied him and completed his edu- 
cation at Columbia University. He became 
a successful patent lawyer. He published 
some poems and translations of Horace, 
a family history, and Jonathan; A Tragedy, 
New York, 1902. WWW 2 

25, 1893- ), was born in Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga County, but grew up in Wooster. 
After graduating from the College of Woos- 
ter in 1914, she taught in high schools in 
Salem, Akron, and Wooster. A resident of 
Bradford, Pa., she has published fiction in 
many national magazines and a novel about 
the development of the petroleum industry 
in western Pennsylvania: Go-Devil, New 
York, 1947. 

1879-Aug. 25, 1958), clergyman, was born 
in Bethel, Clermont County. He graduated 
from Evansville College. Ind., in 1905, and 
Oberlin Seminary in 1910. He was pastor 
of Plymouth Congregational Church. Cin- 
cinnati. 1911-14, and executive secretary of 
the Cincinnati Federation of Churches, 
1914-18. He afterward held various ex- 
ecutive positions in the Congregational 
Church. He published several books on re- 
ligious education and church history, e.g., 
Story of the Congregational Christian 
Churches, Boston, 1941. WWW 3 

1889). clergyman and educator, brother of 
James H. and George T. Fairchild (qq.v.), 
was born in Massachusetts, but was brought 
to Lorain County in his childhood. Before 
his graduation from Oberlin College in 
1838, he worked in Cincinnati for the edu- 
cation of Negroes — a cause he championed 
all his life. He was a pastor until 1853, 
was principal of the Oberlin Preparatory 
Department. 1853-69, and was president of 
Berea College, Ky., 1869-89. Some of his 
addresses were reprinted as pamphlets. 
Historical Sketch of Oberlin College, Spring- 
field, 1868. 
Berea College, an Interesting History, Be- 
rea, Ky., 1875. 

6, 1838-March 16, 1901), educator and 
clergyman, brother of James H. and Ed- 
ward H. Fairchild (qq.v.), was born in 
Brownhelm. Lorain County. He graduated 
from Oberlin College in 1862 and the 
Theological School in 1865. He taught at 
Michigan Agricultural College. 1865-79, 
where he was ordained to the Congrega- 
tional ministry in 1871, was president of 

Kansas State Agricultural College, 1879- 
97, and was vice-president of Berea College, 
1898-1901. He died in Columbus. 
Rural Wealth and Welfare . . . , New York, 

1817-March 19, 1902), educator, brother 
of Edward H. and George T. Fairchild 
(qq.v.), was born in Stockbridge, Mass. 
When James was a year old, his father 
migrated to the Western Reserve. In 1834, 
the year after Oberlin College was founded, 
he entered the freshman class. The re- 
mainder of his life was associated with that 
institution: as a tutor, 1838—42, as profes- 
sor of languages, of mathematics, and later 
of moral philosophy and theology, 1842- 
66 and 1889-98, and as president, 1866- 
89. He published numerous sermons and 
artic'es in addition to the titles below. 
The Joint Education of the Sexes. A Re- 
port . . . , Oberlin, 1852. 
Early Settlement and History of Brownhelm 

. . . , Oberlin, 1867. 
Moral Philosophy; Or, the Science of Ob- 
ligation, New York, 1869. 
Woman's Right to the Ballot, Oberlin, 

Oberlin: The Colony and the College, 1833- 

1883, Oberlin, 1883. 
Elements of Theology, Natural and Re- 
vealed, Oberlin, 1892. 

FAIRCHILD, LUCIUS (Dec. 27, 1831-May 
23, 1896), soldier and diplomat, was born 
in Kent, Portage County, where his par- 
ents had migrated from New England. In 
1846 the family moved to Wisconsin, and 
Lucius' later career is associated chiefly 
with that state. In 1849 he joined the gold 
rush to California and remained until 1855. 
His letters, published in 1931. are his only 



claim to literary distinction. He served with 
Wisconsin troops during the Civil War, was 
governor of Wisconsin for six years, filled 
various diplomatic posts abroad, and was 
active in the affairs of the G.A.R. 
California Letters of Lucius Fairchild, (Jo- 
seph Schafer, ed.), Madison, Wis., 1931. 

FAIRFAX, L. Pseud. See Celia L. Connelley. 

1821-Nov. 17, 1904), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Parkersburg, Va., but 
had several terms of residence in Ohio. He 
graduated from Oberlin College in 1842 
and the seminary in 1845. He was pastor 
of the Congregational church in Mansfield 
from 1859 to 1875 and again, after a rather 
stormy educational career in various states, 
from 1896 to 1900. He died in Oberlin. He 
published numerous sermons, addresses, and 
articles. His review of the Beecher-Tilton 
case was first published in the Mansfield 
Herald: Wickedness in High Places . . . , 
[Mansfield], 1874. 

1884-July 3. 1946), educator, was born in 
Cincinnati. Hamilton County. She gradu- 
ated from the University of Cincinnati. She 
married Sherwood B. Faison, a Cincinnati 
contractor. She was a teacher in the Cin- 
cinnati schools for twenty years. She col- 
laborated on several books with Mamie L. 
Hammel (q.v.), using the pen name Ham- 
mel Johnson, and also wrote a book for 
children: Scalawag the Scottie, New York, 

FALCONRRIDGE. Pseud. See Jonathan F. 


FALKNER, LEONARD (July 7, 1900- ), 
journalist, was born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga 
County. He attended public schools there 
and also studied briefly at Ohio State Uni- 
versity. He has worked on the New York 
Post and is now feature editor for the New 
York World-Telegram & Sun. He has also 
been a staff writer for American Magazine 
and has published stories and articles in 
numerous other magazines. His first novel 
was a mystery story: Murder Off Broadway, 
New York, [1930]. WWNAA 6 

FALSTAFF, JAKE. Pseud. See Herman 

FARRER, MILTON L. (July 14, 1902- ), 
lawyer, was born in Philadelphia, but has 
lived in Ohio since 1910. He graduated 
from Ohio Stote University in 1923 and the 

Law School in 1926. He practices in Colum- 
bus. He has written a humorous account of 
the legal profession: Blackstone and White 
Rock, New York, 1948. 

FARGO, LUCILE FOSTER (Oct. 18, 1880- 
), librarian, born in Lake Mills, Wis., 
was associated with the school libraries in 
Akron, 1929-30, and was a member of the 
Library School faculty, Western Reserve 
University, 1937^45. She now lives in Ber- 
keley, Calif. In addition to articles and 
books on library work, she has written 
Prairie Girl, New York, 1937. WW 28 

FARIS, LILLIE ANNE (Nov. 13, 1868- 
March 6, 1945), educator, was born in 
Lynchburg, Highland County. She gradu- 
ated from Lynchburg High School at the 
age of fourteen and afterward taught in the 
county schools. She taught also in Marietta 
and in the training school, Ohio University. 
She was on the editorial board of Standard 
Publishing Company, Cincinnati, and pre- 
pared many texts and manuals for use in 
Sunday schools. She also published a book 
about Longfellow: A Study of the Children's 
Poet, Dansville, N. Y., [1904]. 

FARMER, ELIHU JEROME (1836-Dec. 27. 
1900), businessman, was born in Cleveland. 
Cuyahoga County. In 1864 he married 
Lydia Hoyt (see Lydia H. F. Painter). An 
advocate of free silver, he published a book 
of statistics in addition to the titles below. 
The Resources of the Rocky Mountains 

. . . , Cleveland, 1883. 
The Conspiracy against Silver . . . , Cleve- 
land, 1886. 

FARMER, JAMES EUGENE (July 5, 1867- 
May 31, 1915), educator, was born in 
Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, the son of 
Lydia H. and Elihu J. Farmer (qq.v.). He 
graduated from Yale University in 1891 
and afterward was a teacher in St. Paul's 
School, Concord, N. H, 1894-1908. He 
died in New York City. 
Essays on French History . . . , New York, 

The Grenadier; A Story of the Empire, New 

York, 1898. 
The Grand Mademoiselle . . . , New York, 

Br in ton Eliot from Yale to Yorktown, New 

York, 1902. 
Versailles and the Court under Louis XIV, 

New York, 1905. 




FARNY, HENRY F. (July 15, 1847-Dec. 23, 
1916), artist, was born in Alsace-Lorraine. 
Best known for his paintings of the Indian 
and the Far West, he seems out of place 
in this galaxy of writers, great and near 
great. Yet his claim to inclusion, though 
tenuous, is none the less authentic, not so 
much for his one book as for his association 
with two other Ohio authors. With Lafcadio 
Hearn (q.v.) he was co-editor of the short- 
lived and strangely named Ye Giglampz, 
which aspired to be the American Punch. 
For nine weeks during the summer of 1874 
these two young men, Farny 27 and Hearn 
24, struggled to produce this magazine. 
Hearn's annotations in his own file, now in 
the Cincinnati Public Library, show that 
Farny contributed articles, illustrations, and 
cartoons. William H. McGuffey (q.v.) and 
his readers are inseparable from the literary 
history of the Midwest. For many years 
they enjoyed a tremendous vogue. Sales, 
however, were lagging in the 1860s and 
1870s, as Eastern competition was captur- 
ing the Western market. Farny comes into 
the picture as illustrator for the edition of 
1879. The complete series was revised with 
Farny as de facto art editor. He drew many 
of the illustrations in the Primer, the six 
Readers, and the Speller, including title 
pages, tailpieces, and text illustrations. Of a 
total of over 300, more than a fourth are 
by him, and he is the only artist to appear 
in each of the series. They are authentic 
McGuffey, in keeping with the elevated 
moral tone, as they picture the everyday 
life and familiar activities of the rural Mid- 
west. Leadership was recaptured and all 
previous sales records were exceeded. That 
Farny took pride in his share of the work 
we learn from his statement that he had 
"introduced a new and decent kind of school 
book illustration." His one recorded book 
(probably only twelve copies were issued) 
would be classed by bookmen as "Curiosa" 
or "Facetiae." 

Carl Vitz 
The Lady and the Flea, [Cincinnati, c.1896]. 

12, 1898- ), was born in Cincinnati, 
Hamilton County. She graduated from Wel- 
lesley College. She married Eugene Farney 
and now is living in San Rafael, Calif. She 
has written a biography of her father, John 
Murphy Withrow, Cincinnati surgeon and 
educator: Sevenmile Harvest . . . , [Cald- 
well, N. J., 1942]. 

FARQUHAR, RORERT. See Ross Farquhar. 

FARQUHAR, ROSS (Oct. 30, 1883-July 1, 
1938), publisher, was born in Gratis. Preble 

County. In 1901 he settled in Franklin, 
where he was associate editor of the Frank- 
lin Chronicle and in 1928 established the 
Farquhar Play Bureau, which specialized in 
plays for amateur groups. He wrote a num- 
ber of skits, monologues, and plays, some in 
collaboration with his son, Robert Farquhar 
(Sept. 20, 1908- ), e.g., Hurricane Hal 
. . . , Franklin, 1928. 

Martha Finley. 

FAULEY, WILDER FINLEY (Oct. 15, 1872- 
Dec. 21, 1942), journalist, was born in Ful- 
tonham, Muskingum County. He graduated 
from Fultonham Academy in 1890 and 
afterward studied music in Philadelphia. He 
contributed historical articles to the Book- 
man and other national magazines, and 
served on the staff of several New York 
newspapers, 1900-09. In 1909 he joined the 
staff of the New York Times. He wrote 
several melodramas and novels, some of 
which he published under the name Wilber 
Fawley, e.g., Jenny Be Good, New York, 
[1919], and Virginity, a Novel, New York, 

FAULKNER, EDWARD H. (July 31, 1886- 
), was born in Lot, Ky. He became a 
county agent in Ohio in 1918, was in the 
insurance business, 1926-40, and was farm 
editor of radio station WTAM, Cleveland, 
1943-44. He now lives in Elyria. He has 
published at least four books on agricul- 
ture, including a study of its economic as- 
pects: Uneasy Money, Norman, Okla., 1946. 

FAUST, SAMUEL D. (Nov. 24, 1852-July 
12, 1929), clergyman, was born near Rox- 
bury, Pa. He graduated from Bonebrake 
Theological Seminary in 1884 and Lebanon 
Valley College in 1889. Ordained to the 
ministry of the United Brethren in Christ 
Church in 1888, he served churches in 
Pennsylvania and Colorado, 1884-93, and 
afterward taught at Bonebrake Seminary 
and was also on the staff of the United 
Brethren Printing Establishment, Dayton. 
His writings include Regeneration, Dayton, 
1902. WWW 1 

? ), was born in Ohio. She attended Mount 
Pleasant Seminary. For many years she 
contributed both prose and verse to pe- 

Poems, Cincinnati, 1880. 
Marguerite; Or, the Quaker Minister's 
Daughter, Chicago, 1906. 

FAWLEY, WILBER. See Wilber F. Fauley. 



FEATHER, WILLIAM (Aug. 25, 1889- ), 
publisher, was born in Jamestown, N. Y. 
He graduated from Western Reserve Uni- 
versity in 1910, was a reporter on the 
Cleveland Press, 1910-15, and organized his 
own printing and publishing company in 
1916. He published William Feather's Mag- 
azine and a number of books and pam- 
phlets, e.g., The Ideals and Follies of Busi- 
ness, Cleveland, [1927]. WW 30 

FEE, WILLIAM INGRAM (Feb. 15, 1817- 
1900), clergyman, was born in Felicity. 
Clermont County, a town founded by his 
father and grandfather. After graduating 
from Augusta College, Ky., in 1842, he was 
licensed to preach by the Methodist church. 
He served on circuits in southern Ohio, 
West Virginia, and Kentucky, 1842-52, and 
afterward served churches in Hillsboro. 
Cincinnati, Dayton, Springfield, Piqua, and 
other communities. Both of the books listed 
below are autobiographical. 
Bringing the Sheaves . . . , Cincinnati, 1896. 
Garnered Sheaves . . . , Cincinnati, 1900. 

1855-June 8, 1930), journalist, was born 
in Columbus, Franklin County. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Columbus 
and Salem. He wrote Memorial History of 
the Fetch Family in America, which is said 
to have been published in five parts, but 
only two are known to exist. In 1884 he 
founded the Western Critic in Columbus, 
which expired after the appearance of a 
few numbers; equally short-lived was the 
Inland Monthly, which appeared the fol- 
lowing year. 
Legends and Lyrics, Columbus, 1882. 

FELL, FREDERICK. Pseud. See Edmond M. 

1865-Oct. 27, 1927), physician, was born 
in Rensselaerville, N. Y. He received his 
M.D. degree from Eclectic Medical Insti- 
tute, Cincinnati, in 1888, began practice in 
Cincinnati in 1889, and joined the Institute 
faculty in 1891. He wrote a number of 
medical books, including History of the 
Eclectic Medical Institute . . . , Cincinnati, 
1902. WWW 1 

FENN, PERCY THOMAS (Oct. 23, 1892- 
), educator, was born in Yonkers, N. Y. 
He graduated from Hobart College in 1915 
and from Harvard University (Ph.D.) in 
1922. He has been on the political science 
faculty of Oberlin College since 1927. Be- 
sides professional articles, he has published 

The Development of the Constitution, New 
York, [1948]. WW 30 

FENNELL, MARK (May 6, 1844-April 30, 
1931), was born in England. He worked in 
a Cleveland rolling mill and died in that 
city. His book, copies of which are now 
extremely scarce, maintains that the steam 
engine was seen by Biblical prophets in 
their visions. 

The Steam Engine Fulfilling Prophecy . . . , 
Cleveland, 1891. 

FENNEMAN, NEVIN M. (Dec. 26, 1865- 
July 4, 1945), geologist, was born in Lima, 
Allen County. He graduated from Heidel- 
berg College in 1883 and the University of 
Chicago (Ph.D.) in 1901. He was a mem- 
ber of the University of Cincinnati faculty 
from 1907 to 1937. He wrote numerous 
government bulletins, professional articles, 
and textbooks, and Geology of Cincinnati 
and Vicinity, Columbus, 1916. WWW 2 

1822-Jan. 4, 1847), clergyman, was born in 
Providence, R. I. He was a Unitarian min- 
ister, and for a time before his death in 
Cincinnati he occupied the pulpit of James 
Handasyd Perkins (q.v. ). He published 
Poems of Many Moods, Boston, 1846. 

FENNER, MRS. JESSE A. See Marian W. 

FENTON, FRANK E. (Feb. 13, 1904- ), 
was born in Liverpool, England, and lived 
in Columbus for 22 years. He attended 
Columbus schools, graduated in journalism 
from Ohio State University in 1927, and 
afterward became a scenario writer in Hol- 
lywood. He now lives in Los Angeles. He 
has published stories and articles in various 
magazines and a novel: A Place in the Sun, 
New York, [1942]. 

FERGUSON, CHARLES D. (1832-?), was 
born in Aurora, Portage County. In 1849 
he crossed the plains to California, where 
he worked in the gold fields until 1852, 
when he went to Australia. There he drifted 
from one mining camp to another. With the 
exploits of the horse-tamer John T. Rarey 
(q.v.) in England filling the newspapers, 
Ferguson set himself up as an "Australian 
Rarey" in 1857 and appears to have had 
considerable success. After drifting from 
one job to another, he finally returned to 
Ohio in 1883 and was living in Farmington 
in 1888. His narrative of his experiences, 
though a bit disjointed, is entertaining and 



The Experiences of a Forty-niner during 
Thirty-four Years Residence in Califor- 
nia and Australia, (Frederick T. Wallace, 
ed.), Cleveland, 1888. 

FERGUSON, JOHN BOHN (June 10, 1879- 
), clergyman, was born in Camden, 
Preble County. After graduating from 
Miami University in 1903 and from Prince- 
ton Theological School in 1907. he was or- 
dained to the Presbyterian ministry and 
served churches in Ohio. Indiana, and the 
Philippine Islands. Now retired, he lives in 
Indianapolis, Ind. He has written an ac- 
count of his service with the Y.M.C.A. dur- 
ing World War I and articles and books 
on religious topics, e.g., Worship in the 
Church . . . , [Philadelphia, 1938]. 

1888- ), educator, born in Scottsville, 
N. Y., was a member of the English de- 
partments of three Ohio colleges: Heidel- 
berg, 1914-18, Ohio Wesleyan, 1918-30, 
and Western Reserve, 1930-44. He has pub- 
lished a number of articles, textbooks, and 
biographies, e.g., Mark Twain: Man and 
Legend, Indianapolis, [1943]. WW 29 

6, 1896- ), educator, was born in Sioux 
City, Iowa. He has been on the philosophy 
faculty of the College of Wooster since 
1927. A prolific writer, he has published 
many articles and books, e.g., What Can We 
Believe?, New York, [1948]. WW 30 

1838-Nov. 10, 1918), clergyman and edi- 
tor, was born in Portland, Maine. After 
graduating from Harvard University in 
1860 and Newton Theological Institution in 
1863, he was ordained to the Baptist min- 
istry. He served Ohio churches in Clyde. 
McConnelsville. Galion. Springfield, and 
Garretsville, 1876-89. He was an ardent 
prohibitionist, and his writings in this field 
caught the attention of Isaac K. Funk (q.v.), 
who took him to New York as an assistant 
editor of the Homiletic Review. He later 
served on the staff of the Standard Dic- 
tionary; he also compiled a number of Eng- 
lish textbooks. 
The Economics of Prohibition, New York, 

The New Womanhood, New York, 1891. 
English Synonyms and Antonyms . . . , New 

York, 1896." 
The Imperial Republic, New York, 1898. 
The Spaniard in History, New York. 1898. 
True Motherhood, New York, 1900. 
Scientific Sidelights . . . , New York, 1903. 

FERRIL, HELEN RAY (Oct. 31, 1897- 
), journalist, was born in Columbus. 
Franklin County, the daughter of Franklin 
A. Ray, an engineering professor at Ohio 
State University for over fifty years. She 
graduated in music from Denison Univer- 
sity in 1918 and completed nurse's train- 
ing at St. Luke's Hospital, Chicago, in 
1921. She and her husband, Thomas H. 
Ferril. own and publish the Rocky Moun- 
tain Herald in Denver, Colo. A column that 
she wrote for that newspaper led to the 
publication of a humorous volume: The 
Indoor Birdwatcher's Manual, New York, 

1920- ), editor, was born in Cleveland, 
Cuyahoga County. He graduated from West- 
ern Reserve University in 1946 and served 
for a time as associate editor of American 
Fruit Grower. He is now editor of publi- 
cations, Fenn College. He has published a 
volume of poems: Man's World, Chicago, 


1861-Dec. 23, 1936), educator and legis- 
lator, was born near Harrod, Allen County. 
Supporting himself by teaching country 
schools, he attended Ohio Northern Univer- 
sity. Immediately after his graduation in 
1889, he was appointed professor of Amer- 
ican history. He graduated from the Ohio 
Northern law school in 1894 and from 1896 
to 1900 was dean of the school. From 1907 
to 1917 he was president of Antioch Col- 
lege. He was a member of the House of 
Representatives, 1912-22. and the Senate, 
1922-34. He was nationally prominent as a 
spokesman for the conservative wing of the 
Republican Party and for the most uncom- 
promising prohibitionists. He published sev- 
eral textbooks, many of his Congressional 
speeches, and The History of Political 
Theory and Party Organization in the 
United States . . . , Dansville, N. Y., [1907]. 
DAB 22 

1897-April 12. 1953). physician and edu- 
cator, born in Russia, was brought to 
Cleveland by his parents in 1904. He at- 
tended Cleveland schools and graduated 
from Western Reserve University in 1918 
and the School of Medicine in 1921. He 
served on the Western Reserve faculty and 
during World War II was a major in the 
Medical Corps. He published two books on 
neuropsychiatry and The Spinal Column, a 
Series of Medical Sayings, Cleveland, 1940. 



FETZER, HERMAN (Jake Falstaff) (June 
24, 1899-Jan. 17, 1936), was born in Sum- 
mit County. The rich black muck of the 
celery swamps around Copley produced 
Jake Falstaff, whose enduring love for that 
good earth distilled itself into poetry and 
prose that have the authentic mark of Tight- 
ness and permanence. To Swiss and Alsa- 
tian parents he was born Herman Fetzer 
on a farm in Maple Valley, now part of 
Akron. In elementary school at Maple Val- 
ley there was fortunately a wise teacher 
who advised the boy who wrote poems 
about death at the age of six to write in- 
stead about the steamy summer sun on the 
celery beds, the frosty creak of a barn door 
in winter, and the local tales of Dick John- 
son and Tecumseh in the neighborhood min- 
gling with echoes of central European folk- 
lore around the farm firesides. "I elected in 
the wisdom of my boyhood to be a peas- 
ant," he wrote. And his later writing career 
as Jake Falstaff he considered a peasant ac- 
complishment, "for it consists in the telling 
of tales." The boy went to school at Ak- 
ron's South and West High Schools, but 
spent less than a month at the University 
of Akron, deliberately deciding to go di- 
rectly to books for his education, as he 
went directly to newspaper work to earn 
a living. After normal reportorial appren- 
ticeship, he began in 1920 to write a col- 
umn on the Akron Times, "Pippins and 
Cheese." Except for a brief interlude in 
Florida, he wrote this column for the Times 
for ten years and continued it for four 
more in the Beacon-Journal. He also wrote 
a portion of the Centennial History of Ak- 
ron (1925). His literary stature and repu- 
tation steadily increased, and Franklin P. 
Adams invited him to New York to write 
a column in the World replacing his famous 
"Conning Tower" during F.P.A.'s vacation. 
This was the period of the publication of 
Falstaff's first full-length books: The Book 
of Rabelais (1928) and Reini Kugel, Lover 
of This Earth (1929). Together with the 
immediate success of his column in the 
World, these brought many offers of a 
New York career. Jake refused to consider 
them. "Forgive me, hearty and amiable 
city," his poem "Valedictory" began, "if, 
having beheld your beauty, I go back to my 
own places." Back he went, this time to the 
Cleveland Press to resume his column "Pip- 
pins and Cheese" and to do rewrites and 
special features. There his associates knew 
him as a superlative newspaper craftsman 
who enjoyed the rough and tumble of the 
city room. While he was writing his books, 
his column, and a series of poems and ar- 
ticles for The New Yorker, Collier's, the 

Nation, the Ladies' Home Journal, and 
other magazines, he always did his share of 
the routine production of the newsroom as 
well. While still in Akron on the Times, he 
married Hazel Stevenson, a fellow staff- 
member. He died suddenly on Jan. 17, 1936, 
of pneumonia, just over 35 years old. Carl 
Sandburg was only one of many who felt 
that Falstaff's writing career, fruitful and 
authentically productive though it was, had 
really only begun — that his poems were 
"the real thing," with "a curious finality 
about them." His last books were post- 
humous, largely made up from his news- 
paper and magazine writing collected and 
edited by his widow. They stand as proof of 
the abiding excellence of the whole body of 
that work, and of even greater promise cut 
off by death. Posthumous publications were 
Alice in Justice-land (1937), The Bulls of 
Spring: The Selected Poems of Jake Fal- 
staff (1937), How Reini Kugel Went to 
Meet the Spring (1938), Jacoby's Corners 
(1940), The Big Snow, Christmas at Ja- 
coby's Corners (1941), and Come Back to 
Wayne County (1942). 

Willis Thornton 

FEUER, LEONI (May 23, 1903- ), rabbi, 
born in Hazelton, Pa., attended Cleveland 
public schools, the University of Cincinnati, 
and Hebrew Union College. Ordained a 
rabbi in 1927, he served in Cleveland until 
1935 and since then at Collingwood Avenue 
Temple, Toledo. He has written several 
books on the Jewish religion, e.g., On Be- 
ing a Jew, New York, 1947. 

FICK, HENRY H. (Aug. 16, 1849-March 23, 
1935), educator, was born in Leubeck, Ger- 
many. He came to America in 1864. He re- 
ceived his Ph.D. at Ohio University in 1891. 
He served as a teacher in the Cincinnati 
public schools, 1870-92, as principal of the 
Sixth District School, 1892-1901, as as- 
sistant superintendent of public schools, 
1901-03, and as supervisor of German from 
1903 until his retirement in 1915. He wrote 
a number of textbooks relating to the teach- 
ing of history and literature and drawing. 
He edited Erziehungsblaetter, 1889-1900, 
and Jung Amerika, 1901-06. 
Aesthetic Culture. An Essay, [Cincinnati?], 

The Dance of Death. A Dissertation, New 

York, 1887. 
In Freud und Leid, Cincinnati, 1914. 

1858-Oct. 18, 1939), army officer, was 
born in Akron, Summit County. As an in- 
structor at the U. S. Military Academy 


Filson, J. 

from 1896 to 1922, he wrote a number of 
textbooks and manuals for use by cadets, 
e.g., Campaigns of the American Civil War, 
[West Point, N. Y., 1914]. WWW 1 


April 3, 1921), actor, was born Alfred G. 
Hatfield in Leesburg, Va. He was reared in 
Brownsville, Pa., and at an early age he 
became a minstrel show performer and 
actor and changed his last name to Field. 
In the 1880s he settled in Columbus, where 
he spent the remainder of his life. He was 
manager of Al G. Field's Greater Minstrels 
and also operated a farm. He wrote an ac- 
count of his life: Watch Yourself Go By 
. . . , Columbus, 1912. OBB 

FIELD, HOPE (Mrs. Richard P.) (Aug. 5, 
1905- ), was born in Baltimore, Md., and 
lived in Cincinnati from 1923 until 1942. 
Under the pen name Field Williamson, she 
published / Cried All Night, New York, 
[1942]. Under her own name she published 
other novels, including one that has part of 
its action in Cincinnati: Stormy Present, 
New York, 1942. 

1855-March 21, 1929), clergyman and edu- 
cator, was born in Union County. After 
graduating from Denison University, he 
served as pastor of Baptist churches in Can- 
ton and in other states. A founder of Red- 
lands University in California, he served as 
its first president, 1909-14. Besides maga- 
zine articles and separate addresses, he pub- 
lished a collection of talks: Isms, Fads & 
Fakes . . . , Indianapolis, [1904]. 

FIELD, LOUISE A. See Adah L. Saalfield. 

FIELD, SARA BARD (Sept. 1, 1882- ), 
was born in Cincinnati, Hamilton County, 
but her family moved to Detroit, Mich., 
when she was three years old. After grad- 
uating from Western Reserve University, 
she married Rev. Ehrgott. a Baptist min- 
ister, and with him went to Burma. After 
returning to the United States, her husband 
was a pastor in Cleveland. When she and 
her husband became Socialists, the congre- 
gation's dismayed protests led to their mov- 
ing to Portland, Oreg. Here she met and 
later married the poet Charles Erskine Scott 
Wood, whose poems she has edited. She also 
lectured on women's suffrage and other sub- 
jects. She is living in Los Gatos, Calif. She 
has published several books of poems, e.g., 
Darkling Plain, New York, 1936. TCA 

FILLER, LOUIS (May 2, 1912- ), edu- 
cator, was born in Odessa, Russia. After 

graduating from Temple University in 1934 
and from Columbia University (Ph.D.) in 
1943, he worked for the War Department 
for two years. He has been a member of 
the history department, Antioch College, 
since 1946. He has published several books, 
e.g., Crusaders for American Liberalism, 
New York, [1939]. DAS 3 

1843-Aug. 14, 1898), pioneer musical edu- 
cator, was born in Connecticut. He grad- 
uated from Oberlin College in 1865 and 
after a year's study in Leipzig was an in- 
structor in the Oberlin music department, 
1867-68. He wrote several books about mu- 
sic history and education, including Piano- 
forte Music: Its History, with Biographical 
Sketches and Critical Estimates of Its Great- 
est Masters, Chicago, 1883. 

21, 1878-June 5, 1944), was born in Cin- 
cinnati, Hamilton County. He graduated 
from the University of Cincinnati in 1901. 
He was a teacher in southern Luzon, Phil- 
ippine Islands, 1901-04, and a member of 
the bankinghouse of W. H. Fillmore and 
Co., Cincinnati. 1904-18. Moving to New 
York City, he lived in a Czech settlement 
and began collecting Czechoslovakian leg- 
ends and fairy tales. He died in Amherst, 
Va. He wrote a number of books for chil- 
dren, including several volumes of fairy 
tales from various nations, e.g., Czech- 
oslovak Fairy Tales, New York, 1919. WW 

FILSON, DAVIDSON (June 5, 1829-March 
8, 1899), was born in Franklin County, 
Pa., and came to Steubenville in 1843. 
There he conducted a book and periodical 
store until 1863, when he became interested 
in photography and established himself in 
that business. He wrote his history of the 
local schools while serving as a member of 
the Steubenville Board of Education. His 
death occurred in Steubenville. 
Steubenville Public Schools . . . , Steuben- 
ville, 1892. 

FILSON, JOHN (c.1741-?), was born in 
Pennsylvania. A